SPE The Optic Oil Field: Deployment and Application of Permanent In-well Fiber Optic Sensing Systems for Production and Reservo. Los sensores basados en fibra óptica son cada vez más utilizados en http:// musicmarkup.info Para evaluar la calidad de un enlace de fibra óptica se suele tomar como parámetro de calidad, la tasa de error (BER) que mide los bits.
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PDF | La actividad fundamental del Laboratorio de Fibras Ópticas es el desarrollo de técnicas de fabricación de componentes y dispositivos de fibra óptica. PDF | Dissertação de Doutoramento em Física, área de especialização em Electromagnetismo e Electrónica, apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências da. Pruebas en Fibra musicmarkup.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online.
Original interface design is upgraded by the automation of the data acquisition on the Neutron Generator exploitation parameters. The data acquisition card, optoelectronic converters, a PC-user interface using Lab VIEW environment, the indispensable firmware for interface functioning were developed for that purpose. The use of PC in the Neutron Generator is introduced, thus setting a precedent for the further automation of other subsystems. Several tasks may be supported by the use of the NG, among them can be mentioned elemental studies on samples of interest and the neutronic irradiation of samples for different purposes. In a more recent peroid are being carried out a number of works directed to utilize the NG as neutron source in the design of a methodology which allowed the introduction of the Boron Neutron Capture Therapy BNCT in the treatment of brain tumors in persons. The NG is a small accelerator  consisting basically of two blocks, the experimental one, where physic processes leading neutron generation occur and the control one from which is controlled the generator performance, see figure 1. The experimental block contains several devices mainly located in the high voltage header 3, the acceleration tube 2 and the transport system 1.
In-well fiber optic sensors are now being developed and deployed in the field for measuring temperature, pressure, flow rate, fluid phase fraction, and seismic response. Bragg grating-based fiber optic systems combine a high level of reliability, accuracy, resolution and stability with the ability to multiplex sensors on a single fiber, enabling complex and multilateral wells to be fully instrumented with a single wellhead penetration.
These systems are being installed worldwide in a variety of operating environments for a variety of applications. This paper presents several recent deployments of in-well fiber optic monitoring systems, including descriptions of the downhole sensor assemblies, installations, and measured data. Installations of fiber optic pressure and temperature systems in a land well and in the Gulf of Mexico and an all-fiber flow and liquid fraction system in deepwater Gulf of Mexico are discussed.
A general description of fiber optic sensing and Bragg grating-based sensing systems is also presented. Introduction The past several years have seen a great increase in the development, deployment and application of permanent inwell monitoring systems.
Drivers behind this increase include new field developments in much more challenging, costly operating environments; the requirement to provide assurance on the production from these new fields; and the desire to optimize management of production and reservoir recovery.
Many large, new fields coming on line today and in the near future are being developed with relatively few highcost, high-rate, complex wells. Intervention costs in these wells will be high or even prohibitive. This puts a premium on the value of real-time downhole data during production and on the use of this data to foresee and prevent well problems.
The large, up-front capital investment for many new field developments, such as deepwater, puts a tremendous importance on the assurance of producing the anticipated volumes of oil and gas in the anticipated timeframe, in order to make the required return.
Downhole monitoring systems provide data to continuously assess the health of the well, optimize well operations, and provide assurance on the flow of oil and gas.
Optimized Production and Reservoir Management. Realtime downhole data offer many opportunities to greatly improve production management and reservoir recovery. These include actively managing drawdown to increase production performance; production and injection profiling in horizontal and multi-zone wells to identify and control fluid flow to and from different parts of the well; providing sufficient information to allow for the early determination and confirmation of reserves; allowing for active reservoir management early in the field life; optimizing drainage; and increasing overall field recovery.
In most, if not all cases, the value derived from real-time, downhole monitoring systems greatly exceeds the cost and can be recovered early in the life of the well, IF these systems are reliable and perform as specified over the life of the well and IF the data are managed properly and used to their fullest potential.
