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National University Honours 4th year exam of academic year is going to start from 5 March, This year from 24 th August Thursday Hindi File. Purpose: The purpose of this module is to establish a foundation for the study of business management; and to develop the learner's understanding of the concept of strategic management and of the specific management tasks planning, organising, leadership, control.
All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don't worry about it. According, the National University NU Honours 1st year routine , the written exam will start from 1 September, Com Hons. Com 1st Year, 2nd Year The objective of this book is to provide an introduction to mathematical economics for first year graduate and senior undergraduate students. The members of the Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences believe in a University whose purpose is the preservation, transmission, interpretation, and development of the cultural heritage of humans, and the acquisition and expansion of new knowledge and understanding.
Principles of Marketing c. Course Outline 1. It is also one of the largest universities in the world by number of affiliated colleges and number of expanding subjects and courses. Human resource management is designing management systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals. As a Bachelor of Commerce student have the opportunity to make an informed decision on B. It will complete 15 October, These notes have mostly been prepared by college faculties and toppers and will help you quickly refer key topics during your semester exams.
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All these notes and eBooks for BCom First and Second Semester will help you study and prepare well for your semester exams. B There is a widespread belief that job performance increases with age. C The workforce is aging and many employees recognize older workers as a huge potential pool of high-quality applicants. D United States legislation has made semi-retirement as an option and allows people to work part-time after their official retirement.
E Workers who are aged are skilled and can pick up new skills due to their rich experience from their previous jobs. C The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for at least three reasons. First, belief is widespread that job performance declines with increasing age. Regardless of whether this is true, a lot of people believe it and act on it. Second, the workforce is aging.
Many employers recognize older workers represent a huge potential pool of high-quality applicants. A The older you get, the less likely you are to be satisfied with your job. B The older you get, the less likely you are to quit your job. C The older you get, the more likely you are to equip yourself with new skills. D The older you get, the more likely you are to take a leave of absence. E The older you get, the less likely you are to be productive on the job.
That conclusion is based on studies of the age—turnover relationship. As workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities as their skills have become more specialized to certain types of work. In general, older employees have lower rates of avoidable absence than do younger employees.
A They tend to be more satisfied with their work. B They tend to pick up more friends and reduce turnover. C They are more committed to their employing organization.
D They tend to report better relationships with co-workers. E They tend to enjoy increasing levels of satisfactions in professional circles of employment.
B A review of more than studies found that older workers tend to be more satisfied with their work, report better relationships with co-workers, and are more committed to their employing organizations. Other studies, however, have found a U-shaped relationship, meaning that job satisfaction increases up to middle age, at which point it begins to drop off. When we separate professional and nonprofessional employees, we find that satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among nonprofessionals during middle age and then rises again in the later years.
A The store staffed by over employees was significantly more productive in terms of sales generated against labor costs. B The store managed by over employees held its own against the other three stores.
C Over employees bonded well and encouraged each other to be more productive. D Age and job performance are unrelated. E Older employees are more likely to engage in citizenship behavior. C How does age affect productivity? The evidence, however, contradicts those assumptions. During a 3-year period, a large hardware chain staffed one of its stores solely with employees over age 50 and compared its results with those of five stores with younger employees.
The store staffed by the over employees was significantly more productive in terms of sales generated against labor costs than two of the stores and held its own against the other three. Other reviews of the research find that age and job task performance are unrelated and that older workers are more likely to engage in citizenship behavior.
A There are no consistent male-female differences in problem-solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning ability. B Research suggests that women believe sex-based discriminations are less prevalent than do male employees.
C Psychological studies have found women are more agreeable and willing to conform to authority. D Working mothers are more likely than their counterparts to prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, and telecommuting in order to accommodate their family responsibilities. E After rethinking of what constitutes male and female roles, we can safely assume no significant difference in job productivity between men and women. B Sex roles affect our perceptions. For example, women who succeeded in traditionally male domains are perceived as less likable, more hostile, and less desirable as supervisors.
