To open the file, you will want Adobe Reader program. If you do not have Adobe Reader already installed on your computer, you can download the installer and. Poultry production on PEI accounts for approximately $ million of farm cash receipts. Currently seven registered quota holders are producing eggs. Agriculture plays an important role to meet the demand of mankind like food, fibre , fuel etc. by optimum use of terrestrial resources. The Indian Council of.
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Sixthly, a growing instability arising out of the increasing rapidity with which the new ideas produced by research, together with economic and political changes, necessitate the adjustment or alteration of methods and of the approach to current problems.
Agriculture ceases to be the main stabilizing factor, either economic or social, in a civilization, and finds itself involved willy-nilly in what is commonly and pointedly called the "rat-race"3.
It is perhaps not too wild a guess to say that there has been more change in the past hundred years than in the previous thousand, and more in the last twenty than in the previous two hundred.
This acceleration shows no sign of slackening, although one cannot see how it could go on forever. If it were necessary to pick out the biggest single difference between ancient and modern agriculture, it would be this.
All these changes mark the abandonment of a traditional approach in favor of an industrial approach. Industrial progress is founded on modern science, and so it is not surprising that agriculture claims to be more and more scientific, and to a large extent lives up to its claim.
Most farmers accept this situation and many welcome it, for they are far from being immune to infection by the ideology of industrial progress.
By them as by others every step in this progress is hailed as an advance, and so it is from the purely industrial point of view. Every innovation brings at least a potential financial gain, but it is necessarily obtained at a price. The only motivation of industry is gain that can be measured in financial terms, but the price may have to be paid in a less measurable currency, one that is qualitative rather than quantitative.
No instance could be more selfevident than that of the sacrifice of beauty associated with industrial development, including the development of agriculture on industrial lines; a loss not only of natural beauty, but also of beauty in the things man makes for use or pleasure. This is one of the qualitative losses that has not passed unnoticed. It is regretted, and many attempts are made to minimize it, but little is done to attack or even to understand its cause.
There are other comparable cases.
For instance: there has been a considerable outcry against what is called "factory farming" as applied to animals, mainly on the grounds that it is cruel, and there has been much argument on both sides.
Without going into that argument, it can be asserted with confidence that so long as any producer who can cut his costs while still producing a saleable article can squeeze a producer who cannot do so out of business, there will be "factory farming" or something very like it, with all its inevitable effects on the quality of its products and on the animals involved, however those effects may be disguised.
Another instance is that of the controversy about the quality of food grown by "natural" as against "artificial" methods.
It is really a question, not of natural against artificial, but of the degree of artificiality, the only natural foods being those that are produced without human assistance; but questions of degree can be crucial. The subject can be argued ad nauseum and any answer arrived at is sure to be liable to criticism as being a result of prejudice, since no scientific proof is ever likely to be possible. Nothing 5 less than experiments with whole communities prolonged over several generations could provide anything that could be called scientific proof, and by then it would be too late to be of much use4.
Meanwhile, a return to older methods of cultivation and fertilization does not by itself touch the root of the matter. This does not imply that it may not be worth while for its own sake, provided that too much is not expected of it.
A few people have tried and are still trying to produce food without the help of chemical fertilizers and sprays, and a few peopleperhaps a growing numberprefer to download food thus produced, and who dares to say that they are wrong?
These counter-movements carry very little weight at present; a large majority of people are not interested and much prefer to swim with the stream, while dismissing the objectors to food grown by modern methods as being mere faddists.
The new techniques are adopted by farmers because they know that if they do not keep up to date they will be squeezed out of business; and modern farming is much more a business than a way of life.
The pressure towards an ever more complete industrialization of agriculture is still growing; farmers are officially encouraged to expect nothing less; in Britain, where certain minimum prices are fixed by the Government, farmers are told that these prices will be based on an expected increase of so much percent per annum in their efficiency, and the measure of that efficiency is exclusively financial.
That is why most of the few farmers who have tried in one way or another to fight against contemporary trends have already been squeezed out; they have found out that what was economically possible yesterday is not so to-day, and will be less so tomorrow.
If anyone wants to protect himself from con-temporary trends and influences which he believes to be pernicious by growing his own food on his own land in his own way, as he has a perfect right to do, he will get no help and little sympathy.
He must be in a position to face an economic isolation which is in practice extremely difficult to realize.
