Introduction to General Zoology: Vol - II - K K Chaki, G Kundu, S Sarkar. K K Chaki. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. You can download. Download General Zoology Download free online book chm pdf. Download General Zoology Lecture Notes and Handouts Download free online book chm pdf.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Genre:||Science & Research|
|ePub File Size:||24.46 MB|
|PDF File Size:||8.26 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
no previous knowledge of zoology. Part I comprises general animal biology, including struc- place of science and zoology among other fields of learn-. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today TEXT-BOOKS OF ANIMAL BIOLOGY A General Zoology of the Invertebrates Vertebrate Zoology. The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
It is one of the broadest field in all of science because of the immense variety of animals and the complexity processes occurring within animals. Subdiscipline Description Anatomy Study of the structure of entire organisms and their parts Cytology Study of the structure and function of cells Ecology Study of the interaction of organisms with their environment. Embryology Study of the development of an animal from the fertilized egg to birth or hatching. Genetics Study of the mechanisms of transmission of traits from parents to offspring. Histology Study of tissues Molecular Biology Study of subcellular details of structure and function. Parasitology Study of animals that live in or on other organisms at the expense of the host Physiology Study of the function of organisms and their parts Systematics Study of the classification of, and the evolutionary interrelationships among, animal groups.
Indented subheadings in a section may also be included for clarity. The writing style of many scientific papers often is poor, largely because the authors lack experience and training.
It is a book with which every serious biological scientist should become familiar. A good summary of report writing fundamentals, with an ecological emphasis, is provided by Scott and Ayars The following general guidelines gleaned from these sources should be helpful.
Long, run-on sentences often obscure your meaning, and frequent use of cumbersome words reduces the readability of the paper. Check for excessive use of commas and conjunctions "and," "but," "or".
These often connect clauses that can be clearly separated into two or more sentences. For example, "I measured the water temperature" is preferable to "The water temperature was measured by the author," as it uses fewer words and is unambiguous i.
Such use of nouns often is acceptable as "temperature stratification," or "tree height" , but it frequently is overused e. Don't hide your findings in noncommittal statements.
For example, "the data could possibly suggest" implies that the data really may show nothing; simply state "the data show. If but only if vernacular terminology is just as accurate, use it.
Similarly, excessive use of Latin nomenclature should be avoided. If acceptable common names exist for organisms, introduce them together with the Latin names, and thereafter use the former. Whenever Latin genus or species names are written they are to be either italicized or underlined; higher taxonomic rankse. Decide in which portion of the report different statements are best placed, and do not repeat them elsewhere. On the other hand, don't pad the report with data irrelevant to the purpose or conclusions of the study.
Introduction section In the introduction of the paper state the nature of the problem and a brief background of the field of study. Also, a brief review of the literature generally is given in this section. Relate the problem and its significance to the general area of study.
This part of the paper presents the background, justification, and relevance of your study. Materials and methods section Procedures in research reports are usually detailed enough for the reader to have an accurate idea of what was done in the study or to be guided to appropriate lit- writing research reports erature for this information.
A good description of materials and methods used would enable a reader to duplicate your investigative procedure. Keep to a minimum the details of standard and generally known procedures such as how an item was weighed.
Detailed published accounts, such as chemical formulations for reagents, may be omitted but should be referenced. Results section This portion of a report gives the facts found, even if they are contrary to hypothesis or expectation. Listings of raw data are rarely presented, except occasionally in a class activity or as an appendix to the report. Instead, data typically are summarized using means, frequency tables, percentages, or other descriptive statistics for presentation and analysis in some appropriate statistical manner see section 1B.
These data summaries may be incorporated into figures or tables if this results in additional clarity or helps illustrate a pattern or trend. In general, the number of data collected should be indicated, and some measure of variability of the data should accompany statements of means see section 1B. Statistics used, type of data analysis performed, and mode of presentation depend on the study and type of data collected. Statistical comparisons of different groups of data are often called for, as explained in section 1B.
The Results section is not just a data summarization or a collection of tables and figures; it should contain an explanation and description of the data. Tell the reader exactly what you found, what patterns, trends, or relationships were observed. For example, do not just say "The species-area curve is shown in figure 1. All such illustrations are individually numbered and cited in the text and referred to as a figure e.