Interestingly, research also suggests that women believe sexbased discrimination is more prevalent than do male employees, and these beliefs are especially pronounced among women who work with a large proportion of men. A preference for work schedules B willingness to conform C willingness to learn new skills D the ambition to excel E greater employee participation Answer: A One issue that does seem to differ between men and women, especially when the employee has preschool-age children, is preference for work schedules.
A Surprisingly, women have lower rates of absenteeism than men do. B Women are more likely to turn over than men. C Men are increasingly sharing responsibility for child care. D An increasing number of men report feeling a conflict between their home responsibilities and their work lives. E Mothers were rated especially low in competence. A Evidence from a study of nearly , professional employees indicates significant differences, with women more likely to turn over than men. Women also have higher rates of absenteeism than men do.
A The United States Bureau of the Census classifies individuals according to seven broad racial categories: A We define race in this book as the biological heritage people use to identify themselves; ethnicity is the additional set of cultural characteristics that often overlaps with race.
Women also have higher rates of absenteeism than men. Which of the following statements is the correct explanation for this phenomenon? A The research was conducted in North America, and North American culture has historically placed home and family responsibilities on women. D The research was conducted in North America, and North American culture lays greater emphasis on extracurricular activities than on career. A Are women less stable employees than men?
First, evidence from a study of nearly , professional employees indicates significant differences, with women more likely to turn over than men. The most logical explanation is that the research was conducted in North America, and North American culture has historically placed home and family responsibilities on women. When a child is ill or someone needs to stay home to wait for a plumber, the woman has traditionally taken time from work.
A African Americans and Hispanics also have lower turnover rates than Whites. B African Americans and Hispanics perceive discrimination to be more prevalent in the workplace. C Substantial racial differences exist in attitudes toward affirmative action, with African Americans approving of such programs to a greater degree than Whites.
D African Americans generally fare worse than Whites in employment decisions. E Individuals tend to slightly favor colleagues of their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, and pay raises. A In employment settings, individuals tend to slightly favor colleagues of their own race in performance evaluations, promotion decisions, and pay raises.
Substantial racial differences exist in attitudes toward affirmative action, with African Americans approving of such programs to a greater degree than Whites. This difference may reflect the fact that African Americans and Hispanics perceive discrimination to be more prevalent in the workplace.
African Americans generally fare worse than Whites in employment decisions. African Americans and Hispanics also have higher turnover rates than Whites. A psychiatric disabilities B physical disabilities C learning disabilities D medical disabilities E speech and language disabilities Answer: A One of the most controversial aspects of the ADA is the provision that requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for people with psychiatric disabilities.
Most people have very strong biases against those with mental illnesses, who may be therefore reluctant to disclose this information to employers. A The United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission classifies a person as disabled who has any physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
Examples include missing limbs, seizure disorder, Down syndrome, deafness, schizophrenia, alcoholism, diabetes, and chronic back pain. A Workers with disabilities receive higher performance evaluations, whether or not the evaluations would be considered as objective. B Despite higher performance ratings, individuals with disabilities tend to encounter lower performance expectations and are less likely to be hired. C For many employers, disability is a value imperative—they believe they must hire disabled workers for legal or ethical outcomes.
D Mental disabilities may impair performance more than physical disabilities.
E Individuals with such common mental health issues as depression and anxiety are significantly more likely to be absent from work. C For many employers, diversity is a value imperative—they believe they must increase the diversity of their workforce for legal or ethical reasons.
A Tenure is also a potent variable in explaining turnover. The longer a person is in a job, the less likely she is to quit. Moreover, consistent with research suggesting past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior, evidence indicates tenure at an employee's previous job is a powerful predictor of that employee's future turnover.
A For the most part, United States Muslims have attitudes different from those of other United States citizens though the differences tend to be smaller for younger United States Muslims. C Muslims vary hugely by ethnicity, faith, tradition, education, income and degree of religious observance. D There is a wide variety of perspectives on Islam. E There is no such thing as a single American Muslim community, much as there is no single Christian community. A For the most part, United States Muslims have attitudes similar to those of other United States citizens though the differences tend to be greater for younger United States Muslims.
