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ORAL RADIOLOGY PRINCIPLES AND INTERPRETATION 7TH EDITION PDF

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White and Pharoah's Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation and Interpretation, 7th Edition visually demonstrates the basic principles of oral and. The book is broadly categorised into two parts: firstly the 'Principles' of radiology such as how ionising radiation interacts with biological matter. This edition is for sale in the Middle East and Africa only The publisher's Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 7th edition by Stuart C. White and.


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Download ORAL RADIOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND INTERPRETATION, 7th Edition.. Free PDF Download of Dental Book. Best Dental Library for Dentist. Interpretation, 6th Edition, offer the following features: Oral radiology: principles and interpretation / [edited by] Stuart C. White, Michael J. Pharoah.— 6th ed. Oral radiology: principles and interpretation / [edited by] Stuart C. White, Michael Oral Radiology [electronic resource]: Principles and Interpretation. - 6th ed.

Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Ayko Nyush. MCQs for Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation Elsevier Ltd.

Inflammatory Disease Benign Tumors Other Bone Diseases Malignant Diseases Systemic Diseases Paranasal Sinus Diseases Temporomandibular Joint Abnormalities Soft Tissue Calcifications and Ossifications Salivary Gland Diseases Trauma Dental Anomalies An increase in the exposure time would expose the patient to unnecessary radiation. A decrease in added filtration would result in the patient being exposed to more lower- energy photons. If a dose of 2 Gy is measured at a distance of 4 m, then the dose found at 2 m is 8 Gy, not 0.

If a dose of 2 Gy is measured at a distance of 4 m, then the dose found at 2 m is 8 Gy, not 4 Gy. If a dose of 2 Gy is measured at a distance of 4 m, then the dose found at 2 m is 8 Gy. During patient exposure, one of the absorption interactions of photons that is produced is that some photons cease to exist. During patient exposure, one of the absorption interactions of photons is ionization of absorber atoms by the photons.

During patient exposure, the incident beam contains photons that produce a spatially heterogeneous, not homogenous, beam. During patient exposure, one of the absorption interactions of photons is conversion of their energy into ejected electron energy. During patient exposure, the MOST frequently occurring photon interaction is the production of Compton scattering. During patient exposure, the MOST frequently occurring photon interaction is the production of Compton scattering, not photoelectric absorption.

During patient exposure, the MOST frequently occurring photon interaction is the production of Compton scattering, not the production of bremsstrahlung radiation. Because bone has a higher atomic number, the probability that a photon will be absorbed by a photoelectric interaction is greater than in a tissue with a lower atomic number.

Because bone has a higher atomic number, the probability that a photon will be absorbed by a photoelectric interaction is greater than in a tissue with a lower atomic number, such as dentin. Because bone has a higher atomic number, the probability that a photon will be absorbed by a photoelectric interaction is greater than in a tissue with a lower atomic number, such as soft tissue.

Because bone has a higher atomic number, the probability that a photon will be absorbed by a photoelectric interaction is greater than in a tissue with a lower atomic number, such as tooth pulp. The probability of a Compton interaction is directly proportional to the electron density of the absorber, not the source-to-point distance.

The probability of a Compton interaction is directly proportional to the electron density of the absorber. The probability of a Compton interaction is directly proportional to the electron density of the absorber, not the interaction of a low-energy incident photon with an outer electron. The absorption of the x-ray beam depends upon the energy of the beam.

The absorption of the x-ray beam depends upon the density of the absorber. The absorption of the x-ray beam depends upon the thickness of the absorber. The half-value layer HVL is a measure of beam energy used to describe the amount of absorber necessary to reduce the beam intensity by half.

Filtration of the x-ray beam entails the removal of unwanted photons. Determining the quantity of radiation exposure is called dosimetry. Ionization is the process of forming an ion pair. K-edge absorption is the process of eliminating high-energy photons that do not con- tribute to a radiographic image.

A measure of the capacity of radiation to ionize air is called exposure. Absorbed dose is a measure of the energy absorbed by matter. Equivalent dose is used to compare biologic effects of radiation on a tissue.

A measurement of radioactivity describes the decay rate of a radioactive material. Exposure refers to a measure of radiation quantity. Absorbed dose refers to the radiation energy absorbed by tissue. The equivalent dose unit is used to compare the high linear energy transfer LET of particulate radiations to a lower-LET radiation such as x-rays. Effective dose refers to the estimated radiation risk in humans. Effective dose is used to compare the risk of radiation exposure of one part of the body to another part.

