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Paper Towns is a novel written by John Green, primarily for an audience of young adults, and Paper Towns mostly takes place in and around Jefferson Park, a ( fictional) subdivision, located . Archived from the original (PDF) on The Fault in Our Stars by John Green The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky Anna and the French Kiss by Stephanie Perkins Looking for Alaska. Paper Towns Movie is adapted from the novel by John Green, starring Cara . Descargar Ciudades de papel de John Green PDF, eBook, epub, Mobi, Ciudades. site. Città di carta - Paper towns o.s.t. CD (new album/sealed).

She is unpredictable and full of a shimmering charm; she fades oasis-style the closer and closer you try to get. In addition, she feels too much and is never really seen for who she is but rather, for who everyone wants her to be. Green knows these people and has lit them from inside with realism and dimension. A little bit too perfectly quirky. I cannot totally relate or believe in a guy who has invented a mathematical formula calculating the probability that the next Katherine he dates will dump him. I think it's a creative premise that makes me want to read the book and is extremely well-executed, but if I don't believe in someone, I'm not going to fully feel for them or understand them. This prevents me from enjoying the book as much as I do Margaret Atwood, etc.

Lacey Pemberton Lacey is the best and closest friend of Margo. They were friends since kindergarten. However, Margo and Lacey have a strange friendship; Margo feels Lacey has always been judgmental of her throughout their relationship. Each individual part is named for a specific metaphor used considerably in that section. Each individual chapter within the first two parts is labeled with a number. However, the third part of the novel is divided into smaller sections. Each section refers to the hour of the characters' road trip.

As a former Orlando resident, John Green had seen and heard of many "paper towns". His first experience with a "paper town" occurred during his junior year of college while on a road trip. In South Dakota, he and his friend came across a paper town called Holen.

At the end of the novel, John Green states that the story of Agloe presented in the text is mostly true: "Agloe began as a paper town created to protect against copyright infringement. But then people with these old Esso maps kept looking for it, and so someone built a store, making Agloe real. Publishers Weekly said, "the title, which refers to unbuilt subdivisions and copyright trap towns that appear on maps but don't exist, unintentionally underscores the novel's weakness: both milquetoast Q and self-absorbed Margo are types, not fully dimensional characters".

It also said the novel is "another teen pleasing read". Though we only really see Margo for the first third of the book, the clues really create her character and give us the feeling she's a complex person. Finding out who Margo is through the things she left behind was a really great way to develop her character. Green, who grew up in Orlando and uses the city as a backdrop for the story, taps into the cadence of teenage life with sharp and funny writing, but transcends age with deeper insights.

Philpot, editorial assistant of The Horn Book Guide, said, "the end breaks your heart, and yet it feels right". The National Coalition Against Censorship responded to the removal by calling for the book to be reinstated to the reading list.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the copyright traps added to maps, see phantom settlement. This article is about the novel. For the film adaptation, see Paper Towns film. The two [1] first edition covers. Main article: Paper Towns film.

John Green. Archived from the original on Retrieved June 20, Mudd ready to roll 'Paper ' ". Retrieved 14 March New York Times. November 2, Retrieved May 21, Mystery Writers of America. Archived from the original PDF on New Yorker. August 29, Retrieved June 1, Publishers Weekly. September 8, Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved 9 November School Library Journal.

Paper Towns by John Green". The Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on October 25, July—August Retrieved 15 March Retrieved 16 March Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 30 July The Paper Towns movie will be directed by the brilliant jakeschreier, who previously made "Robot and Frank.

Analysing the texts There are clearly two elements in the story of the Green Children as transmitted to us by William and Ralph. Firstly, there is the framing narrative — the discovery of the children, their appearance and behaviour, and their ultimate fate. Secondly, we have the story told by both children according to William of Newburgh , or by the surviving child, the girl according to Ralph of Coggeshall — the description of their homeland and of the circumstances surrounding their arrival in our land.

The versions by Ralph of Coggeshall and William of Newburgh are summarised in parallel columns in these tables. Incidents and themes are numbered in sequence and are referred to by these numbers in the text. The full texts in both Latin and English, however, are included in an Appendix below.

