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This book is organized to help you learn biology. Core Principles of Biology. The first half of this text is devoted to general principles that apply to all. University of Leeds Classification of Books. General Biology. [A. General] [Not to be used for specialised series e.g. Society for General Microbiology; Not to be. COURSE DESCRIPTION: General Biology I is the first of a two semester general your biology textbook and will coincide with what we will be studying in the.

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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no download limits, enjoy . PDF | Life is unique to Earth. It is Earth-bound. It is complex. Thus, this book shows that Earth is alive; that biology is alive. The first part. page , since this book and/or parts of it may or may not be licensed After extracting it from the PDF file you have to rename it to source.7z.

Personal information is secured with SSL technology. Free Shipping No minimum order. Description This two-volume work presents a summary and review of the current state of lobster biology, ecology, physiology, behavior, and management. It emphasizes the biology of clawed lobsters Nephropidae and spiny lobsters Palinuridae , with attention also given to slipper lobsters Scyllaridae and coral lobsters Synaxidae. The first chapter of Volume 1 provides an overview of the general aspects of lobster biology that serves as an introduction for readers of both volumes. Subsequent chapters examine the topics of growth, neurobiology, reproduction, nutrition, pathology, social behavior, and migration patterns.

As discussed earlier a person of blood group A can only get blood from another one of A or O. Plant and Animal breeding Genetics is applied mostly in plant and animal breeding in order to produce varieties that are most suitable to man's needs.

This is done through artificial selection. Varieties are developed that are resistant to pests, diseases or harsh climatic conditions. Genetic counselling Genetic counselling involves advising about hereditary diseases and disorders so that they can make informed decisions.

This is done through: Screening for genotypes e. In amniocentesis, cells are obtained from amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Conditions such as Down's syndrome can be detected using microscopy. Genetic Engineering This is a technology that involves the manipulation of the genotype of an organism to get the desired trait.

It also involves the transfer of gene coding for the desired trait from one organism to another. Application of Genetic Engineering Making of hormones e. Human insulin and human growth hormone.

Enzymes e. Drugs and vaccines. A variety of tomato with improved paste and a longer shell life. Sheep for producing desired proteins in milk. Plants resistant to pests and diseases. Cloning This is the making of identical copies of genes, DNA and whole organisms. Cloning is used in plants - that is tissue culture e. The first mammal to be cloned successfully was Dolly - the sheep.

A nucleus from the cell obtained from the udder of the sheep was inserted in an unfertilised egg without a nucleus.

Pdf book general biology

This zygote was introduced into the uterus of a sheep and developed to full term. Gene therapy Involves injecting genes into patients of certain diseases e. Parkinson's diseases. The injected gene alters metabolism to bring about the cure of the disease. Practical Activities To demonstrate Continuous variations Height of students Students should work in pairs, use chalk and metre rule to mark level of top of head onto the wall Or door as one student stands straight without shoes, next to the wall or door.

The height for each student is recorded on chalk board. The frequency distribution of height is recording as the height is grouped into various classes. A histogram to represent frequency against height is drawn. The normal bell shaped curve is observed. Discontinuous variations - ability to roll tongue The number of students who can roll their tongue is recorded as well as the number of non-tongue rollers.

Gene for the ability to roll the tongue is dominant, therefore is expected more tongue rollers. Demonstration of Mitosis and Meisosis Mitosis Plasticene is used to represent number and shapes of various chromosomes e. Each stage of mitosis illustrated e. Centromeres for different chromosomes can be illustrated in different positions.

Each stage of mitosis is illustrated and telophase can be illustrated by surrounding the "chromosomes" with a long many drawn plasticene to represent cell membrane. It is manipulated to show how telophase takes place. Meiosis The same procedure is followed. Plasticine with contrasting colours is used to show clearly gene mixing in crossing over. Each pair of homologous chromosomes is represented by plasticene with two different colours e. All the steps in the two stages of meiosis are illustrated up to the production of four haploid gametes.

Human Finger Prints The finger prints for each student's thumb, forefinger and middle fingers of the left hand is imprinted on a white paper. A rubber stamp with ink is used to and each finger -tip phalange is rolled onto the inkpad. For best results students work in pairs.

Observations are made at all forefingers, thumb prints and differences noted.

The main patterns are noted. It is also noted that no two, fingerprints are exactly similar. Evolution Meaning of Evolution and Current Concepts Evolution is the development of organisms from pre-existing simple organisms over a long period of time.

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It is based on the similarities in structure and function that is observed in all organisms. All are made up of cells, and similar chemical compounds are present. This indicates that all organism may have had a common origin. Evolution seeks to explain the diversity of life and also to answer the question as to the origin of life, as well as its present state. The Origin of Life Human beings have tried to explain how life began.

Currently held views are listed below: Special creation -life was created by a supernatural being within a particular time. Spontaneous generation life originated from non-living matter all at once. Steady state - life has no origin. Cosmozoan - life on earth originate from elsewhere, outer space.