The traditional unit called radiation absorbed dose rad is expressed in the SI system as gray Gy. The SI unit sievert Sv refers to the equivalent and the effective dose.

The SI unit becquerel Bq is used to refer to radioactivity. The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on living systems is called a. Which statement BEST describes a direct effect of radiation? Action of radiation on water. Formation of free radicals by biologic molecules. Loss of radiosensitive cells, affecting function of organ. Interaction of hydrogen and hydroxyl free radicals with organic molecules. Which equation represents cross-linking of free radicals formed during the interaction of biologic molecules and radiation?

Which equation represents the dissociation of free radicals formed during the interaction of biologic molecules and radiation? Which equation represents the free radical production during the interaction of biologic molecules and radiation? Which equation represents an indirect effect of radiation-induced biologic damage? Approximately how much of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects?

Direct effects of the interaction of radiation with molecules are the most common outcome for which type of radiation? Which reason BEST explains why water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions? It attracts radiation. It forms free radicals. It possesses a high atomic number. It is predominant in biologic systems.

Chemical change that occurs in water after exposure to ionizing radiation is called a. Which equation expresses the collective reactions of chemical changes that result in radioly- sis of water?

Which equation expresses the formation of hydroperoxyl free radicals in irradiated water? Which statement BEST describes an indirect biologic effect of radiation? The formation of free radicals by biologic molecules. The contribution of approximately one-third of the biologic effect. The interaction of hydrogen and hydroxyl free radicals with organic molecules. The playing of a dominant role in producing molecular changes in biologic molecules. Cell death. Genetic mutations.

Cancer formation. Mitotic acceleration. Change or loss of a base. Cross-linking of DNA strands. Double-strand breakage at same location. Disruption of hydrogen bonds between DNA strands. Which is an example of a deterministic effect of radiation? Tumor induction. Cataract formation. Radiation-induced cancer. Which characteristic BEST describes the severity link between clinical deterministic effects and dose?

Severity is proportional to dose. Severity is independent of dose. Severity is an all-or-none response. Effects are caused by sublethal DNA damage. Loss of which function results in reproductive death in a cell population? Mitotic division. Chromosome translocation. Which factor accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues? Rate of cell replication. Cellular differentiation. Repair and recovery rate. Location of chromosomes. Which is NOT a mechanism of reproductive death?

DNA damage. Bystander effect. Chromosome aberrations. Apoptosis is particularly common in which type of tissue? Ring formation. High mitotic rate. Dicentric formation. Which organ demonstrates the MOST radiosensitivity? Optic lens. Bone marrow. Salivary glands. Which characteristic is associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues? Exposure to a nuclear accident. A latent period lasting minutes, days, or weeks. Large amounts of radiation absorbed within a short period of time.

Small amounts of radiation absorbed repeatedly over a long period of time. Which is a result of loss of parenchymal cells associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation? Acute radiation syndrome. Cells that rarely or never divide. Reduction of number of tissue cells. Replacement of tissue with fibrous connective tissue. Which is the amount of radiation below which no adverse effects are seen?

Dose rate. Clinical threshold dose. Clinical radioresistance. Which reason BEST justifies the same radiation dose administered at a lower dose rate compared to a higher dose rate? Allows for tissue repair. Results in more net damage. Sanctions higher linear energy transfer LET. Formation of fewer hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxyl free radicals. The purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy during radiation therapy is to a.

Greater tumor destruction. Enhanced oxygen diffusion distance. Increased cellular repair of normal tissues. Increased mean oxygen tension in an irradiated tumor. Which is a complication often associated with radiotherapy of the oral mucous membrane? Irreversible taste loss. Difficulty with food intake. Need for topical anesthetics. Herpetic secondary infection. Which salivary glands are MOST sensitive to radiotherapy? Which is a characteristic of saliva post-radiation therapy? Strong viscosity.

Higher pH level. Increased volume. Enhanced buffering ability. Which is NOT a chronic inflammatory oral mucosal tissue response? Progressive fibrosis. Increased fine vasculature. Concomitant parenchymal degeneration. Which tooth process is relatively resistant to radiation therapy? Bud formation. Root formation. Radiation caries may occur in radiation therapy patients because of a. The primary radiation-induced damage to mature bone results from which factor?

