2. NEW HORIZONS 3. THEME: ENERGY. IT WILL SOON BE POSSIBLE to transmit energy from ocean waves straight PDF at the address: musicmarkup.info Horizons is for secondary school students aged , and builds Radley Paul, Simons Daniela. New Horizons 2 Student's Book and Workbook. pdf. Раздел. Consult Interface's entire New Horizons II catalogue on ArchiExpo. Page: 1/7.
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New Horizons is a four-level upper secondary course that sets achievable Dual entry points at levels 1 and 2 mean that students can work towards the B1. NEW HORIZON 2 – PDF Download. The second issue of the party's ideological magazine – the NEW HORIZON – which looks at our call to. Book ID: FjPwnXcEQ3orRGa | BOOK PDF FREE Libro New Horizons 2 DOWNLOAD. Uncharted waters 2 new horizons walkthrough faq, new.
It was conceived as a planetary flyby mission in , based on the New Horizons spacecraft, which was in development at the time. Congress in June New Horizons 2 was included in the tentative budget for the New Frontiers program missions. Candidate targets included Lempo , a system that, like Pluto—Charon, contains multiple bodies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
An activity exploring parallax and then simulating the discovery of Pluto with a Blink Comparator via an online interactive. Helpful Resources:. A whole-body activity that explores the relative sizes, distances, orbit, and spin of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
Students are introduced to the terms "signal" and "noise" in the context of spacecraft communication. They explore these concepts by listening to a computer-generated signal from two different distances with no additional background noise, and then with background noise and compare their experiences in a science journal page. Students explore the relationship between angular width, actual size, and distance by using their finger, thumb and fist as a unit of angular measurement in this hands-on activity.
A hands-on activity exploring spacecraft radio communication concepts, including the speed of light and the time-delay for signals sent to and from spacecraft. This activity engages students with a hands-on activity and an online interactive to explore the Signal-to-Noise Ratio, a fundamental concept in spacecraft communication. The activity also includes a pencil-and-paper component that addresses relevant topics, such as proportions and ratios.
This activity relates an elastic collision to the change in a satellite's or spacecraft's speed and direction resulting from a planetary fly-by, often called a "gravity assist" maneuver.
Both hands-on and online interactive methods are used to explore these topics. Students learn about the characteristics of planets, comets, asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects through a classification activity. Students can then apply what they have learned by participating in a formal debate about a solar system object discovered by the New Horizons spacecraft and by defining the term 'planet.
Classification activities that will lead students from simple sorting of familiar objects to classifying materials into liquids, gases, and solids. Students will learn that the New Horizons poster depicts a scale drawing of the Solar System. They will use the poster to track the true progress of the spacecraft.
S - Understanding the long distances and timescales involved in space travel.
Objects in the Sky; E: Students will measure their height, analyze the heights of classmates, and predict their height at the time New Horizons is scheduled to fly by Pluto using a growth chart. S - Using a model and measurements to make predictions. M - Collecting data and finding the mean, mode, and median. Students will determine the length of one year on the nine planets and match historical events that occurred on Earth one year ago on these planets.
S - Learning the astronomical meaning of a year and the timescales associated with planets with large orbits. Students take imaginary trips through the Solar System on a spacebus and use math skills to find out the next spacebus stop. S -Understanding the order and distances of the planets from the Sun. M -Problem solving using multiplication, rounding and fractions. Students will make a scale model of the orbits of the outer planets and explore the peculiarities of Pluto's orbit.
S - Understanding the scale of the Solar System. Learning about Pluto's elliptical and inclined orbit. Pluto and Charon are a binary system. Build your own model of a binary system and see what makes it so unique! With adult help, children of any age will enjoy this activity. Build your own 3D New Horizons spacecraft model.
Below is a zipped file of. We understand that 3D printing often involves trial and error. You may make adjustments or changes when printing these models. Mission Mission. Where is New Horizons? Ultima Thule. Aging brings on a significant increase in the potentially pathogenic bacteria such as enterobacterias and Clostridium, and a decrease in the Bifidobacterial species, which contribute to the protection of the intestinal tract 30 , The intestinal flora may vary considerably from one individual to another.