A Federal law does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation. B Many states and municipalities prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation. C Many organizations have implemented policies and procedures protecting employees based on sexual orientation. D More than half the Fortune companies offer domestic-partner benefits for gay couples.
E Due to employment gains, more lesbian, gay, and bisexual employees reveal their gender identity to their employers and co-workers.
E Explanation: E Federal law does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation, though many states and municipalities do. In general, observers note that even in the absence of federal legislation requiring nondiscrimination, many organizations have implemented policies and procedures protecting employees on the basis of sexual orientation. More than half the Fortune companies offer domestic-partner benefits for gay couples.
Despite some gains, many lesbian, gay, and bisexual employees keep their gender identity from their co-workers for fear of being discriminated against. E Intellectual abilities are abilities needed to perform mental activities—thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. A verbal comprehension B spatial visualization C balance D number aptitude E perceptual speed Answer: C The seven most frequently cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are number aptitude, verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning, spatial visualization, and memory.
D As we use the term, ability is an individual's current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Overall abilities are essentially made up of two sets of factors: D Research on hundreds of jobs has identified nine basic abilities needed in the performance of physical tasks. These are dynamic strength, trunk strength, static strength, explosive strength, extent flexibility, dynamic flexibility, body coordination, balance, and stamina. Perceptual speed is an intellectual ability.
Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability does her skill reflect? A number aptitude B perceptual speed C spatial visualization D deductive reasoning E inductive reasoning Answer: A Number aptitude is the ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic. Application LO: Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability does his skill reflect? A spatial visualization B deductive reasoning C inductive reasoning D verbal comprehension E perceptual speed Answer: D Verbal comprehension is the ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other.
D Perceptual speed is the ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately. Her job requires her to visualize various positions of objects in space.
Which of the following dimensions of intellectual ability does this skill accurately refer to? A spatial visualization B memory C deductive reasoning D perceptual speed E inductive reasoning Answer: A Spatial visualization is the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed.
C Inductive reasoning is the ability to identify a logical sequence in a problem and then solve the problem. C Spatial visualization is the ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changed. He addresses all his customers by their first names. A memory B inductive reasoning C deductive reasoning D spatial visualization E perceptual speed Answer: A Memory is the ability to retain and recall past experiences. Her job requires her to forecast demand for various companies' stocks and shares for various time periods.
A verbal comprehension B memory C inductive reasoning D spatial visualization E perceptual speed Answer: C Deductive reasoning is the ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument.
A perceptual speed B verbal comprehension C deductive reasoning D memory E spatial visualization Answer: E The most widely used intelligence test in hiring decisions takes only 12 minutes to complete. It's the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test. There are different forms, and each has 50 questions. B Dynamic strength is the ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time. C Trunk strength is the ability to exert muscular strength using the trunk particularly abdominal muscles.
A Static strength is the ability to exert force against external objects. C Explosive strength is the ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a series of explosive acts. D Extent flexibility is the ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possible. B Dynamic flexibility is the ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movements. B Body coordination is the ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body.
C Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balance. A Stamina is the ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time.
A Most of the companies using the Wonderlic stop using other hiring tools, such as application forms or interviews. D It has different forms and each has 50 questions. E More companies are using the Wonderlic in hiring decisions.
A The companies don't give up other hiring tools, such as application forms or interviews. Rather, they add the Wonderlic for its ability to provide valid data on applicants' intelligence levels.
If it wants to maximize its results, which of the following options should it not resort to? A recruit at colleges, universities, and other institutions with significant numbers of underrepresented minorities B place advertisements in publications geared toward specific demographic groups C form partnerships with associations like the Society for Women Engineers D enter into a contractual agreement to hire from the Graduate Minority Business Association E rely on word of mouth marketing from its employees and resort to an e-mail campaign Answer: E One method of enhancing workforce diversity is to target recruiting messages to specific demographic groups underrepresented in the workforce.