Reduction in degree of mineralization. Destruction of the osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Replacement of bone marrow with fatty marrow. Damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone. The death of bone following irradiation is called a. Which is the recommended time frame to wait before taking radiographic images after radiotherapy of the jaw? Which is the recommended treatment to regain function of the muscles of mastication after radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis?

Exercise program. Cessation of radiotherapy. Restriction in mouth opening. In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 1 to 2 Gy may manifest as which symptoms? Mild hematopoietic. Which is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome? Hemorrhaging into intestines. Efficient intestinal absorption. Collapse of circulatory system. Plasma and electrolyte balance. Which is the threshold dose of radiation from a full-mouth imaging survey when a leaded apron is used?

Which is NOT a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations? Shortened life span. Formation of cataracts. Severe mental retardation. Impaired growth and development. Which organ is MOST susceptible to radiation-induced cancer? The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of a. In radiation genetics, as the time between exposure and conception increases, which is reduced?

Rate of mutations. Severity of mutations.

Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 7th Edition

Incidence of mutations. Frequency of spontaneous mutations. Which is a basic finding of radiation-induced genetic effects? The majority of mutations are beneficial to an organism. Females are more susceptible to effects of radiation exposure. At low dose rates the frequency of induced mutation is greatly increased.

Radiation causes increased frequency of spontaneous mutations rather than inducing new mutations. Radiology is the science or study of radiation used in medicine. Radiobiology is the study of the effects of ionizing radiation on living systems.

Radioimmunity refers to the decreased sensitivity to radiation that may occur after repeated radiation therapy. Radiochemistry is the branch of chemistry involving radioactive occurrences. The action of radiation on water is an indirect effect of radiation. In a direct effect of radiation, biologic molecules form unstable free radicals, which are extremely reactive and play a dominant role in molecular changes.

The severity of the loss of cells depends upon the radiation dose. The radiosensitivity of a tissue is measured by its response to both direct and indirect effects of radiation. The interaction of hydrogen and hydroxyl free radicals with organic molecules is an indirect effect of radiation. Approximately one-third 1 3 , not 1 4 , of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects. Approximately one-third 1 3 , not 1 2 , of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects.

Approximately one-third 1 3 of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects. Approximately one-third 1 3 , not 2 3 , of the biologic effects of radiation is a result of direct effects. Direct effects of the interaction of radiation with molecules are the most common outcome for particulate, not coherent, radiation. Direct effects of the interaction of radiation with molecules are the most common outcome for particulate, not characteristic, radiation. Direct effects of the interaction of radiation with molecules are the most common outcome for particulate, not bremsstrahlung, radiation.

Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant molecule in biologic systems, not because it attracts radiation. Free radicals can be formed when radiation interacts with any matter. Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant mol- ecule in biologic systems. Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant molecule in biologic systems, not because it possesses a high atomic number.

Water frequently participates in radiation and molecular interactions because it is the predominant molecule in biologic systems.

Chemical change that occurs in water after exposure to ionizing radiation is called radiolysis. Ionization is the process of the formation of an ion pair. Direct effects of radiation occur when biologic molecules absorb radiation energy and form unstable free radicals. The formation of free radicals by biologic molecules is a direct effect of radiation. Approximately one-third of the biologic effect of radiation is contributed by direct effect. An indirect effect of radiation involves hydrogen and hydroxyl free radicals interacting with organic molecules.

In a direct effect of radiation, biologic molecules form unstable free radicals which are extremely reactive and play a dominant role in molecular changes. A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location, not a change or loss of a base, is the most damaging, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects. A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location, not a cross-linking of DNA strands, is the most damaging, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects.

A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location inhibits proper repair, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects. A double-strand DNA breakage at the same location, not a disruption of hydrogen bonds, is the most damaging, resulting in cell death, carcinogenesis, and heritable effects.

Tumor induction is an example of a stochastic effect of radiation. Cataract formation is an example of a deterministic effect of radiation. Genetic mutation is an example of a stochastic effect of radiation.

Radiation-induced cancer is an example of a stochastic effect of radiation. With deterministic effects of radiation, the severity of clinical effects is propor- tional to dose. With stochastic effects of radiation, the severity of clinical effects is independent of dose. With stochastic effects of radiation, the severity of clinical effects is an all-or-none response.