They were taken weeping to the house of Sir Richard de Calne at Wykes. A common source? Two reporters and neither claims to be an eyewitness whose stories are so consistent can rarely be truly independent. The similarities suggest that Ralph and William must have derived parts at least of their accounts from a single source. This is a disappointing conclusion if we had hoped for independent testimony from the two authors. It confirms, however, that a story was circulating.

Yet it raises the question of what the apparent common source was, and leads us to consider how the two authors may have treated it. Yet, although we can suggest when the extant manuscripts were written, it is not in fact evident which of our authors wrote the earlier account of the Green Children.

We know that Ralph lived close to the events he describes and preferred to use and credit oral sources, William was far away in Yorkshire and is well known for paraphrasing uncredited written accounts. It surely seems likely that Ralph, if not already writing his Chronicon sequentially in the s, was at least collecting material — he might have written down a version of the de Calne story at that time.

Augustinian Newburgh Priory lay only a mile and a half from Cistercian Byland Abbey, with which it had strong connections Gransden , and n. And it was, as we have seen, Abbot Ernald of Cistercian Rievaulx, not many miles further away, who had encouraged William to begin his Historia. The monks of Byland and Rievaulx would certainly have been in regular communication with Cistercian houses in south-east England — such as Coggeshall.

If William had sight of a text written by Ralph he would certainly have recast it in his own words when incorporating it into his Historia, as was his normal practice. He also ibid. There is no direct evidence of contact between William of Newburgh and Ralph of Coggeshall. However, if Ralph correctly credits his source the similarity of the accounts is such that the origin of the basic story as told by William also must lie in the de Calne household.

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The de Calne version then is common to both authors. However, William claims to have heard or read a number of other reports about the Green Children. If so, it is only to be expected that they differed in details. The story, as he relates it, probably represents his attempt to combine a number of inconsistent versions into a coherent whole.

He comments at the end that the children said many other things in response to persistent questioners curiose percunctantibus — and we have no basis on which to judge how he decided what to include and what to omit, or what changes he might have made in the interests of credibility. Gransden , n. Ralph on the other hand gives no date in his text. Wykes lay in the parish of Bardwell eight miles 13 km north of Woolpit and carried with it the advowson of Bardwell church Map 2.

It was certainly the property of the de Calne family — presumably originally from Calne in Wiltshire — at the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries Rye , 42; Davis , Richard de Calne himself has proved more elusive, although the name seems to occur more than once in the family. Unfortunately even the authoritative prosopogaphy of Domesday Descendants has little to say of Richard de Calne Keats-Rohan , Ralph of Coggeshall gives no reason why the children were taken to Wykes rather than to Bury St Edmunds.

Bury was hardly any further away — and Woolpit, after all, belonged to the abbot. Suffolk writers Eric Rayner , and Norman Scarfe , —7 take the identification for granted. This is a tempting circumstance, but I believe it is a misreading of the historical evidence.

As we shall see, during this period and indeed, according to Abbot Samson, considerably earlier the advowson and revenues of its church were alienated Arnold , —54; Jocelin of Brakelond , 43—5. However, the manor of Woolpit still belonged to the abbot, and lay within the jurisdiction of the Abbey — the Liberty of St Edmund, comprising the whole of West Suffolk Scarfe , 39—40, fig.

Richard de Calne would seem to have had no authority over the village. Lunan , 46; , 50 concludes that Richard de Calne held the manors of Wykes and Knettishall a few miles to the north by If this is so, it would certainly be possible for the Green Children to have been taken to him some time in the reign of Stephen — though Lunan himself dates their discovery much later, to , 46—7; , 99— And it may well be true, as we shall see, that Richard de Calne already held Wykes before the death of Henry I in The earliest contemporary record of Richard de Calne seems to be in , when he witnessed the confirmation of a grant of property at Lambourne in Essex by Peter de Valognes, lord of Benington, Hertfordshire, and a great landowner in East Anglia Gervers , —8.

Later it becomes clear that Richard was a tenant of the Valognes fiefdom Keats-Rohan , It gives no clue as to the location of any land s he held at that time or later. The Peter de Valognes of and was the second of that name. His grandfather, also Peter, the first lord of Benington Sanders , 12 , was prominent in the Domesday Book, with large land holdings in many counties Keats-Rohan , —3. Although the property to which the records relate is not named, it seems likely that it is the manor of Wykes.