Fiber optic-based sensing systems being deployed today offer the promise of achieving the level of performance required to achieve this value. In a continuous configuration the entire optical fiber is used as a sensor.
The connection from the wellhead outlet to the instrumentation unit is made with the optical surface cabling. Other advantages include: They offer a much broader range of measured parameters than continuous configurations. Bragg grating sensors have been developed to measure a wide variety of parameters.
When a Bragg grating is subjected to strain. It is specifically designed for mechanical and environmental robustness. The remainder of the light passes through the grating unaltered and may be used to interrogate other sensors written at different wavelengths. The result is a log of the measured quantity along the length of the wellbore. Bragg grating-based sensors have many advantages for inwell monitoring applications. WDM enables multiple optical sensors to be deployed downhole on a single fiber.
Wellhead Outlet and Surface Cabling. The remainder of this paper will focus on discrete point fiber optic sensing configurations with an emphasis on systems that use Bragg grating technology. When broad-band light is directed down the fiber. Potential future sensor developments include measurement of density.
The in-well fiber optic cable and connector system provides for light transmission to and from the downhole sensors. This characteristic makes Bragg gratings an important component for the telecommunications industry.
Bragg gratings can be used to measure a wide range of phyiscal parameters in the wellbore. The instrumentation unit consists of a fiber optic light source. It has been DNV certified. Through appropriate packaging and calibration. The gratings can be put through an annealing process to essentially remove drift in the SPE reflected wavelength. To date. Components of Fiber Optic Monitoring Systems In-well fiber optic sensing systems consist of four sub-systems as illustrated in Fig.
The other two sensing configurations. For the purposes of permanent monitoring. On multi-well installations.
Fiber optic sensing systems can be implemented in singlepoint. It also contains the software required to control the data acquisition.
Cable and Connectors. The tubing encases a specially coated. In standard implementations. The wellhead outlet provides for feed-through and exiting of the fiber optic cable from the well in a safe and reliable manner and is similar to that for an electrical system. Bragg Grating Sensors Bragg gratings are intrinsic sensor elements that can be written into the core of an optical fiber by an ultraviolet photoinsciption process. The standard wellhead outlet contains a minimum of two sealing barriers to every potential leak path and is rated to a working pressure of It utilizes two Bragg gratings.
This avoided the need for any fusion splicing or welding on the platform. Since Bragg grating sensors are intrinsic to the fiber. Bragg grating-based sensors represent the next generation of single. No additional rig time was required for installation of the fiber optic gauge over that for a conventional gauge.
The gauge is still operational to its original accuracy and resolution after over The mandrel is specially designed to protect the transducer during the trip down the hole. Sensor Assembly. The singlepoint fiber optic pressure gauge provides real-time measurements of wellbore temperature and pressure. The transducer housing contains an oilfilled dual buffer tube assembly to prevent direct contact between the wellbore fluids and the sensing element and to serve as shock protection for the element.
The specific sensors are described in more detail in the following case studies. All surface equipment. The sensor assembly consists of the actual fiber optic sensors and transducers. It did not involve Bragg grating-based sensors. The FOWM systems demonstrated that fiber optic sensors can be deployed in harsh wellbore environments and gave the industry and manufacturers valuable installation and operational experience. They also demonstrated that fiber optic cable and connectors can survive for extended periods in the wellbore.
Prior to shipment offshore. The system was designed and manufactured by Optoplan A. Between and a total of 10 FOWM systems were installed. The following three case studies discuss some of the first deployments of this new permanent downhole monitoring technology. Together with the cable. The system consisted of a Bragg grating-based pressure and temperature gauge. Although the field is under steam flood. The optical fibers are packaged in the FIMT with a hydrogen gettering grease.