It is even more difficult to realize an isolation from the influence of modern civilization in other domains, yet, unless this can be done, the purpose of an economic isolation will be only very partially fulfilled.
The principal criticism that would be directed against any such attempts at economic isolation made by individuals or groups is that they are not playing their part towards solving the problem of feeding the world in the future. They might reply that it is useless to feed the world on poison, but time alone could show whether they were right or wrong.
One thing abundantly clear is that it is impossible that the growing population of the world should be fed at all in the future otherwise than by the full employment of modern scientific agricultural techniques: If it is possible that it should be fed without using those techniques, a condition would be the abolition of all the quantitative and sentimental ideals of modern civilization and the desires they engender, and the recovery of a sympathy with and an understanding of Nature now in abeyance.
It is undeniable that very dense populations have fed themselves for long periods without modern techniques5 but their approach to life and its problems and their sense of values were so different from ours that we cannot as a society even understand them, let alone live as they did. Wherever the line that divides the artificial from the natural may be drawn, their separation has now reached a point at which one can say that the agricultural revolution which has followed on the heels of the industrial revolution has brought about something like a divorce between man and Nature.
Formerly, man lived more or less in harmony with Nature as a whole, and played his part in maintaining what we call a balance of Nature.
That natural balance, if we could but see it so, represents a fulfillment of the divine ordinances whereby all living things are related one to another through their common origin in God, and those ordinances have both a gentle and a rigorous aspect; a fact which modern sentimentality refuses to recognize6. From the modern point of view, ancient man was "superstitious", meaning that his motives appear often to have been other than purely rational.
No account is taken of the fact that those motives may have been in origin super-rational; or, in other words, of the fact that agriculturein common with all other human activities, social, artistic, military and so forthcan ever have been sacred, although we often describe it as having been traditional. The words "sacred" and traditional are, or ought to be, very close together in meaning; both have come to be more or less assimilated in meaning to the word superstitious, which properly speaking is applicable to things that have lost their virtue through the loss of their attachment to their divine origin.
The ancient practices cannot be understood in purely economic terms; and when no other terms are regarded as seriously significant, they cannot be understood at all.
Many of the ancient practices have in fact become superstitions in the proper sense of the word, and that perhaps is why they no longer seem to be effective7. The attitude of ancient man to-wards Nature was probably one of a more or less non-analytical acceptance, accompanied by a sense of reverence for the wonderful works of God, a reverence too often caricatured nowadays as "nature-worship".
But our ancestors no doubt realized, consciously or unconsciously or semi-consciously, that there is no end to the complexities and subtleties of the relationships between living things, so that they are beyond the power of the human brain alone to resolve, as we are just beginning to find out once more.
Our ancestors were not overweeningly inquisitive about their environment, having been taught by their religions and traditions to accept their human situations. The justification of all such teaching is that the direct and unelaborated human experience provides as much as, and. An excessive inquisitiveness concentrates attention on matters the outward complexity of which creates an illusion of comprehensiveness, although in reality they are concerned only with appearances, and are therefore superficial.
The surface of an expanding sphere moves away from the centre, the principle of its sphericity, and at the same time, as the surface expands, its constituent parts move away from one another. Such is the image of all outward-looking and peripheral knowledge; in becoming more extensive its constituent parts move away from each other and from their common principle8. In this analogy the surface of the sphere represents the visible universe, the world of appearances with which alone modern science is concerned, while the whole sphere, surface included, represents reality as a whole, centered on unity.
The surface is indefinite in extent; it has no boundaries, and no part of it is principial with respect to any other; therefore a search confined to the surface can have no finality. If finality is sought in the surface, the search for it inevitably becomes more and more extensive and fragmented, and at the same time more frantic. The resulting multiplicity and diversity are represented as being an enrichment, but it is a false and ultimately harmful enrichment because it is more and more quantitative and more and more out of touch with the purely qualitative centre.
The apparent need for experimental research grows rapidly as the field covered by observation grows, because each single experiment can cover only an ever smaller fraction of that field. The approach of science, being experimental, is' the approach of trial and error, that is to say, it is purely empirical.
If it be true that sound practice, in agriculture or in anything else, can be established on no other foundation, it follows that inquisitiveness and inventiveness are the true measure of intelligence. If that be so the intelligence of our ancestors was indeed inferior to our own, and one must envisage the recent occurrence of a change in the power of the human brain so great, so rapid and so world-wide that no theory of evolution conceived as a gradual process of adaptation could possibly account for it.