A landowner with property in both Suffolk and Essex, if travelling between his two holdings, might well have broken his journey at Coggeshall — providing opportunities for Ralph to hear the story of the Green Children.

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It might well have been before , when he was already a knight of the Valognes fiefdom; it was almost certainly before , when he was assessed for feudal relief in Suffolk. And Ralph introduces his version of the Green Children story with the words: This might suggest that he incorporates it at this point in his text because of its similarity in content to the Orford episode both entailed the mysterious appearance of strange humans or human-like beings , not necessarily because it was contemporary or subsequent Clark , This date seems to provide a terminus ante quem for the death of Richard de Calne, Walter presumably being his heir.

A caveat should be noted. Yet William clearly did not find her age surprising; he was, of course, over sixty years of age himself when he wrote his Historia — and if our reconstruction is correct, Richard de Calne must have been in his seventies when he died.

Thus our tentative conclusion is a compromise: Julij With my sythe my mede I mowe [with my scythe my mead I mow] Auguste And here I shere my corne full lowe [and here I shear my corn full low]. The beans would have been 40 We may also note the remarkable case of Maud de Bidun, already married and then widowed by the age of ten in , who eventually died in at the age of eighty, still in possession of her original dowry Round , xxxvi—vii!

Faba beans were among the earliest of plants to be domesticated and are now grown and consumed widely Salunkhe and Kadam , 1: Broad beans are best plucked for eating when young, and can be cropped throughout the summer Huxley et al. Grown largely in the eastern counties, they are now harvested over a period of 10 to 14 days in early August ibid. The events take place, then, in high summer.

The geographical setting The discovery of the Green Children is quite closely defined in time. The same is true of its geographical context. This concern with locality seems to be an aspect of an unwritten contract between the medieval historian and his readers that what he presented was historia history — res gestae — things that had happened not fabula fiction ibid.

The contract was one that could easily be broken by an unscrupulous writer. It may perhaps be recognition of the fragility of the contract that led one of our historians, William of Newburgh, to devote his prologue to a scathing attack on Geoffrey of Monmouth. William seems to be particularly incensed at the way in which Geoffrey made his fictitious king conquer real nations of the known world, and assigned fictitious archbishops to real places ibid.

Woolpit lies in East Anglia Map 1 , which in the early Middle Ages was the most agriculturally productive and most densely populated part of rural England Darby , and The village had belonged to the Abbey of Bury St Edmunds since before the Domesday Book survey of , having been given to the abbot by Earl Ulfketel Copinger —11, 6: However, in the early twelfth century the Abbey seems to have lost its right to appoint the priest to Woolpit church and its revenue from the church.

In , the newly appointed Abbot Samson said that this had been the case for more than sixty years past Arnold , —4; Jocelin of Brakelond , 43—5. Two high-ranking royal servants in succession were granted the benefice: Although these surviving records give us no information on the discovery of the Green Children, they provide a useful background, and throw light on the relationship between the Abbey and its manors like Woolpit. Here the road from Bury made a junction with an important route linking the medieval ports of Ipswich and Lynn by way of Stowmarket and Thetford, a route that originally skirted Woolpit on the northern side.

At some time this main route was diverted to run through the village itself, perhaps after the establishment of a market there Taylor , —7. Just six miles 9 km further east was Stowmarket, an important place that already had a market at the time of Domesday Book Hollingsworth , 36 and 68; Letters Woolpit itself had a market later, and an annual fair first mentioned in that was to become famous for the sale of horses Kirby , 62; Hervey , 2: Pilgrims to Woolpit are first mentioned between and , although the image and pilgrimage to it were particularly popular in the fifteenth century Paine , 8—9.

Sadly, the tradition that it was a holy well, noted for its healing powers particularly for diseases of the eyes and attracting visitors from as far away as Ireland, can be traced no earlier than Paine , 10— The area did not escape the impact of national events during the twelfth century. This was not, then, an isolated district in which nothing ever happened. The villagers of Woolpit would have been used to travellers of all sorts. Nor would it be surprising if the story of certain local events in the mid-twelfth century spread rapidly and widely.