As observed in studies with adults with a varying degree of kinship, genotype appears to be the most important factor in defining the composition of the flora. The intestinal flora plays an essential role in maintaining normal gastrointestinal tract function; this includes the digestion of nutrients and immune response of the gastrointestinal tract. Animal studies using germ-free mice revealed that these animals presented a decrease in the activity of digestive enzymes, of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and reduction of motility, muscle wall thickness and vascularization.
These animals also presented a decrease in serum immunoglobulin levels and were more prone to infections 12 , Moreover, in hyperlipidemic diet-induced obesity, the lipopolysaccharide from intestinal bacteria could represent a triggering factor for the inflammation present in these obesity models Figure 2. An animal study using germ-free mice observed that these mice, despite ingesting greater amounts of food than conventionally raised mice, presented a lower amount of body fat 8.
Subsequently, a study by Turnbaugh and cols. Furthermore, the gut flora of obese mice was observed to present an abundance of genes coding for enzymes capable of digesting polysaccharides from diet not usually digestible by human.
In addition, these investigators proposed the hypothesis that the flora of obese mice favored a greater capacity of extracting calories from food, as the feces of these mice were observed to have less calories and a greater amount of fermentation end-products.
Ley and cols.
These same investigators demonstrated that obese individuals presented an intestinal flora with a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes than lean persons Weight loss over a one-year period modifies the flora of obese individuals, leveling the proportion of Firmicutes close to those observed in lean persons. The correlation between intestinal flora and obesity requires further studies in order to elucidate several questions. It is not known yet whether, as proposed by studies on transplantation of flora, a significant weight gain could occur, over a short period of time, simply by a small increase in the extraction of energy A diet rich in non-digestible fibers has been observed to reduce the severity of diabetes, reduce weight and the amount of fat tissue 37 , Additionally other important questions remain unanswered, for example, in which manner do weight differences alter the balance of the intestinal flora is not yet clear.
Furthermore, the manner by which the change in flora could be triggered by the conditions of the host organism has not yet been fully elucidated The intestinal flora of obese individuals has been suggested to undergo changes which would increase the extraction of calories from nutrients; this however would seemingly be more adaptive if it were to occur in individuals who presented weight loss, interestingly however it is precisely the intestinal flora of obese human, who already have high calorie reserves, that has been observed to be more efficient Induction of subclinical inflammation A short time ago, several studies highlighted a correlation between type-2 diabetes and obesity which a state of subclinical chronic inflammation in several tissues such as the adipose tissue, liver and hypothalamus 40 - Based on this observation, a new hypothesis has been proposed correlating intestinal flora and obesity Figure 2.
The inflammation that leads to diabetes and obesity in high-fat diet animal models has been proposed to be triggered by the lipopolysaccharide LPS of gram-negative bacteria which compose the intestinal flora These investigators connected an altered microbiota composition, brought about by a high-fat diet, to an increase in the proportion of gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacteria, with a decrease in Bacteroides, Eubacterium rectal-Clostridium coccoides group and bifidobacteria.
In this study, the imbalance of the intestinal microbiota associated to a high-fat diet was correlated to insulin resistance, diabetes, and increase in body weight gain and body fat, increase in serum LPS and triglycerides levels in the liver. Additionally, another study observed a decrease in hepatic steatosis and LPS expression after treating rats with polymixin B an antibiotic specific for gram-negative bacteria In human, individuals without type 2 diabetes presented lower levels of serum lipopolysaccaride than patients with type 2 diabetes, paired by age These data corroborate the hypothesis that the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes can be correlated to the lipopolysaccharide from intestinal flora bacteria.
Moreover, mice treated with a high-fat diet, were observed to present a reduction in intestinal permeability and in serum LPS levels, in addition to a decrease in the inflammation of adipose tissue and macrophage infiltration, after the modification of gut microbiota using antibiotics 49 - Regulation of genes in the host involved in energy storage and expenditure In a recent study, Backhed and cols.
Two proteins carbohydrate response element-binding protein ChREBP and liver sterol response element-binding protein type-1 SREBP- 1 were demonstrated to be involved in the absorption of monosaccharides in the intestine and hepatic lipogenesis induced by the gut flora 8.
The authors suggested that the intestinal flora interferes in the energy metabolism through several mechanisms, among which is included the absorption of short chain fatty acids and monosaccharides, which are subsequently transformed into fat in the liver.
