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Interested in creating your own website? Have you lost track on your previous tutorials? Well, I'm going to teach you how to create one from scratch where in you will know every single details on how the code works. If you are new to back-end web development, this tutorial is for you. I'll explain everything in detail so that you won't have to research some particular methods being used. We won't be using any frameworks to keep things simple.
Implements a caching layer to save you from reading the filesystem every time.
It also includes view helpers, and locale-aware input filters and validators. However, it has no message extractor. Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases: Laravel supports basic array files, has no automatic extractor but includes a lang helper for template files.
Yii supports array, Gettext, and database-based translation, and includes a messages extractor. It is backed by the Intl extension, available since PHP 5. If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter.
Gettext Installation You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum. Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files.
Structure Types of files There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. Domains There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context.
In those cases, you split them into different domains. In Symfony projects, for example, domains are used to separate the translation for validation messages. Locale code A locale is simply a code that identifies one version of a language.
It is defined following the ISO and ISO alpha-2 specs: two lower-case letters for the language, optionally followed by an underline and two upper-case letters identifying the country or regional code. For rare languages , three letters are used. For some speakers, the country part may seem redundant. Directory structure To use Gettext, we will need to adhere to a specific structure of folders.
First, you will need to select an arbitrary root for your l10n files in your source repository. Plural forms As we said in the introduction, different languages might sport different plural rules.
However, gettext saves us from this trouble once again. When creating a new. When calling Gettext in code, you will have to specify the number related to the sentence, and it will work out the correct form to use - even using string substitution if needed.
Plural rules include the number of plurals available and a boolean test with n that would define in which rule the given number falls starting the count with 0.
When calling out Gettext to do localization on sentences with counters, you will have to give him the related number as well. These are typically created by functions from a particular extension, and can only be processed by functions from the same extension; examples include file, image, and database resources. Order is preserved in lists of values and in hashes with both keys and values, and the two can be intermingled.
In this manner, normal PHP functions can be used, for example, as callbacks or within function tables. Function calls must use parentheses, with the exception of zero-argument class constructor functions called with the PHP operator new, in which case parentheses are optional.
Until PHP 5.
Such a function is a first-class object, meaning that it can be stored in a variable, passed as a parameter to other functions, etc. So, for example, if a parameter's type is int, PHP would allow not only integers, but also convertible numeric strings, floats or booleans to be passed to that function, and would convert them. In the new approach, objects are referenced by handle , and not by value. PHP 5 introduced private and protected member variables and methods, along with abstract classes , final classes , abstract methods , and final methods.
There are special interfaces that allow objects to interact with the runtime system.
Objects implementing ArrayAccess can be used with array syntax and objects implementing Iterator or IteratorAggregate can be used with the foreach language construct.