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Download ebook. Download PDF book · Download ePub book Online ISBN: • Print ISBN: Export citation and abstract . Identifier: 2StatesChetanBhagatmarked. Identifier-ark: ark://t6b30dp2g. Ocr : ABBYY FineReader Ppi: Scanner: Internet Archive. In this page you can download the latest version of Writer2ePub. Current version: Compatible with: LibreOffice 3.x / 4.x Windows.

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I have argued that the formation of kcp was abrupt, as just mentioned, and that this new variety was spoken as early on as as the pidginising variety at least by the lower-caste native Indian Christians, and as a first language by the Indo-Portuguese offspring. I have also argued that, because of their caste and religion, the emerging lower-caste Indian Christian community who came to speak the creole were relatively isolated from other Christian castes and from the Hindus and Muslims of the area in that there was virtually no intermarriage between the lower-caste Christians and members of the other groups.

In my argumentation, I assume, reasonably, that many of the lower-caste Indian Christians were farmers by caste, but tenant farmers in practice, both before and after their conversion. This assumption would account for why, until quite recently, virtually all the Korlai inhabitants were farmers. With the influx of so many African slaves into the workforce in rural as well as urban Portugal in the 15th century, the linguistic aspect of the situation takes on an interesting light.

It can be reasonably assumed that the vast majority of these slaves learned Portuguese naturalistically. Thus, the speech of the first generation Africans would be the 15thth century equivalent to immigrant varieties of Spanish or Portuguese spoken today in Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries see Clements, : — In the plays of the 15th e. Enrique da Mota and 16th centuries e.

Gil Vicente , we find approximations of African speech in the mouths of some of the characters of their plays. The examples in 1 — 9 represent what are arguably portrayals of African speech that reflect naturalistically acquired L2 Portuguese.

In the poem, a voice of a slave woman speaks the lines 1 — 3 below taken from Tarracha Ferreira : — Naro compiled numerous examples from plays in which there were African-origin characters whose speech was portrayed by the playwrights. We cite six of his examples, given in 4 — 9.

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More general traits shared by such varieties are lack of copula and the use of an all-purpose preposition. Rather, in large part they are the consequence of naturalistic L2 acquisition.

2 States Chetan Bhagat(marked)

Such varieties of Portuguese must have also emerged in interactions between the Portuguese sailors and African natives along the African coast, and these varieties would have had similar features as well. It is also quite probable that the Portuguese who ended up as soldiers travelling to Asia, if they had had any direct or indirect contact with the speech of Africans in Portugal and Africa, could possibly have already become familiar with strategies for restructuring their Portuguese or even developed an actual restructured variety that they then used in India.

Expressed another way, in contact situations where successful communication was urgent, and drawing on the linguistic feature pool in such contact situations, the Portuguese sailors and speakers of the indigenous languages would have co-constructed a system of communication based primarily on the Portuguese lexicon, the target language.

The most commonly used lexical and structural features in the feature pool would have found their way into the emerging linguistic systems in each contact situation. It is out of these contact situations that we assume pidgin Portuguese likely developed, which for the Chaul area was one of the sources along with L2 varieties of Portuguese and substrate languages for the formation of the creole there.

If this is true, then the Portuguese creoles should display features found both in Immigrant Spanish and L2 African Portuguese. For example, we would expect to find stative verbs to be based on the most commonly used verb forms for stative predicates. Revealingly, stative verbs in the Portuguese-based as well as Spanish-based creoles are based on the 3sg present-tense form cf.

There is another possible model that may have influenced the formation of the Chaul-area creole, though little is known about it.

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There is lexical evidence found in Korlai Creole Portuguese that suggests that there was input from a language s from South India, either Malayalam or a Portuguese-based variety developed in the Malayalam-speaking area, in the formation of kcp.

The presence of these lexical items in kcp leads me to conjecture that there would have been speakers from the south who were in the Chaul area and were taking part in the formation of kcp. In this section I have argued that in the two-language contact situation that existed in the Chaul area, kcp conceivably formed through the interaction between the Portuguese soldiers, who in their communication with the indigenous population used Portuguese and one or more varieties of restructured Portuguese.

For their part, the Marathi-speaking indigenous population were targeting Portuguese constructed language based on the repeated, successful instances of communication, whereby they incorporated into their emerging variety those features and structure with which they were successful in communicating with the Portuguese.

Given that in Korlai there was and continues to be a two-language contact situation, and given the highly inflectional nature of both Portuguese and Marathi, we might expect features that usually do not show up in creole languages to find their way into kcp, such as inflectional morphology.

Indeed, this is exactly what we find. The base form of the kcp verb derives historically from the Portuguese infinitive, the kcp progressive form from the Portuguese gerund form, the kcp past form from the 3sg Portuguese preterit form, and the kcp past participle form from the corresponding Portuguese counterpart.

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Portuguese Settlement of the Chaul/Korlai area and the Formation of Korlai Creole Portuguese

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