Results Vasan Publications - online Telugu Books. Gopuram By Mohan Publications Rs In Stock. Ships in 4 - 9 Days. Free Shipping in India!. A Gopuram or gopura (Sanskrit: गोपुरम्, gopuram) is a monumental entrance tower, usually . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. List of Telugu Books Free Download - Download as Open Office file .odt), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Different Websites links to download.
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It is dedicated to Parvati, known as Meenakshi, and her consort, Shiva, here named Sundareswarar. The temple forms the heart and lifeline of the 2,year-old city of Madurai. It is said that the temple was originally built in the 6th century BC by survivors of the Kumari Kandam. The original temple was built by Kulasekara Pandya, but the entire credit for making the temple as splendid as it is today goes to the Nayaks. The Nayaks ruled Madurai from the 16th to the 18th century and left a majestic imprint of their rule in the Meenakshi - Sundareswarar Temple. The outer towers are the landmarks of Madurai.
Many of the temples of this time would of been wooden thus would not have survived til modern times; the Pallavas ruled from AD and their greatest constructed accomplishments are the single rock temples in Mahabalipuram and their capital Kanchipuram , now located in Tamil Nadu. Pallava art and architecture represent an early stage of Dravidian art and architecture which blossomed to its fullest extent under the Chola Dynasty; the first stone and mortar temples of South India were constructed during Pallava rule and were based on earlier brick and timber prototypes.
The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from — CE and structural temples between — CE. A number of rock-cut cave temples bear the inscription of the Pallava king, Mahendravarman I and his successors. This group includes both excavated pillared halls, with no external roof except the natural rock, monolithic shrines where the natural rock is cut away and carved to give an external roof.
Pallava sculptors graduated to free-standing structural shrines which inspired Chola temples of a age; some of the best examples of Pallava art and architecture are the Kailasanathar Temple at Kanchipuram, the Shore Temple and the Pancha Rathas of Mahabalipuram.
Akshara was the greatest sculptor of their time. After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century by defeating the Kalabhras , The empire ruled AD. Rock cut and structural temples are significant part of pandyan architecture; the Vimana and mandapa are some of the features of the early Pandyan temples.
Groups of small temples are seen at Tiruchirappalli district of Tamil Nadu. The Shiva temples have a Nandi bull sculpture in front of the maha mandapa. In the stages of Pandyas rule, finely sculptured idols, gopurams on the vimanas were developed.
Gopurams are portals of the temples. Nellaiappar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the deity Shiva, located in Tirunelveli, built by Pandyas and the sanctums of the temple were constructed by Nindraseer Nedumaran who reigned in the 7th century; the mani mandapam with its famous musical pillar was built by Later Pandyas in the 7th century.
Nellaiappar temple is spread over 14 acres; the gopuram of this temple is feet wide. Sangili Mandapam built on by vadamalaiyappa pillayan connects the Ganthimathi Amman and Nellaiyappar temples. From the inscriptions of Kulasekkara Pandiyan we learn that he defeated the Chera and Hoysala kings and built the outer walls of the temple with the war booty; the temples in Kalugumalai , a rocky hill in Thoothukudi district in southern Tamil Nadu.
The rock-cut temples and the carvings are exemplary of early Pandyan architecture; the Jain beds are dedicated to the Hindu religious figures. Constructed in rock cut style, the unfinished temple was built during the reign of Pandyan king Parantaka Nedunjadaiya. There are approx Deity A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life".
In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess.
Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent , omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways — masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures — including the ancient Mesopotamians , Greeks and Norsemen — personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts.
In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically , the cognates of Devi are Greek thea.
The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities. There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages".
A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism , for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles , can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature.
Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief.
A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u Shikhara Shikhara , a Sanskrit word translating to "mountain peak", refers to the rising tower in the Hindu temple architecture of North India , often used in Jain temples.
A shikhara over the garbhagriha chamber where the presiding deity is enshrined is the most prominent and visible part of a Hindu temple of North India. In South India , the equivalent term is vimana. In the south, shikhara is a term for the top stage of the vimana only, a dome capped with a finial ; the southern vimana is not to be confused with the elaborate gateway-towers of south Indian temples, called " gopurams ", which are taller and more prominent features in large temples.
Shikharas can be classified into three main forms: Latina ; the shikhara has four faces, which may include rathas within each face. All the elements run smoothly up the face in a curve; the most common. They are sometimes called "homogeneous" shikharas, as opposed to the next two types, which may be called "heterogeneous". Sekhari ; the Latina shape has added engaged sub-spires or spirelets called urushringas echoing the main shape.
These may run up most of the face. There may be more than one size of these, sometimes called tertiary. Tertiary spirelets are near the ends of the face or on the corners. Bhumija ; the tower has miniature spires, in horizontal and vertical rows, all the way to the top, creating a grid-like effect on each face. The tower is less vertical in overall shape approaching a pyramidal shape.
Found in the northern Deccan and West India ; the early history of the Hindu shikhara is unclear, but the Buddhist Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya has a straight-sided shikhara tower over 55 metres high, with an amalaka near the top.