However, Aybes and Yalden , —5 , take it — together with some forty other instances of similarly derived place- or field-names ibid. William uses the plural form in both English and Latin: Moreover, there is a significant difference in the terminology used by our two authors. It may be that William, or a local informant, understood rightly or wrongly the name of the village to refer to a prominent feature of the landscape at Woolpit, much more noticeable than a wolf- trap.

However, it may be possible to identify their location, on a map if not on the ground. Norman Scarfe has discussed a manuscript map of part of Woolpit, drawn in about , in the 42 The idea that these ditches were Roman in origin seems to have been first put forward by the antiquary Dr Thomas Gale ? With the aid of the map of c. Any continuation of either alignment south of the road is masked by woodland, but the boundary of the Liberty of St Edmund itself ran eastwards along the road for a short distance before turning south along the eastern edge of Woolpit parish.

Sickness, starvation or exposure — whatever experiences the children had been through together would have borne hardest on a younger child.

It is fruitless to speculate as to the actual age of either child. In Latin a puer could be any age up to seventeen, even when the term was applied strictly in law, while puella might refer even to a young married woman Lewis and Short , s.

This, he argues, supports his view that the girl was suffering from chlorosis — a condition that was thought at one time, as we shall see below, to be prevalent among adolescent females.

This is an interesting point, but not I think convincing. We shall turn instead to those particulars in which the children palpably did differ from the perceived human norm. What colour were the Green Children? Thus the colour term in Greek must refer to the darker green of the leaves of a leek, rather than the pallid body of the plant.

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Nor is it the extreme ashen pallor of sixteenth- or seventeenth-century sufferers from green sickness or morbus virgineus Dixon , —41; Humphreys , —1.

Yet colour terms are notoriously uncertain and unstable in meaning — and particularly problematic when one is dealing with usage in different languages, in different cultures, or in different periods Gage passim. There is little doubt about the meaning of Latin viridis and prassinus — yet neither Ralph nor William saw the Green Children, and we do not know in what language they first heard the story recounted. This can signify a range of colour including blue, grey and the green of vegetation Bevan et al.

And thirteenth-century English supplies other examples, such as: To his history of Hamburg and its archbishops written between and , Adam of Bremen added a geographical and ethnographical account of Scandinavia and the northern seas, and the people of those areas, which formed part of the vast archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen. Were the Green Children fairies? The application by Briggs , 1: If the children were indeed green would the villagers of Woolpit have regarded this as proof of their fairy nature?

In other words: Indeed, have fairies or elves characteristically ever been green? In his discussion of medieval fairy beliefs and the reactions of the medieval Church, Richard Firth Green refers to the Green Children only once, in a paragraph on the various colours of fairy that were described in his sources Green , 4.

Of these last our seventeenth-century author tells us rather more: Perhaps the categorisation of fairies by colour was a post-medieval development. Harms , Thus of all four types of fairy, it is the green fairies who have most dealings with humankind, and whose behaviour reflects many familiar fairy traits, such as music and dancing, and giving rewards for good housekeeping.

Green clothing presents no such problem. The three Otherwordly riders who in the fourteenth century reportedly according to an account of a miracle at the shrine of St Cuthbert on Farne Island abducted the peasant Richard of Sunderland were riding green horses, like the more familiar Green Knight, but were themselves merely clad in green Wade , 18; Craster , Indeed, in spite of some evidence for green fairies in Irish literature Cross , , reports of actual green-skinned fairies seem to be quite uncommon, except as we have noted above.

Baughman , cites only two instances from Scotland and from the Yorkshire moors. But we can now draw upon two sources of information on recent encounters with fairies, both made available by the enterprise of Simon Young. In one instance ibid.

Although this episode presents more interaction between the viewers and the putative fairies than other cases reported by Young most of them merely brief sightings of enigmatic entities — even if it was failed interaction, since the children did not respond when addressed — it still lacks the circumstance and the long-term relationship and communication that developed between the Green Children of Woolpit and their hosts.

Green-skinned fairies, then, are acceptable as a class, but not particularly commonly reported, and the colour certainly does not uniquely identify a fairy. This is not the place to ponder too deeply the folkloric significance if there is any of the story of Gawain and his dealings with the Green Knight.

If there were it would mean that they were ill. Yet even here the similarities are not close. It is worth noting how unique the figure of the Green Knight is in medieval literature — as the quotation above from Brewer , indicates. An examination of these may indicate whether green coloration entered into twelfth-century concepts of such beings.