It could only be accounted for as being something like what biologists call a mutation; but it would be a mutation of a magnitude and a universality to which our present knowledge can suggest no parallel. It almost becomes necessary to invoke the intervention of a mysterious external power; but that would never do. What has really happened is that a change of outlook, which can take place without the acquisition of any new powers, has brought about so many changes in our lives that it has been mistaken for an acquisition of new powers.
We have chosen the direction in which we want to go, and we have arrived at a point at which the only hope for the future seems to lie in the extension and acceleration of research, so that changes in the chosen direction may take place more and more quickly. This acceleration, which is comparable to that of a heavy body falling from a height, is extremely bad for agriculture, and if it is bad for agriculture it is bad for humanity.
The soil, animals and plants have a limited range of adaptability, and adaptation is slow within that range, which is there-fore narrowed by rapid changes.
When the process of forcing up out-put has reached a certain point, it will have gone too far, but by then it will be too late.
Nobody can say what that point is, because before any innovation has had a chance of a fair trial, and before the creatures involvedmen includedhave had a chance to adapt themselves to it, it las already been superseded by another. There is no chance at all of assessing or anticipating long-term effects, simply because they can only be assessed at the end of a long term; there is simply not time to take more than the most obvious and immediate effects into account.
The one thing we know about these longterm changes is how complex and unpredictable they are, and that they are often irreversible, as for instance in the case of soil erosion. Any attempt to predict their nature is mere guesswork. So far the dangers seem to be, in the soil, loss of texture and traceelement deficiencies; in animals and plants liability to diseases and to genetic troubles; and in agriculture as a whole, invasions of weeds and pests.
So far, and up to a point, science has been more or less able to keep pace with tendencies in these directions as the need has arisen, but new problems arise ever more quickly. All this emphasizes the growing dependence of agriculture on a complicated and vulnerable scientific and industrial organization over which it has virtually no control.
Perhaps this is the place to mention the recent development of the relatively new science of genetics, which offers possibilities of the artificial production of what would be in effect new species of plants and animals.
So far most of its work has been confined to inducing variations in existing species or hybrids by the selection and combination of existing genes, but the production of artificial genes has been seriously propounded. Whether something of that kind is possible or not, future developments are sure to be much more far-reaching than present achievements.
We have good reason to know how potentially dangerous to living creatures experiments on the structure of atoms can be, 8 though no such outcome was foreseen by their inaugurators.
What then, of experiments on the genetic constitutions of those creatures themselves? One can say that the unintentional production of uncontrollable monstrosities, though they might be no larger than viruses, cannot be ruled out as impossible. Sharad Pawar Quest. Mayee Quest. Insecticidal Act was passed by the Government of India in Ans. Pesticides restricted for use in India Ans. The rice having richness in beta-carotene and also contain vitamin A Ans.
Golden rice Quest. The rice which can alleviate anaemia problem through dietary intake Ans. Ferritin rice Quest. The genetic modified egg with medicinal values is Ans. Golden egg developed in Australia in Quest.
Irritation of eye due to cutting onion is corrected by Ans. A very broad term encompassing all aspects of crop production, livestock farming, fisheries, forestry etc. A branch of agricultural science which deals with principles and practices of soil, water and crop management.
Crops which are cultivated on ploughed land?
Arable crops Quest. An agroforestry practice in which perennial, preferably leguminous trees or shrubs are grown simultaneously with arable crop? Alley crops or hedge-row intercrops Quest.
Crops which are grown to supplement the yield of the main crops? Augment Crops Quest. Crops, which protect another crops from trespassing of animals or restrict the speed of wind and are mainly grown as border Ans. A crop, grown for direct sale rather than for livestock feed or a crop grown by a farmer primarily for sale to others rather than for his or her own use?
Cash Crops Quest. Crops which are cultivated to catch the forthcoming season when main crop is failed? When both main and intercrop is benefited to each other? Complementary Crops Quest. The crops leave the field exhaustive after growing? Exhaustive Crops Quest. Any crop or combination of crops is grown for grazing or harvesting for immediate or future feeding to livestock?