Bio-chemical evolution-life originated according to chemical and physical laws. Only special creation and chemical evolution will be discussed. Special Creation The earliest idea is that of special creation which is recorded in the old testament Genesis 1: It states that God created the world and all living things in six days. Some hold the six days literally, while others say it may represent thousands of years.

According to his theory, the earth and all organisms were created mature. Similarities in structure and function denote the stamp of a "common Designer" Evidence for this view arises from observations of life itself. Faith explains it all. By faith we understand that the universe was created by the command of God. Several scientists hold this view and their research confirms accounts in the old testament of a universal flood explains the disappearance of dinosaurs as vegetation decreased.

Chemical Evolution The following is the line of thought held in this view to explain origin of life: The composition of atmospheric gases was different from what it is today: There was less oxygen, more carbon IV oxide, hence no ozone layers to filter the ultra-violet light. The high solar energy reached the earth and brought together hydrogen, carbon IV oxide and nitrogen to make organic compounds. These were: hydrocarbons, amino acids, nucleic acids, sugars, amino acids and proteins.

The proteins coalesced and formed colloids. Proteins and lipids formed a "cell membrane" that enclosed the organic compounds, to form a primitive cell. The cell was surrounded by organic molecules that it fed on heterotrophically. This took place in water. From this cell progressively autotrophs evolved. That were similar to blue-green algae.

They produced oxygen and as more oxygen was evolved ozone layer formed an blocked ultra violet radiation. This allowed formation of present day photo-autotrophs. Evidence for Organic Evolution Most of the evidence for evolution is indirect. Direct evidence is obtained from studying the remains of animals and plants of the past. Fossil Records The study of fossils is called paleontology. Fossils are remains of organisms that lived in ancient times. Most fossils are remains of hard parts of the body such as bones, teeth, shells and exoskeletons.

Some fossils are just impressions of the body parts, e. Fossils are usually found in sedimentary rocks which have been formed by deposition of sediments over millions of years. The deeper the layer of sediments, the older the fossils found in that layer. Modem man, Homo sapiens, evolved from ape-like creatures 25 million years ago. These evolved to upright, tool using creature called Australopithecus afarensis which had a cranial capacity of cc. This evolved through several intermediates; Homo habilis and Homo erectus to modem day human.

Homo sapiens has a cranial capacity of - cc. Homo sapiens is more intelligent. Main features in human evolution include bipedal posture, is an omnivore and has an opposable thumb. Limitations of the Fossil Evidence Only partial preservation was usually possible because softer parts decayed. The fossil records are therefore incomplete. Distortion - parts of organisms might have become flattened during sedimentation. Subsequent geological activities e.

Geographical Distribution Until about million years ago, all the land masses on earth formed a single land mass Pangaea. This is thought to have undergone continental drift, splitting into different continents. Consequently, organisms in certain regions became geographically isolated and did not have a chance to interbreed with other organisms in other regions.

Such organisms underwent evolution in isolation and have become characteristically different from organisms in other regions. For example, pouched mammals e. The opossum is the only surviving representative of the pouched mammals in North America. Comparative Embryology During the early stages of development, the embryos of different vertebrates are almost indistinguishable.

Fish, amphibian, bird and mammalian embryos have similar, features, indicating that they arose from a common ancestor. Similarities include: Visceral clefts, segmental muscle blocks myotomes and a single circulation.

Comparative Anatomy Comparative anatomy is the study of organs in different species with the aim of establishing whether the organism are related. Organisms which have the same basic features are thought to have arisen from a common ancestor.

The vertebrate pentadactyl limb evolved in different ways as an adaptation to different modes of life. Such organs are said to be homologous, i. This is an example of divergent evolution. The wing of a butterfly and that of a bird are said to be analogous.

This is an example of convergent evolution. Cell Biology All eucaryotic cells have organelles such as mitochondria, membrane-bound nuclei, ribosomes, golgi bodies.

Thus indicating that different organisms have a common ancestor. The presence of chloroplasts and cellulose cell walls indicates that green plants have a common ancestor. Blood pigments are conjugated proteins with a metal group. Similar pigments are found in different animal groups. This shows that all animals have a common origin. Mechanism of Evolution The mechanism of evolution can be described as a process of natural selection acting on the heritable variations that occur among the members of a population.

A population consists of a group of individuals of the same species.

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Each individual has a set of hereditary factors genes. All the genes in a population constitute a gene pool. When reproduction takes place, genes pair with one another randomly. Genes which occur in great numbers in the gene pool, will occur in greater numbers in the next generation. Several theories have been proposed over the years to explain how evolution took place. By use and disuse of various body parts, the organism would change and acquire certain characteristics.

He suggested that these characteristics would them be passed on to the offspring next generation. He proposed that new life forms arise from use and disuse of parts of existing organisms and through the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

The number of young ones is more than the number of adults. More offsprings are produced than can possibly survive. Variation occurs withing a given population,i. On the basis of these observations. Darwin made the following conclusions; There is a struggle for existence among individuals in a given population.

Individuals who are not suitably adapted e. Natural selection operates on the population, selecting those individuals with favourable variations; i.