Again the report comes from the vicinity of Stowmarket, for the de Bradwell house was at Dagworth, only two miles 3 km north of Stowmarket and four miles 6 km from Woolpit Map 2. Malekin, by her own account, had been stolen away as a baby when her mother left her at the edge of a field while working on the harvest at Lanaham — assumed to be Lavenham, about ten miles 16 km distant to the south-west.

She begged for food, which was set out for her to take. A housemaid, who once persuaded her to show herself, described her as looking like a very small child in a white dress. Malekin is puzzling: When she allowed herself to be observed, she looked perfectly human, if diminutive.

This mound has been identified as the large round barrow called Willy Howe near Wold Newton , about which other stories of fairies and hidden treasure were recorded much later Grinsell , —9; Briggs , 1: He found an open door in the mound, and inside it a large well-lit hall with people seated at a feast.

William himself attributes this 54 Lanaham seems to be an unusual form of this place-name, though the similar Laneham is recorded Copinger , 4: Other twelfth-century accounts of brushes with Otherworldly beings are well known. Gerald of Wales relates the story of the Welsh monk Elidurus who claimed that, as a boy, he had had dealings with the inhabitants of a land reached through an underground tunnel Gerald of Wales , 75—8; , —6; Westwood , —6 — a story to which we must return later for some similarities to that of the Green Children.

On the other hand Walter Map also tells us of the Otherworld ruler who invited the British king Herla to his wedding feast: Thus, Otherworld people might be of unusual appearance, or differ in stature and in beauty from humans. It would surely have warranted comment if they differed in colour — there is no comment, and we are left to assume that their colour was unexceptional. There is nothing to suggest that greenness was considered a general attribute of medieval fairies.

But our sources are inconsistent as to their actual appearance. Perhaps various types of fairy were envisaged — possibly in different localities — with different characteristics, or perhaps fairies should be considered to be polymorphous, and able to change their appearance at will. But if someone wished to concoct a story of such visitors, there would have been no reason in local belief or preconception for them to describe the children as green. Hence, we have every right to suppose that the story is true in at least this regard: They do not seem to have met the challenge very successfully.

Ralph may have suspected, however, that their coloration was not only temporary but artificial — a colour applied to the skin.

As he puts it: Nam tota superficies cutis eorum viridi colore tingebatur. There are natural vegetable sources of green dye — for example, ferns, nettles or foxgloves — but these do not provide a rich or stable green colour, and do not seem to have been used in practical cloth dyeing in the medieval period. The process of a first dyeing with blue, then a second dyeing with yellow, is recorded on a Babylonian clay tablet of the seventh century BC Cardon , — A medieval dye-house would not contain a vat of green dye, nor apparently would it provide any ready way to colour the skin green.

In practice, in a medieval context, its adoption is problematic.

If the Green Children were stained green, it was not with any readily-available green dye. Arsenic, chlorosis or favism? For only when the children became accustomed to more normal food than their original diet of raw beans did their green colour begin to fade.

Unfortunately for this theory green skin is not apparently a symptom of arsenic poisoning — though yellowness, through jaundice, might be Macpherson , s. King A greenish pallor, although sometimes mentioned, does not seem to have been the defining symptom of this condition. King , 2. Others have seen psychological significance in the fact that the malady was common in a period when young women were bound as much by the constraints of Victorian society as they were physically by tight corsets Dixon , —1 ,61 and Nancy M.

Theriot has discussed its social and psychological implications within nineteenth-century American families Theriot , — The incipient state of this morbid affection is more particularly characterized by paleness of the complexion, an exanguious [bloodless] state of the prolabia [lips], slight tumidity [swelling] of the countenance, and puffiness of the eyelids, especially the upper one.

There is sometimes with this marked state of the countenance a slight tinge of green, of yellow, or of slate-colour. In the confirmed stage of chlorosis, the state of pallor of the complexion is still more marked….

Hall , 53 Hall refers us to his Plate IV: The coloured plate shows the face of a girl or young woman that is indeed pale, but shows no trace of greenness. By the end of the nineteenth century the nature and the symptoms of chlorosis were being questioned. He concluded: The green tint of the face or of the skin from which the name is derived is a somewhat uncertain feature.