The current structure dates from the Gupta Empire , in the 5th—6th century CE; when the temple acquired its shikhara tower, today considered more characteristic of Hindu temples, is uncertain. However the current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple may represent a restoration of earlier work of the 2nd or 3rd century CE. A plaque from Kumrahar dated CE, based on its dated Kharoshthi inscriptions and combined finds of Huvishka coins shows the Mahabodhi Temple in its current shape with a stepped truncated pyramid and a stupa finial on top, together with devotional images of the Buddha and the elephant-crowned Pillar of Ashoka next to the entrance.
It is thought that this shape of a truncated pyramid was derived from the design of the stepped stupas which had developed in Gandhara , as seen in the stupas of Jaulian , with an elongated structure formed of a succession of steps with niches containing Buddha images, alternating with Greco-Roman pillars, topped by a stupa.
By at least CE in Odisha , somewhat in the Deccan Plateau and West India, the latina form of the shikhara is well-established, with an amalaka disk-stone at the top, a kalasha urn.
There is a sukanasa feature over the entrance door; the forms with smaller subsidiary spires begin in the 10th century, from on tend to predominate. The Khajuraho Group of Monuments has several early forms from early in the century, though latina ones reappear after about , in examples like the Vamana Temple ; the bhumija spire first appears around , with other temples begun in the s , such as the Shiv Mandir, Ambarnath.
Shikharas form an element in the many styles of Hindu temple architecture, of which the three most common are: the Nagara style prevalent in northern India. The shikhara is a high curved shape, so called. In the north-east, the local term deul or deula is more used, both for towers and the whole temple.
In Odisha a Rekha Deula is the tower over it. In Odisha the curve is slight until the top, the amalaka rather large supported by four lion sculptures facing out. Of the many temples in Bhubaneswar , only the Rajarani Temple has significant spirelets; the Vesara style, a synthesis of the two others, seen in Karnataka and most in Hoysala and Chalukya temples.
In the vesara style, the tower moves towards a lower conical shape, with ornate carving; the Dravidian style prevalent in southern India: The equivalent of the shikhara is the vimana. The superstructure above the sanctum is more like a four-sided pyramid in overall shape, consisting of progressively smaller storeys of pavilions, with a profile, straight rather than curved; the Dravidian superstructure is highly ornate.
C; the Art and Architecture of the Indian Subcontinent , 2nd edn. It is dedicated to Meenakshi, a form of Parvati , her consort, Sundareshwar, a form of Shiva ; the temple is at the center of the ancient temple city of Madurai mentioned in the Tamil Sangam literature, with the goddess temple mentioned in 6th century CE texts.
Though the temple has historic roots, most of the present campus structure was rebuilt after the 14th century CE, further repaired and expanded in the 17th century by Thirumalai Nayak. In the early 14th century, the armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the temple, looted it of its valuables and destroyed the Madurai temple town along with many other temple towns of South India ; the contemporary temple is the result of rebuilding efforts started by the Vijayanagara Empire rulers who rebuilt the core and reopened the temple.
In the 16th century, the temple complex was further expanded and fortified by the Nayak ruler Vishwanatha Nayakar and others.
The restored complex now houses 14 gopurams , ranging from 45—50m in height, with the southern gopura tallest at Both of them are designed and constructed as per rules given in the texts of Vaastu shastra. The gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Pallava kings, and relate to the central shikhara towers of North India.
Between the twelfth and sixteenth century, during the Pandya , Nayaka and Vijayanagara era when Hindu temples increasingly became a hub of the urban life, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size and courtyards.
Often a shrine has more than one gopuram. A large Dravidian-style temple, or koil, may have multiple gopurams as the openings into successively smaller walled enclosures around the main shrine, with the largest generally at the outer edges. The temple compound is typically square or rectangular with at least the outermost wall having gopuras, often from the four cardinal directions. The multiple storeys of a gopuram typically repeat the lower level features on a rhythmic diminishing scale.
The Tamil derivation is from the two words: An alternative derivation is from the Sanskrit word gopuram , which can be broken down to go Sanskrit: Sthapati explains the meaning of the words gopuram and vimanam thus.
Vimanam means measure, indicating the number of measures made in the construction and design of that structure. Gopuram consist of two words, gawa and puram, meaning the place from which all the energy that exists in all living beings comes inside. A gopuram is usually a tapering oblong in form with ground-level wooden doors, often richly decorated, providing access. Above is the tapering or "battered" gopuram, divided into many storeys which diminish in size as the gopuram tower narrows.
Usually the tower is topped with a barrel vaulted roof with a finial. The four gopurams of the Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram are important early examples, begun in the midth century but completed over a longer period. The two tallest gopuras are both modern, at least in part. The Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam , Tamil Nadu , has 21 gopurams tower gateways , including the towering Annamalaiyar Temple , Thiruvannamalai.
Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam. Thillai Nataraja Temple, Chidambaram. Besakih , Bali. On left is a gopuram, to the right above the sanctum is vimana. Dallapiccola, Anna L. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A gopura is a monumental gate, usually ornate with odd number of kalasa on top. It may have one or many storeys. Single storey gopura; Right: Two storey gopura.