Furthermore, the intestinal flora would enable the absorption of polysaccharides which are not normally digestible and enable the regulation of genes in the host which are involved in the fat deposit in adipocytes 8.
Backhed and cols. They demonstrated an increase in the activity of the AMPK adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase enzyme, which plays a central role in the regulation of homeostasis, as a sensor of the status of cell energy in the cell. In addition, an increase in Fiaf levels triggers the production of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator, increasing the expression of genes that regulate the oxidation of fatty acids in the mitochondria.
In this way, the intestinal flora appears to influence the energy balance not only by enabling the extraction of energy from nutrients, but also by influencing the expression of genes with regulate energy expenditure and storage The intestinal flora would increase the energy extraction from non-digestible polysaccharides. Moreover, the lipopolysaccharide from bacteria flora would trigger a state of subclinical chronic inflammation, leading to obesity and diabetes.
Another mechanism through which the intestinal flora would lead to obesity would be through the regulation of genes in the host, involved in energy storage and expenditure. However, further studies are necessary to elucidate several issues related to the association between intestinal flora and obesity.
It is not yet clear whether the change in the intestinal flora observed in obese individuals causes or is caused by obesity. In addition, it is not yet known whether a significant weight gain could occur due to a modest increase in calorie extraction. The human intestine is colonized by millions of microorganisms and the modifications in the composition of the intestinal flora could constitute a novel type of treatment for obesity.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that could promote changes in the composition of intestinal flora. Prebiotics stimulate the growth and activity of commensal bacteria as they are non-digestible oligosaccharides fermented by the intestinal flora.
Antibiotics, probiotics and prebiotics could possibly have a role in the manipulation of intestinal flora to treat obesity in the future. In this regard, in the past five years, data coming from different sources have shown a causal relationship between gut microbiota and obesity 4 , 5 , 55 , supported by experiments including microbiota modulation and mainly transplantation. In addition, studies in mice and in humans have also shown that gut microbiota have a causal role in insulin resistance, which is the primary alteration observed in DM2.
In this regard, an elegant study of Ridaura and cols. They also showed that housing mice with obese microbiota with mice with lean microbiota prevented the development of obese phenotypes in the former These data indicated us clearly that microbiota can improve metabolic parameters or even prevent obesity, although the composition of diet will also be important 11 , 14 , 36 , 39 , 55 , In addition to the causal role of intestinal microbiota on obesity and insulin resistance, alterations in gut microbiota have been reported in association with HIV disease progression 57 , with olanzapine-induced metabolic dysfunction 58 and increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases Gut microbiota can also modulate diurnal secretion of glucocorticoids 60 , the immunity with important role in the regulation of Treg cells 61 , and surprisingly brain activity We should also mention that drugs used in clinical practice can have a direct effect on intestinal microbiota, or its metabolism may also be influenced by microbiota.
Recently it was demonstrated that metformin can modulate intestinal microbiota, at least in C. Another interesting study in this area is related to the inactivation of cardiac drug digoxin by gut bacteria Eggerthella lenta , suggesting an important role of diet and microbioma in inducing digitalis intoxication Finally it is important to recognize that this area suffers an enormous progress in the past years, but the ideal microbiota profile to a specific person remains to be established.
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Mayo Clin Proc. Gut microflora as a target for energy and metabolic homeostasis. Defense of differing body weight set points in diet-induced obese and resistant rats. Am J Physiol. Metabolic consequences of overfeeding in humans. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage.
Inaugural article: honor thy symbionts. The neglected organ: bacterial flora has a crucial immunostimulatory role. Perspect Biol Med. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. The host-microbe interface within the gut. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. The gut flora as a forgotten organ. EMBO Rep. Layers of mutualism with commensal bacteria protect us from intestinal inflammation. Feeding our immune system: impact on metabolism. Clin Dev Immunol.
Fecal microflora in healthy infants born by different methods of delivery: permanent changes in intestinal flora after cesarean delivery. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.
PLoS biology. Eur J Pediatr. Molecular monitoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates. Appl Environ Microbiol. Production of short chain fatty acids by the intestinal microflora during the first 2 years of human life. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA from human fecal samples reveals stable and host-specific communities of active bacteria.
Bacterial colonization, probiotics, and necrotizing enterocolitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. Intestinal microflora of human infants and current trends for its nutritional modulation. Br J Nutr.