Installation of the fiber optic pressure and temperature system is very similar to installation of a conventional downhole electronic gauge system. Improvements have also been made to the wellhead outlet. Now, few words on the C code running on the PIC controller, it just takes the information request sent by the PC and performs the channel selection, data reading, digital conversion and sends back to the computer the acquired information.
There should be added that any data acquisition is performed once the previous conversion has been completed. No matter how far gets the NG automation process it is indispensable to have the real information on its exploitation parameters, this was the first and most important fullfilled goal. An important experience on the data acquisition device design under severe requirements has been gained. The obtained interface is suitable to be applied either as electrically isolated data acquisition device or as a simple data acquisition card, capable of acquiring up to 8 analogue signals.
Obtained results also include the introduction of a computer and the computational resources in the NG exploitation, what turns into a new NG feature and allows its further upgrade. The intelligent interface brought the communication solution and also many other advantages easing further upgrading works on the NG. Measurements performed by the acquisition card were verified through their comparison with other measuring tool as digital voltmeter. Obtained readings from the interface and from the digital voltmeter showed along the whole measuring range a small difference between each other, more precisely at the level of the less significant cipher.
Difference can be explained through the ADC resolution. It is well known that a digital voltmeter is a specially designed measuring device and features a more powerful ADC what means a higher resolution, thus giving a more consistent reading. Obtained results adequately fulfil the application expectative and give faithful enough information on the monitored magnitudes. There are still not used microcontroller resources useful to take advantage and extend present work to other installation systems as for example the dedicated to high vacuum.
Another example is that from previous development works  on the NG an ion source excited by a Radio-Frequency RF Field was obtained, now the RF generator located in the high voltage header and responsible for the RF field must be controlled trough the optical intelligent interface. Having signals readings on the computer side gives the advantage of closing the control loop, what is indispensable for automation and control.
It means that once a sample of controlled magnitude is available it is possible to keep it unchanged through a control loop or to appropriately adjust it as needed, we already have sampled signal of interest and visualize them through the computer — user interface, now the control loop must be close by sending back to the high voltage header microcontroller the adequate command.
At CEADEN there are previous experiences in the design of development platforms  but designs using optical fibre as transmission media were no carried out, so this comes to be first step in this direction. Data acquisition is a very common exercise today and the card implemented for this purpose is self-sufficient to be extended to other experimental applications so as to have experiment monitored from a computer.
Manual for troubleshooting and upgrading of neutron generators. Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.
Consultado: Semiconductor Components Industries. PDF Consultado: Infineon Technologies AG. Intel announces, demosntrates USB 3.
Ars Technica, the art of technology. Sep 18, March The recommended central strength member for most dielectric cables is made of fiber reinforced plastic FRP. The FRP rod is coated when necessary with a polymer to thediameter dictated by the cable geometry.
In addition to being dielectric, FRP possesses high tensile strength and low weight. Cables requiring high strength may additionally be reinforced with aramid or fiberglass yarn strength members under the jacket see section on aramid yarn below. When used as a strength member, Aramid yarn is incorporated into the cable outer jacket as peripheral strength member. Aramid peripheral strength members are especially recommended for cables that are designed for aerial installation ADSS as the aramid-reinforced jacket is especially suitable to support the large tensile stresses developing in aerial cables.
The material has been especially designed for use in cable jackets. It is characterized by high tensile strength and resistance to abrasion.
Polyethylene will not crack or become brittle at low temperatures, and will retain its mechanical properties and stability at high temperatures. Polyethylene containing carbon black has extremely good aging properties and high UV and weather resistance. Non-black colored polyethylene jacket is also formulated to be UV resistant. Polyethylene is resistant to most chemicals and solvents. The material is flexible and flame retardant; it will not allow fire to propagate along the cable when ignited.
PVC possesses high tensile strength and abrasion resistance. It will not crack or deteriorate when used indoors and at moderate temperatures. When exposed to fire it will retard fire propagation while emitting no toxic, corrosive halogen gases halogen-free as per IEC and IEC and only low amounts of smoke as per IEC Cables may be ordered that meet the flammability requirements of IEC Polyurethane Option U Used in cables designed for special environmental conditions.