Such crops are grown to conserve the soil moisture through their ground covering foliage? Mulch Crops Quest. The seed of succeeding crops is sown broadcast at 10 to 15 days before harvesting rice crop? Generally, the third row of crop is removed or growing of crop in pair row and the third row is escaped with an object to conserve the soil moisture in Dryland areas? Paired row Crops Quest. Such cops are neither complementary nor competitive? Supplementary Crops Quest. Crops, those are grown to protect the main cash crop from a certain pest or several pests?
Trap Crops. So far the dangers seem to be. The one thing we know about these longterm changes is how complex and unpredictable they are. When the process of forcing up out-put has reached a certain point.
Perhaps this is the place to mention the recent development of the relatively new science of genetics. If that be so the intelligence of our ancestors was indeed inferior to our own. It could only be accounted for as being something like what biologists call a mutation. All this emphasizes the growing dependence of agriculture on a complicated and vulnerable scientific and industrial organization over which it has virtually no control. We have chosen the direction in which we want to go.
So far most of its work has been confined to inducing variations in existing species or hybrids by the selection and combination of existing genes. There is no chance at all of assessing or anticipating long-term effects. We have good reason to know how potentially dangerous to living creatures experiments on the structure of atoms can be. So far. If it be true that sound practice.
The approach of science. It almost becomes necessary to invoke the intervention of a mysterious external power. Whether something of that kind is possible or not. What has really happened is that a change of outlook.
This acceleration. Nobody can say what that point is. Any attempt to predict their nature is mere guesswork. In looking at the picture as a whole. It is good for the soul be-cause it keeps it in touch with reality. And will such experiments always be confined to plants and animals? The notion of the recent acquisition by humanity of a quasi-divine creative power.
If in the past disasters were "acts of God". Comment is superfluous. The world with its inhabitants is multiple. A discovery that would be described journalistically as a "major break-through" is greatly to be feared. It is impossible to predict the form it might take. It might also be connected directly or indirectly with the growth of world population. The two attitudes combined represent an acknowledgment of dependence on God. Both the soul of man and the crust of the earth are subject to God's over-riding dispositions and to His judgments.
It is worth while to remember that. It might be connected with its recent loss of independence and self-sufficiency. Meanwhile Great Britain is allowing an average of One of the forms the crisis might take is that of what used to be called an "Act of God". Whatever may affect one part 9.
One can say that the unintentional production of uncontrollable monstrosities. There would then still be pressure. That the course of events in these days should be made up of a succession of "crises" following one another ever more closely.
What then. The nature of any future crisis is impossible to foresee. It is not at all difficult to envisage a situation in which the demand for cheap food had been replaced by a demand for food at any price. In other words. The world or a world. Science can only see a way out for man through a hypothetical enlargement of his inventiveness.
It is not so much a case of a change in one causing a change in the other. Religion offers a release of an entirely different kind. Science agrees with religion concerning the periodical occurrence of terrestrial cataclysms. We forget that a terrestrial upheaval. That being so. For instance. And if the cataclysm is a divine judgment so far as the preceding humanity is concerned. If we seem to have wandered at times rather far from agriculture.
The accomplishment of any phase may be a disaster from the human point of view. They may be imperceptible in the case of changes in the earth's crust. From our creatural point of view.
If he uses his God-given dominion over Nature. Man cannot exercise his mediatory function effectively if he allows his gaze to wander from the God who appointed him to it and is always present to guide him if he will look for guidance. It is the principal expression of our relation to Nature. And so a new cycle begins. British agriculture today is absolutely dependant on machinery.
Wisconsin U. The works referred to are equally informative in connection with the feeding of large 1 We have a choice. The artist did not think of his art as a "self-expression".
They can no doubt help to keep it going once it has started. Intensive stock farming on modern lines would be impossible without protective and curative drugs and supplements to natural foods. The artist was usually. It was for the patron to say what should be made. Nature has no choice. The Wheel of Health by Dr. Nature manifests in change the changeless dispositions of the Almighty God. Daniel Co. It was not for him to say what should be made. It has been calculated that to keep one man employed full-time in agriculture in Britain.
Ananda K. A copyright could not have been conceived where it was well understood that there can be no property in ideas. The industrialization of agriculture is one of those involvements. Original editorial inclusions that followed the essay: The artist was not a special kind of man. A population explosion is not necessarily or solely a result of more or better food.
Our dependence for survival on the plants is total. Nature's methods of eliminating disease and injury. It is evident to the most casual observation that wild animals seem almost always to be vigorous and well nourished. To what extent are they a reflection of the purely outward-looking tendencies of the modern mentality?