Some authors deny its existence; others believe it is only recognisable in those of dark complexion. Similarly an American medical man wrote in He noted the success of treatment with iron: To the ordinary eye, the color is a yellowish pallor in brunettes and a whitish, although extreme, pallor in blondes. One wonders how many Victorian doctors and their predecessors were misled by the name of the condition to identify a green complexion when none was present.

King , 19, 43—5. King , 47, ; Lange , King , 19—20 , but it seems to have been in popular use earlier. For example, Margaret Countess of Cumberland wrote that she had suffered from green sickness until her marriage at the age of seventeen, in ibid.

King , King , 43—5. However, not all modern medical authorities deny the possibility of a green complexion in rare medical circumstances. Dr William H. It was in about ; The patient was thirty-five years old, and was diagnosed as suffering from severe iron-deficiency anaemia due to uterine bleeding.

Crosby suggests ibid. He compares this to the colour of a maturing bruise — blue, with a fringe of yellow, shading to green between the two areas. Thus, though he does not describe the shade of green displayed by his unfortunate patient, we can perhaps assume it to have been a yellowish green. Another is due any day.

The same coloration was visible on the backs of her hands and fingers. Although at first sight her complexion appears mostly yellow, it certainly shades to a greenish tinge on her temples and cheeks.

This coloration had persisted for two months. The girl complained of mild fatigue, and her mother had noticed a loss of appetite.

No explanation is offered. Treated with doses of iron iron salt therapy , the girl regained her normal colour, her energy and her appetite within a few days. Perdahl-Wallace and Schwartz ibid.

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A green complexion was never the defining symptom of the condition, and the girl seems to have shown little sign of the other distressing symptoms reported by Victorian and earlier writers. Perhaps we should conclude instead that in rare circumstances iron-deficiency anaemia — whether or not itself contributing to the condition formerly known as chlorosis — can cause a strange yellow tending to greenish coloration of the skin of the sufferer.

It was not a constant feature — but nor was it a myth; simply a very rare feature. What then of the Green Children? However, they may well have suffered from iron deficiency and anaemia — many medieval children did. Examination of medieval skeletons has identified traces in the bones left by chronic childhood anaemia, probably the result of poor diet White , 41—2; Roberts and Cox , —7, —5; Lewis , — A table published by Roberts and Cox , —5, table 5.

The green skin of the children found at Woolpit was apparently something far outside local experience. Of course, there remain problems with this interpretation.

Ralph claimed to have spoken to people who had met the Green Children — but he was writing more than ten years after the death of his chief informant, Richard de Calne, and perhaps nearly fifty years since the Green Children arrived in Woolpit.

By the time he wrote his account, Ralph had no doubt that the children had been dark green in colour when the villagers of Woolpit first found them, and when Richard de Calne gave them shelter. The case must remain open. The greenness of the Green Children of Woolpit, and the extent to which their green skin could be attributed to a medical condition, is still undecided. We can conclude that the Green Children did not suffer from chlorosis, green sickness or the disease of virgins.

They may have had iron-deficiency anaemia — one of the factors thought to have contributed to the condition once known as chlorosis. It particularly affects young children, and especially boys. The symptoms include weakness, dizziness, pallor and jaundice, culminating in some cases in kidney failure and death.

And a tendency to favism is genetic. It is found today chiefly in the populations of Sicily and Sardinia and of the Middle East Belsey , 4; Macpherson , s. If we accept the diagnosis of favism, we have a real clue to the geographical origin of the Green Children — and a reason why the nature of their illness was not recognised in England. He may imply that it was an imbalance of the humours that had led to her strange coloration; in any event, the boy who died languore depressus was clearly melancholic, unlike his once more sanguine sister.

In the context of their strange appearance, this is perhaps only to be expected. However, this may simply be a verbal reminiscence on the part of William — it need not reflect on the reality or otherwise of either clothing or cup.

This vessel, a beaker of fine, transparent and almost colourless glass, decorated with intricate patterns in coloured enamels and gilding, was probably made in Egypt or Syria in the thirteenth century. It was an inheritance of the Musgrave family of Edenhall, Cumbria, and was said, at least by the eighteenth century, to have been acquired, perhaps stolen, from local fairies by a Musgrave ancestor.