This means placing advertisements in publications geared toward specific demographic groups; recruiting at colleges, universities, and other institutions with significant numbers of underrepresented minorities; and forming partnerships with associations like the Society for Women Engineers or the Graduate Minority Business Association.
A encouraging their employees to learn foreign languages and culture to promote and attract a diverse workforce B encouraging fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics C fostering personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers D teaching managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity E teaching managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients Answer: A Effective, comprehensive workforce programs encouraging diversity have three distinct components.
First, they teach managers about the legal framework for equal employment opportunity and encourage fair treatment of all people regardless of their demographic characteristics. Second, they teach managers how a diverse workforce will be better able to serve a diverse market of customers and clients. Third, they foster personal development practices that bring out the skills and abilities of all workers, acknowledging how differences in perspective can be a valuable way to improve performance for everyone.
A Similarity in personality appears to affect career advancement. Those whose personality traits are similar to those of their co-workers are more likely to be promoted than those whose personalities are different. There's an important qualifier to these results: B Similarity in personality appears to affect career advancement.
A if the positive experience of stereotype undermining is repeated frequently B if the perceiver engages in stereotype suppression and generative thought in response to the diversity experience C if the perceiver is perceived to be stereotypical and if his message is undermined by the audience D if the diversity experience undermines stereotypical attitudes E if the perceiver is motivated and able to consider a new perspective on others Answer: C Researchers also suggest that diversity experiences are more likely to lead to positive adaptation for all parties if 1 the diversity experience undermines stereotypical attitudes, 2 if the perceiver is motivated and able to consider a new perspective on others, 3 if the perceiver engages in stereotype suppression and generative thought in response to the diversity experience, and 4 if the positive experience of stereotype undermining is repeated frequently.
Diversity programs based on these principles are likely to be more effective than traditional classroom learning. E To ensure the top-level management team represents the diversity of its workforce and client base, Safeway implemented the Retail Leadership Development RLD program, a formal career development program. This program has shown real success: TRUE Explanation: Demographics mostly reflect surface-level diversity, not thoughts and feelings, and can lead employees to perceive one another through stereotypes and assumptions.
Individual characteristics like age, gender, race, ethnicity, and abilities can influence employee performance. Education, financial status, ethnicity, regional background, and gender constitute surface-level diversity.
More important characteristics like personality and values constitute deep-level diversity. Although diversity does present many opportunities for organizations, effective diversity management also means working to eliminate unfair discrimination. Some forms of unfair discrimination, like exclusion or incivility, are especially hard to root out because they are impossible to observe and may occur because the actor isn't aware of the effects of his or her actions.
Usually when we talk about discrimination, though, we mean allowing our behavior to be influenced by stereotypes about groups of people.
Variations in surface-level biological characteristics like age, gender, race, disability, and tenure may be the basis for discrimination against classes of employees. Most studies do show an inverse relationship between older workers and absenteeism, but close examination finds it is partially a function of whether the absence is avoidable or unavoidable.
However, they have equal rates of unavoidable absence, such as sickness absences. Evidence from a study of nearly , professional employees indicates significant differences, with women more likely to turn over than men. There are no statistically significant differences between African Americans and Whites in observed absence rates, applied social skills at work, or accident rates. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA in , representation of individuals with disabilities in the United States workforce rapidly increased.
United States federal law prohibits employers from discriminating against employers based on their religion, with very few exceptions. Studies consistently show seniority to be positively related to absenteeism. The research relating tenure to absence is quite straightforward. Studies consistently show seniority to be negatively related to absenteeism.
Employers differ widely in their treatment of sexual orientation. Federal law does not prohibit discrimination against employees based on sexual orientation, though many states and municipalities do. Ability is an individual's current capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
Testing firms don't claim their tests assess intelligence, but experts know they do.