They win competition e. They attain sexual maturity and pass on the characteristics to their offsprings. Natural selection The peppered moth, Biston betularia, exists in two distinct forms; A speckled white form the normal form and the melanic, dark form. The moths normally rest on the tree trunks and branches wherre they are camouflaged against predators.

The first melanic moths were observed in around Manchester in Britain.

Book: General Biology (OpenStax)

Since that time, their numbers has increased tremendously, out-numbering the speckled white form. The increase in the population of the melanic form is correlated with environmental changes brought about by industrialization and pollution.

Smoke and soot from factories have darkened the tree trunks over the years. This has resulted in the preservation of the mutation in Biston betularia leading to the evolution of the melanic form. This form is almost invisible against the dark background of the tree trunks and is less subject to predation than the speckled form.

The peppered form is more abundant in areas away from the soot and smoke of factories. This is because it is well camouflaged by the lichen-covered tree trunks against which it rests and is therefore not easily detected by predators. The existence of two or more distinct forms within a species as exemplified by Biston betularia is called polymorphism.

Resistance to Drugs Certain strains of organisms have developed resistance to drugs and antibiotics. Following continued use of such drugs and antibiotics, some of the individuals in a population of bacteria or other microorganisms survive and are able to pass their characteristics to the next generation.

When a patient fails to take full dosage of the antibiotics prescribed the pathogen develops resistance to the drugs hence become difficult to control. Some mosquitoes have developed resistance to certain pesticides.

Practical Activities Limbs of various vertebrates are provided: e. Their anatomy can be studied. The following can be noted: That all limbs have five sets of bones; A single upper bone- the femur in hind limb and the humerus in fore limb Two lower limb bones -i. Small bones - i. The bones of toes and of fingers i.

Limbs of different mammals e. An outdoor activity to observe various sty les of movement in different mammals can be studied. It is noted that some move on tips of toes donkey others on the whole leg rabbit. Comparision of Wings of bird-and insect Wings of birds and insects grasshopper, butterfly or moth are obtained. A hand lens or a dissecting microscope is used to observe the specimens. The Bird Book by Chester A. Reed, Botany for Beginners by Ernest Evans, Sengbusch, British Birds in their Haunts by C.

Johns, Calculating the secrets of life: Lander, Michael S. Waterman, , pages, 6. Cell Biology Wikibooks, , 97 pp, 3. Cell Culture by Radwa Ali Mehanna ed. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology by John H. Byrne, et al. Rogers, CK Biology by B. Akre, J. Brainard, N. Gray-Wilson, D. Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History by W. Bell, L. Roth, C. Nalepa, , pp, multiple PDF files. Collecting and Preserving Insects and Arachnids edited by I. Millar, V. M Uys, R. Urban, , pp, 3. Chapman, Comparative Genomics edited by Nicholas H.

Bergman, Shields ed. Lopes, Leonardo M. Computing Life National Institute of Health, , 24 pp, multiple formats. Concepts of Biology by Samantha Fowler, et al. Conservation Biology for All by Navjot S.

Sodhi, Paul R. Ehrlich eds. Crossing Over: The Basics of Evolution: Curious Creatures in Zoology by John Ashton, , pp, multiple formats. Deep Subsurface Microbiology by Andreas Teske et al. The Descent of Man by Charles Darwin, Dictionary of Ecology by Herbert C. Hanson, , pages. Maggenti, , pp, 3. DNA Replication: Depamphilis ed.

DNA, Statistics and the Law: Dragons of the air: An account of extinct flying reptiles by H. Seeley, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Wetlands and Water World Resources Institute, , 80 pp, 6.

Biology: General Biology Reference Books

Elementary Zoology by Vernon L. Holmes, , pp, multiple formats. Elephant Seals: Population Ecology, Behavior, and Physiology by B. Le Beouf , R. Laws, Environmental Biology by Matthew R. Fisher ed. Enzyme Technology by Martin F. Chaplin, Christopher Bucke, Essays on Wildlife Conservation edited by Peter Moyle, et al.

Essentials of Cell Biology by C. O'Connor, J. Adams, , online reading. Essentials of Genetics by Heidi Chial, et al. Cummings, Jeffrey D. Esko, Evolution and Philosophy: An Introduction by John S. Wilkins, The Evolution of Aging by Theodore C. Goldsmith, , pages, 1. Smith, , pp, multiple formats. Extinct Monsters by H. Hutchinson, , pp, multiple formats. Extreme Genetic Enginering: Field and Woodland Plants by William S.

Furneaux, , pp, multiple formats. Flora of New York Wikibooks, , online html. Flowers of Mountain and Plain by Edith S. Clements, , pp, multiple formats. Flowers of the Southwest Deserts by Natt N.

General Biology

Dodge, , pp, multiple formats. Fungal Endophytes in Plants by Gary A. Strobel ed. General Biology by Leonas Lancelot Burlingame, , pp, multiple formats. General Biology by Paul Doerder, et al. Genetic Engineering by Idah Sithole-Niang, , pp, 3.

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