In support of his case that the Green Children were of Flemish origin, Harris , 90 writes of the weaving skills of immigrant Flemings, and their use of dye colours not seen in England before, as we shall discuss below.

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As with the clothing, it seems fruitless to debate what languages the villagers of Woolpit living beside a route used by travellers from two major ports and with a shrine of the Virgin Mary that attracted pilgrims, and close to a town with annual international trading fairs or Richard de Calne one of the French-speaking Anglo-Norman ruling class would fail at least to recognise the sound of.

Only two days in duration by the time of the fourteenth-century Pinchbeck Register, it originally lasted six or seven days. Douglas , 73—4, no 43; Letters Whether it lasted six days or seven, this fair in late July would have brought many foreign merchants to the town. Some must have used the road passing through or just north of Woolpit village, which, as we have seen, led to the port of Ipswich.

Is it coincidence that the Green Children must have appeared in Woolpit at just about this time — in harvest time, and, as we have seen, when fresh beans were available? Indeed, there is little evidence in the twelfth century for a belief that Otherworld inhabitants spoke an incomprehensible language — most communication for example Edric and his fairy wife, King Herla and the pygmy king seems to have been assumed to be in mortal language. Malekin of Dagworth was a linguist, conversing in both Latin and English above — but she was of course a stolen human child.

An exception must be made for the underworld people who entertained the young Elidurus in Wales. Yet stories of human interaction with fairies, at any date, usually involve easy communication between the two.

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We may well take their incomprehensible language as an indication that the Green Children were not fairies! As we have seen, garden beans are best plucked in their pods from the plants when young Huxley et al. Thomas Tusser advised sixteenth-century housewives to pluck the lower pods and leave the plant growing to provide a second crop: Tusser , Similar advice is given to gardeners today, and the ripening pods are plucked by hand over a period of weeks, the stalks afterwards being forked in Biggs , —1.

This seems to be the traditional and widespread practice. Thus the gathering of fresh beanstalks complete with bean-pods does not seem to feature in modern agricultural or horticultural practice. But study of medieval or traditional agriculture may yet indicate a purpose. They seized them and looked for the beans inside the stems.

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William of Newburgh [ Ralph of Coggeshall It is difficult to think of circumstances in which children would be able to identify bean-plants as food-bearing plants without also knowing where to look for the edible beans. According to Belsey , 10 many cases of favism, the dramatic allergic reaction to beans found among children in some populations, occur in the Middle East at harvest time, when children assist their parents in the bean fields and eat raw beans straight from the pods.

In any other part of the world where beans are grown as a food crop one would expect children in rural communities to help with the harvest from an early age, and to be quite familiar with bean-plants, pods and beans.

This episode, although no one seems to have commented on it, remains one of the more puzzling aspects in the story of the Green Children. In those parts of the world where the genetic tendency to favism exists, the connection with beans has long been recognised. Folk wisdom in Iran, for example, dictates that beans should not be fed to children — particularly uncooked beans or beans with their skins on Belsey , This advice would have been unknown to the villagers of Woolpit, who might have thought it unusual for children to eat raw beans, but would have seen no harm in it.

Yet even in Europe beans seem to have had a reputation as unwholesome food. In the seventeenth century dieticians warned of the dangers of eating beans — especially when raw, as Robert Burton wrote in They fill the Braine saith Isaack with grosse fumes, breed blacke thicke blood, and cause troublesome dreames. And therefore that which Pythagoras said to his Schollers of old, may be for ever applied to Melancholy men, a fabis abstinete, Eat no Pease, nor Beanes.

Nor can this be the rationale for the taboo on eating beans that was common to Pythagoreans, Orphics, Eleusinian initiates and the Egyptian priesthood Holden , 6; Dye An identification of beans as the food of the dead is unwarranted — particularly in any context that might be felt to be relevant to medieval Suffolk.

In different traditions, witches ride on beanstalks and the King of the Bean is chosen as master of merrymaking on Twelfth Night Vries , 37—8. None of these associations seems appropriate in twelfth-century Suffolk or to the situation of the Green Children. Lunan , 44; , —81 , as might be expected, puts forward a characteristically startling hypothesis.

He suggests that terrestrial food plants growing there had been dyed or genetically modified to be green, to distinguish them from inedible native plants.