Stochastic effects of radiation are caused by sublethal damage to DNA. Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division, not cell repair. Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division, not cellular differentiation. Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division. Reproductive death in a cell population is loss of the capacity for mitotic division, not chromosome translocation.

It is the rate of cell replication that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues. It is the rate of cell replication, not cellular differentiation, that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues.

It is the rate of cell replication, not the repair and recovery rate, that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues. It is the rate of cell replication, not the location of chromosomes, that accounts for the varying radiosensitivity of tissues. Apoptosis or programmed cell death occurs during normal embryogenesis.

DNA damage can result in cell death. Cells damaged by radiation release molecules that can kill nearby cells; this is called the bystander effect. Chromosome aberrations do not necessarily cause death of cells; cell damage may result or no biologic processes may be recognized. Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues, rather than muscular tissues. Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues.

Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues, rather than con- nective tissues. Apoptosis is particularly common in lymphoid and hemopoietic tissues, rather than subcutaneous tissues.

Translocation of chromosomes is an aberration that can result due to exposure to radiation. Ring formation of chromosomes is an aberration that can result due to exposure to radiation. The mitotic rate of a cell is not a chromosome aberration; however, cells with a higher mitotic rate are more susceptible to aberration development. Dicentric formation of chromosomes is an aberration that can result due to exposure to radiation. The liver demonstrates an intermediate degree of radiosensitivity.

The optic lens demonstrates a low degree of radiosensitivity. Bone marrow demonstrates a high degree of radiosensitivity. Salivary glands demonstrate an intermediate degree of radiosensitivity. Exposure to a nuclear accident is an example of a short-term effect of radiation on tissues.

The short-term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues have a latent period lasting minutes, days, or weeks. Large amounts of radiation within a short period of time are associated with the short- term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues. Small amounts of radiation absorbed repeatedly over a long period of time are associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation on tissues. Acute radiation syndrome is a short-term effect that includes symptoms of nausea, vomit- ing, diarrhea, hair loss, and hemorrhage.

Cells that rarely or never divide are termed radioresistant, and are not a result associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation.

Principles 7th edition radiology pdf interpretation and oral

A reduction in the number of mature tissue cells can become evident quickly due to short-term effects of radiation. Replacement of tissue with fibrous connective tissue is a result of loss of paren- chymal cells associated with the long-term deterministic effects of radiation. Dose refers to the amount of radiation received. Dose rate refers to the rate of exposure. The clinical threshold dose refers to the amount of radiation below which no adverse effects are seen.

Radioresistance refers to biologic systems that are resistant to change caused by exposure to radiation. The same dose of radiation administered at a lower dose rate allows for the opportunity for tissue repair, thereby resulting in less net damage.

Radiology edition pdf 7th oral interpretation principles and

The same dose of radiation administered at a lower dose rate allows for the opportunity for tissue repair, thereby resulting in less, not more, net damage. Formation of fewer hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxyl free radicals is associated with indirect effects of radiation, rather than dose rate.

Linear energy transfer LET refers to the sublethal damage to cells that results in cancer formation or heritable mutations. LET does not explain the purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Stochastic radiation effects include sublethal damage to cells that results in cancer forma- tion or heritable mutations. It does not explain the purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The purpose of hyperbaric oxygen therapy during radiation therapy of tumors having hypoxic cells is to reduce the amount of hydrogen peroxide and hydroperoxyl free radical formation.

7th pdf oral principles edition interpretation radiology and

Benefits of the fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors include greater tumor destruction. Fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors does not include enhancing the distance that oxygen must diffuse from the fine vasculature through the tumor to reach the remaining tumor cells; it reduces the distance. Benefits of the fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors include increased cellular repair of normal tissues.

Benefits of the fractionation of the total x-ray dose in the treatment of tumors include increasing the mean oxygen tension in an irradiated tumor. Taste buds are sensitive to radiation and taste loss is reversible. One complication often associated with radiotherapy of the oral mucous mem- brane includes difficulty with food intake due to discomfort associated with mucositis.

Use of topical anesthetics to facilitate comfort is a palliative treatment, not a complication associated with radiotherapy. Secondary yeast infection by Candida albicans, not herpes, is a common complication associated with radiotherapy.

The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than minor glands. The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than other glands. The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than sublingual glands. The parotid glands are more radiosensitive than submandibular glands. The residual saliva after radiation therapy is more viscous than usual. The residual saliva after radiation therapy has a lower pH than usual; it contributes to decalcification of normal enamel.