Labeling and citing tables of data in the text is done in the same manner as for graphs. If a graph will summarize the data as well or better than a table, then the graphical presentation typically is preferable. Each figure and table should contain an explanatory legend. In standard thesis and publication manuscripts the figure number, figure title, and legend are generally on a separate page from the illustration.
Be sure the axes of all graphs are fully and correctly labeled with a scale marked off and the units of measurements given; units of measurement preferably metric must also be given for tabular data.
Appendix B provides conversion factors for common measurement scales. Parasitology Study of animals that live in or on other organisms at the expense of the host Physiology Study of the function of organisms and their parts Systematics Study of the classification of, and the evolutionary interrelationships among, animal groups.
Table 1. Evolutus, unroll is change in the genetic make up of populations of organisms over time. It is the source of animal diversity, and it explains family relationships within animal groups. Charles Darwin published convincing evidence of evolution in and proposed a mechanism that could explain evolutionary change. Since that time, biologist have become convinced that evolution occurs. The mechanism proposed by Darwin has been confirmed and now serves as the nucleus of our broader understanding of evolutionary change.
Discussion section In the previous section of the paper the results are summarized and described. In this section they should be interpreted, critically evaluated, and compared to other research reports; and conclusions should then be drawn based on the study and its findings.
Whereas the Results section presents the "news," the Discussion section contains the "editorial. In the discussion, examine the amount and possible sources of variability in your data.
Examine your results for bias and evaluate its consequences in data interpretation. Develop arguments for and against your hypotheses and interpretations. Do not make generalized statements that are not based on your data, known facts, or reason.
Be sure to relate your findings to other studies and cite those studies. Draw positive conclusions from your study whenever possible. Summary section The end of your paper should contain a summary, which is a concise but exact statement of the problem, your general procedure, basic findings, and conclusions. It should not be just a vague hint of the topic covered, an amplified table of contents, or a shortened version of the report.
In many scientific journals, an abstract of the paper at the beginning of the paper replaces a summary. Example of a poor summary: The food habits of various amphibians were studied in detail by the authors.
The data were analyzed statistically and the findings were discussed at length. Certain similarities and differences were found between the species studied and the habitats in which they were found. Conclusions about feeding habits, habitat relationships, and niches were made for these species. This summary or abstract is merely an expanded table of contents with verbs added to make complete sentences.
Notice that no specific information is given to the reader. Example of an acceptable summary: Stomach contents of the red eft, red-backed salamander, and dusky salamander were identified. Analysis of overlap of food taxa shows that the feeding habits of only the latter two species were similar. As an example of niche segregation, the salamanders show less feeding overlap in habitats where they are living together.
Literature cited section No comprehensive literature survey is required for a class report; however, you are expected to use some sources 22 collecting, analyzing, and reporting ecological data other than a textbook.
These sources should be cited in the body of your report. Useful references are given at the end of each section in this manual, in textbooks, and in the Literature Cited or References sections of scientific papers. It is up to you to select the most useful references. All references given in your paper must appear in the Literature Cited section.
Rarely e. References may be cited in the text of your paper in one not both of two forms: 1 by author and year, or 2 by number. Citation by author and year is more common in biological writing; for example: "Smith stated that eastern grasslands are either tame or seral. All references are then listed in the Literature Cited section in alphabetical order of the first author's surname.
If there are more than one reference for an author, they are listed chronologically for that author. If the reference numbering system is used, then the text citation would be of the following form: "Eastern grasslands are either tame or seral For a book in a list of references, the general form is: Smith, R.
Ecology and field biology. Sometimes the number of pages is also indicated at the end of the citation e.
For a journal article, the general form of citation is: Greenwald, G. The reproductive cycle of the field mouse, Microtus californicus. In journal citations it has been customary to use standard abbreviations for the name of the journal as aboye , but there is an increasing tendency to spell out the entire name.
Consult the Literature Cited in this and other biological publications for further examples of accepted form. The Council of Biological Editors provide a thorough summary of these. Some common problems 1. Use, evaluate, and interpret your data. Failure to do so is the most common problem students have in report writing.