PDF | The idea of the Michelson-Morley experiment is theoretically reanalyzed. Elementary arguments are put forward to precisely derive the. As a result of Michelson's efforts in , the speed of light was known to be , miles per second with a likely error of around 30 miles per. Illustrating the Michelson-Morley experiment. Bernhard Rothenstein1), Stefan Popescu 2) and George J. Spix 3). 1) Politehnica University of Timisoara, Physics .
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|ePub File Size:||26.79 MB|
|PDF File Size:||11.56 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
The Michelson-Morley experiment (circa ) was performed to detect the Earth's motion through the ether as follows: The viewer will see the two beams of . The Michelson–Morley experiment was an attempt to detect the existence of aether, "A Repetition of the Michelson–Morley Experiment Using Kennedy's Refinement" (PDF). Physical Review. 30 (5): – BibcodePhRv I. Michelson-Morley Experiment Revisited - Calculating the Velocity of the Aether Wind. Arie Melis DeGeus. Page 90 APPENDIX I Michelson-Morley Experiment.
Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Arie Melis DeGeus. Arie M. DeGeus, Copyright There is no other cause as great as the mishap of the Michelson-Morley experiment, which contributed for physics: To make a certain theory into a dogma requires a lot more than that the concerned theory cannot be disproven in a certain relatively short period of time.
Fringe pattern produced with a Michelson interferometer using white light.
As configured here, the central fringe is white rather than black. Michelson and Morley and other early experimentalists using interferometric techniques in an attempt to measure the properties of the luminiferous aether, used partially monochromatic light only for initially setting up their equipment, always switching to white light for the actual measurements.
The reason is that measurements were recorded visually. Purely monochromatic light would result in a uniform fringe pattern. Lacking modern means of environmental temperature control , experimentalists struggled with continual fringe drift even when the interferometer was set up in a basement.
Because the fringes would occasionally disappear due to vibrations caused by passing horse traffic, distant thunderstorms and the like, an observer could easily "get lost" when the fringes returned to visibility. The advantages of white light, which produced a distinctive colored fringe pattern, far outweighed the difficulties of aligning the apparatus due to its low coherence length.
As Dayton Miller wrote, "White light fringes were chosen for the observations because they consist of a small group of fringes having a central, sharply defined black fringe which forms a permanent zero reference mark for all readings. The hypothesis of aether drift implies that because one of the arms would inevitably turn into the direction of the wind at the same time that another arm was turning perpendicularly to the wind, an effect should be noticeable even over a period of minutes.
The expectation was that the effect would be graphable as a sine wave with two peaks and two troughs per rotation of the device. This result could have been expected because during each full rotation, each arm would be parallel to the wind twice facing into and away from the wind giving identical readings and perpendicular to the wind twice. Additionally, due to the Earth's rotation, the wind would be expected to show periodic changes in direction and magnitude during the course of a sidereal day.
Because of the motion of the Earth around the Sun, the measured data were also expected to show annual variations. Most famous "failed" experiment[ edit ] Figure 7. Michelson and Morley's results. The upper solid line is the curve for their observations at noon, and the lower solid line is that for their evening observations.
Note that the theoretical curves and the observed curves are not plotted at the same scale: the dotted curves, in fact, represent only one-eighth of the theoretical displacements. After all this thought and preparation, the experiment became what has been called the most famous failed experiment in history. The expected deviation of the interference fringes from the zero should have been 0.
The Fizeau experiment and its repetition by Michelson and Morley apparently confirmed the stationary aether with partial aether dragging, and refuted complete aether dragging.
On the other hand, the much more precise Michelson—Morley experiment apparently confirmed complete aether dragging and refuted the stationary aether. Since waves in water need something to move in water and sound waves do as well air , it was believed that light also needed something to move in.
Scientists in the 18th century named this substance "aether", after the Greek god of light. They believed that aether was all around us and that it also filled the vacuum of space. Michelson and Morley created this experiment to try and prove the theory that aether existed. They did this with a device called an interferometer.
The experiment[ change change source ] A Michelson interferometer uses the same principle as the original experiment. But it uses a laser for a light source. Physical Review D. Physical Review. Edward W. Morley and Dayton C. Philosophical Magazine. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. XLI Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Annalen der Physik. Comptes Rendus.
Journal of the Optical Society of America. Il Nuovo Cimento B. Experimental search for anisotropy in the speed of light". General Relativity and Gravitation. Physical Review A. The origins of the relativity revolution , Chicago: Albert Einstein: A Biography. Penguin Group.
Reviews of Modern Physics. Archived from the original PDF on A History of the theories of aether and electricity 1. Longman, Green and Co.
In Stachel, John. Going Critical. Charles Scribner's Sons, pp. Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. Emergence and early interpretation — Physics at a Research University: Case Western Reserve, — An American Scientist on the Research Frontier: Mathematics of physics and engineering. World Scientific. American Journal of Physics.
Special relativity Reprint of ed. Courier Dover Publications. Annalen der Physik in German. Archived from the original PDF on December 29, Retrieved English translation: Perrett, W. Walker, J. Translated by Jeffery, GB. Einstein reports, via Dr N Balzas in response to Polanyi's query, that "The Michelson—Morley experiment had no role in the foundation of the theory. Second-order tests". Archive for History of Exact Sciences.
Journal for the History of Astronomy. The Ethereal Aether: University of Texas Press. Miller's Ether Drift Experiments". Astrophysical Journal. What is the experimental basis of Special Relativity? May Physics Today.
Retrieved 14 July Tests of special relativity.
Michelson—Morley experiment Kennedy—Thorndike experiment Moessbauer rotor experiments Resonator experiments de Sitter double star experiment Hammar experiment Measurements of neutrino speed. Modern searches for Lorentz violation Hughes—Drever experiment Trouton—Noble experiment Experiments of Rayleigh and Brace Trouton—Rankine experiment Antimatter tests of Lorentz violation Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillations Lorentz-violating electrodynamics.
Ives—Stilwell experiment Moessbauer rotor experiments Experimental testing of time dilation Hafele—Keating experiment Length contraction confirmations. Tests of relativistic energy and momentum Kaufmann—Bucherer—Neumann experiments. Fizeau experiment Sagnac experiment Michelson—Gale—Pearson experiment. Refutations of aether theory Refutations of emission theory. One-way speed of light Test theories of special relativity Standard-Model Extension. Retrieved from " https: Hidden categories: Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9 CS1: Namespaces Article Talk.
Wikisource has original text related to this article: Michelson . Michelson and Morley . Morley and Miller  . Miller . Miller sunlight . Tomaschek star light .
Miller  [A 12]. Kennedy . Illingworth . Michelson et al. Joos . Louis Essen . The frequency of a rotating microwave cavity resonator is compared with that of a quartz clock.
Cedarholm et al. Two ammonia masers were mounted on a rotating table, and their beams were directed in opposite directions.
Jaseja et al. The frequencies of two He—Ne masers , mounted on a rotating table, were compared. Unlike Cedarholm et al. Shamir and Fox . Both arms of the interferometer were contained in a transparent solid plexiglass. The light source was a Helium—neon laser.
Trimmer et al. They searched for anisotropies of the speed of light behaving as the first and third of the Legendre polynomials. They used a triangle interferometer, with one portion of the path in glass. In comparison, the Michelson—Morley type experiments test the second Legendre polynomial [A 27]. Wolf et al. The frequency of a stationary cryogenic microwave oscillator, consisting of sapphire crystal operating in a whispering gallery mode , is compared to a hydrogen maser whose frequency was compared to caesium and rubidium atomic fountain clocks.