This special material withstands extremely harsh environments and has excellent resistance to abrasion, chemicals and industrial applications. The polyurethane used by Teldor includes a flame retarding additive. It is recommended for directly buried cables and for special application aerial and duct cables.
The tape consists of chrome-plated steel coated with polymer on both sides. The polymer coating enhances the adhesion of the steel to the jacket material during extrusion, creating an extremely rugged composite. The steel tape is corrugated during manufacture to enhance cable flexibility.
The corrugated steel armor used by Teldor has been successfully tested by independent laboratories for rodent resistance. Fiberglass Armor Option J or strength member Option Z Fiberglass is a dielectric, high modulus, low weight glass fiber used in a form of thin fiber bundles or roving.
Fiberglass is used in two ways: As peripheral strength member replacing aramid. As a dielectric armor for protection against damage during installation and damage caused by rodents. Fiberglass armor is used when there is a need for dielectric and flexible armored cables. Aluminum Moisture Barrier Option A Whenever enhanced protection is required against radial moisture penetration, for example when a cable is installed in a wet environment, an aluminum tape is incorporated into the jacket to form a moisture barrier along the entire cable length.
The barrier to water penetration is assured by sealing of the tape along the cable. Anti-Termite Protection Option T Common cable materials are prone to attack by termites when a cable is buried directly in the ground. Teldor has developed a special thin plastic coating that is applied over the regular cable jacket and protects the cable from the termites. The anti-termite coating does not degrade the cable mechanical properties or causes environmental damage.
The use of steel wires is recommended for direct burial installations. Figure-8 Self-Supporting Option SS Cables for aerial installation on poles can be ordered with a high-tensile-strength steel messenger wire integrated into the outside jacket.
This cable structure is commonly termed Figure-8 and recommended for spans up to m. The messenger wire is made of 7 stranded galvanized steel elements having a diameter and tensile strength to match the cable weight: 7 x 1. Other messenger wire configurations are available. Water BlockingTo prevent axial penetration of water into the loose tubes used in outdoor cables, all the tubes are filled, as a rule, with a water-blocking gel.
However, for long term protection of the fibers, it is recommended to also block water passage between the tubes and in all other interstices in the cable core.
If the cable has two or more jacket layers, water can penetrate between the jackets. This may cause damage to closures installed along the line. It is therefore recommended to block the water passage also between the jacket layers. The water blocking option can be chosen separately for the core interstices and for the jacket. Such a polymer can be applied as a thin tape, laid either in the cable core, or between jacket layers. Alternatively, the polymer is made into a thin coating applied over the FRP or the aramid strength members in the cable.
This dry water blocking method makes the cable easier to install, as there is no need to clean messy gels from the cable elements during installation.
The water-blocking gels used by Teldor will not flow or drip from cable ends at normal operating temperatures, yet they will remain soft at low temperatures and will help maintain low fiber attenuation. The water-blocking gels and dry swellable materials are non-toxic, dermatologically safe, and can be removed or cleaned with conventional cleaning fluids.
Specify exact fiber types needed Code signifying the existence of both optical fibers and copper conductors in the same cable - Hybrid Cable.
PRP - double PE jacket with steel armor in between. Fire-retardant material for indoor cables and for outdoor cables where fire retardancy is required. For indoor environments where the emission of toxic and corrosive gases in case of fire should be minimized.
For very high flexibility and for use in harsh environments. Normally contains a flame-retardant additive. Should be specified in combination with inner and outer jacket.
Not available with PVC outer jacket. Flexible dielectric armor made of a thick layer of fiberglass roving. Not to be confused with fiberglass strength members see below. Used as a dielectric strength member under a jacket or between two jacket layers. A thin overcoat of tough plastic material resistant to termites.
Should be specified in addition to at least one other jacket layer.