During and after radiation therapy, patients typically report xerostomia, the reduced volume of saliva.

Dental Library-Oral Radiology: Principles and Interpretation, 7th Edition - Dental Library-

The residual saliva after radiation therapy has a diminished buffering capacity. Adiposis is a response to chronic oral mucosal tissue inflammation. Progressive fibrosis is a response to chronic oral mucosal tissue inflammation. A chronic inflammatory mucosal tissue response includes a decrease, not an increase, in the fine vasculature.

Concomitant parenchymal degeneration is a response to chronic oral mucosal tissue inflammation. The tooth eruption process is relatively resistant to radiation therapy. The tooth bud formation process is sensitive to radiation therapy; irradiation may destroy the tooth bud. The tooth root formation process is sensitive to radiation therapy; irradiation may retard or abort root formation.

Tooth bud cellular differentiation is sensitive to radiation therapy; inhibited cellular differentiation may cause malformations and arrested growth. Radiation caries may occur because of changes in microflora, including the increased presence of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus, and Candida.

Radiation therapy for adults does not alter tooth solubility. Radiation caries is not related to the presence of pulpal fibroatrophy associated with radiation therapy for adults.

Oral Radiology

Radiation therapy for adults does not alter the crystalline structures of teeth. Damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone can result in a reduction in the degree of mineralization. While osteoblasts and osteoclasts are destroyed by radiation, the primary damage is to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone. After irradiation, normal marrow may be replaced with fatty marrow and fibrous connective tissue; the primary radiation-induced damage to mature bone results from damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone.

The primary radiation-induced damage to mature bone results from damage to the vasculature of the periosteum and cortical bone. Radiotherapy is the treatment of disease by particle application. The death of bone following irradiation is called osteoradionecrosis. The death of bone following irradiation is called osteoradionecrosis, not rampant bone loss. Acute radiation syndrome is a reaction of a person after acute whole-body radiation exposure. Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months, not one month, before taking radio- graphic images after completion of radiotherapy.

Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months, not 4 months, before taking radio- graphic images after completion of radiotherapy. Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months before taking radiographic images after completion of radiotherapy. Whenever possible, it is desirable to wait 6 months, not 12 months, before taking radio- graphic images after completion of radiotherapy.

An exercise program, not antibiotics, may help regain function of the muscles of mastica- tion after radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis.

An exercise program may help regain function of the muscles of mastication after radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis. Restriction in mouth opening usually starts 2 months after radiotherapy is completed; an exercise program may help regain function of the muscles of mastication after radia- tion-caused inflammation and fibrosis.

Restriction in mouth opening is the result of radiation-caused inflammation and fibrosis; an exercise program may help regain function of the muscles of mastication.

In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 1 to 2 Gy may manifest as prodromal symptoms. In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 50 Gy may manifest as cardiovascular symptoms. In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 7 to 15 Gy may manifest as gastrointestinal symptoms.

In acute radiation syndrome, a dose of 2 to 4 Gy may manifest as mild hematopoietic symptoms. Hemorrhaging into intestines is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome.

Inefficient intestinal absorption is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome. Collapse of the circulatory system occurs in individuals exposed to over 50 Gy of radia- tion, well above the level that causes gastrointestinal syndrome.

Loss of plasma and electrolyte balance is a result of loss of the epithelial layer of the intestinal mucosa in acute radiation syndrome. The threshold dose of radiation from a full-mouth survey when a leaded apron is used is about 0. A shortened life span is a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The formation of cataracts is a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

One of the common abnormalities among Japanese children exposed early in gestation includes mental retardation. It is not a late deterministic effect. Impaired growth and development is a late deterministic effect of exposure to atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The stomach is more susceptible than the brain to radiation-induced cancer. The stomach is more susceptible than the liver to radiation-induced cancer. The stomach is more susceptible than the thyroid to radiation-induced cancer.

The stomach is more susceptible to radiation-induced cancer. The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia, not cataracts. The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia. The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia, not solid tumors. The higher rate of cell division and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells accounts for higher incidences of leukemia, not thyroid cancers.

The rate of mutations is reduced as the time between exposure and conception increases. The rate, not the severity, of mutations is reduced as the time between exposure and conception increases.

The rate, not the incidence, of mutations is reduced as the time between exposure and conception increases. Fenderson and Report item - opens in a new window or tab.

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