Knowledge in the field of parasitology must be kept at a high level and up to date in order to fight a parasitosis as quickly and effectively as possible. This work. Knowledge in the field of parasitology must be kept at a high level and up to date in order to fight a parasitosis as quickly and effectively as possible. The third. The purpose of this book is to give a comprehensive review of the facts and trends in veterinary and human parasitology, through contributions.
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The presentation of our third edition of the Encyclopedia of Parasitology contributes to these goals in several ways. The number of keywords has been increased. The Encyclopedia of Parasitology contains clearly structured essays in alphabetical order with extensive PDF MB Password: musicmarkup.info Help. HEINZ MEHLHORN (ED.) Encyclopedia of Parasitology. Third Edition. With contributions by. H. ASPÖCK, C. BEHR, C. COMBES, A. DAUGSCHIES, J. DE BONT.
Free shipping for individuals worldwide Online orders shipping within days. About this book Knowledge in the field of parasitology must be kept at a high level and up to date in order to fight a parasitosis as quickly and effectively as possible. This work, one of Springer's renowned and authoritative Major Reference Works, contributes to these goals in several ways. First, it comprises a number of entries, consisting of both in-depth essays and definitions. Secondly, the content has been improved even more by adding additional tables and high-quality figures.
Quantitative[ edit ] Parasites exhibit an aggregated distribution among host individuals, thus the majority of parasites live in the minority of hosts. This feature forces parasitologists to use advanced biostatistical methodologies. In fisheries biology , for example, parasite communities can be used to distinguish distinct populations of the same fish species co-inhabiting a region. Additionally, parasites possess a variety of specialized traits and life-history strategies that enable them to colonize hosts.
Understanding these aspects of parasite ecology, of interest in their own right, can illuminate parasite-avoidance strategies employed by hosts. Conservation biology of parasites[ edit ] Main article: Conservation biology of parasites Conservation biology is concerned with the protection and preservation of vulnerable species, including parasites.
A large proportion of parasite species are threatened by extinction, partly due to efforts to eradicate parasites which infect humans or domestic animals, or damage human economy, but also caused by the decline or fragmentation of host populations and the extinction of host species.
Taxonomy and phylogenetics[ edit ] The huge diversity between parasitic organisms creates a challenge for biologists who wish to describe and catalogue them. Recent developments in using DNA to identify separate species and to investigate the relationship between groups at various taxonomic scales has been enormously useful to parasitologists, as many parasites are highly degenerate , disguising relationships between species.
History[ edit ] Cyst and imago of Giardia lamblia , the protozoan parasite that causes giardiasis. The species was first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in This was the first protozoan parasite of humans that he recorded, and the first to be seen under a microscope. His earlier book Osservazioni intorno agli animali viventi che si trovano negli animali viventi Observations on Living Animals found in Living Animals described and illustrated over parasites including the human roundworm.
James Paget discovered the intestinal nematode Trichinella spiralis in humans in James McConnell described the human liver fluke in A physician at the French naval hospital at Toulon, Louis Alexis Normand, in researching the ailments of French soldiers returning from what is now Vietnam, discovered the only known helminth that, without treatment, is capable of indefinitely reproducing within a host and causes the disease strongyloidiasis.
Manson further predicted that the malaria parasite, Plasmodium , had a mosquito vector, and persuaded Ronald Ross to investigate.
Ross confirmed that the prediction was correct in — Following a number of influential reviews [ 3 — 15 ], many case studies were initiated to unravel possible impacts of anthropogenic changes on parasites.
Among the variety of studies, the following three main research directions have been proven to be most promising: i parasites as accumulation indicators for selected pollutants, ii parasites as effect indicators in the broadest sense, and iii parasites interfering with the health of their hosts and with established monitoring or effect studies using free-living organisms.
As these research directions have frequently been reviewed in the past e. The use of parasites as accumulation indicators specifically addresses the questions if and how parasites can be used to indicate the biological availability of certain substances which are commonly accepted to be harmful to the environment.
Based on the fact that certain groups of endoparasites are excellent accumulators of toxic metals [ 12 , 16 , 19 ] and selected organic pollutants [ 20 ], one can suggest adding parasites to the list of already existing free-living accumulation indicators. As free-living species are usually much easier to work with than parasites, which are hidden in their hosts, good arguments are required to justify parasites as additional accumulation indicators.
One such argument can be the proof of the biological availability of pollutants in those groups of parasites which lack a digestive system. In contrast, if substances are detected in filter-feeding organisms, such as mussels, it remains unclear if the substances are only loosely attached to the gills or present in the content of the intestine instead of being taken up on a cellular level.
Additionally, the accumulation of toxic substances in parasites may also have implications for pollutant levels in the host tissues. We therefore have reviewed recent studies on possible beneficial effects [ 21 ] parasites may have on their hosts.
By definition, parasites are not neutral with respect to their interaction with their hosts. They have long been recognized as important pathogens of man and livestock which resulted in a growing body of knowledge on adverse effects parasites have on their hosts. Many of these are documented in medical and veterinary text books.
In recent years however a variety of molecular tools has allowed us to get a more detailed understanding of the physiological and molecular interaction of parasites with their hosts. These interactions affect the physiological homeostasis of the host, often leading to negative effects on its health. Moreover, deviations from physiological homeostasis also occur if organisms are confronted with pollutants.
In the field of ecotoxicology many of these deviations are used as biological markers to indicate effects of pollutants [ 17 , 18 ]. The studies reviewed here show that unpredictable or contradictory results emerge if infected animals are used in ecotoxicological research without considering possible effects of parasites on biomarker responses.