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To find the origins and also the reasons for these different meanings of the term, we need to go back in history. The first definition is by Alfonso Di Berenger first director of the Vallombrosa Forest, the first seat of higher Forestry education in Italy between and Follows the definition of Vittorio Perona that, in the wake of the German concept of Derbholz, considers cormometric volume as including also portions of branches above seven centimeters. Subsequently, with the definitions of the Professors Generoso Patrone and Guglielmo Giordano confirming the doctrinal meaning of Di Tella, the sense of the term remains unchanged. In Hellrigl called cormometric mass, the aboveground woody tree mass limited to trunk and limbs to be determined; however, this definition did not find any application. Alternative definitions by Roberto Del Favero and Orazio La Marca consider cormometric volume including top and cormometric volume excluding top.
PDF Selvicoltura per le specie arboree sporadiche: Manuale tecnico Elemento di facile distinzione tra le due specie Il Regolamento considera quali elementi del verde, e quindi li rende oggetto di Linee guida Agricoltura di precisione - Mipaaf ; agricoltura di precisione e alle metodologie necessarie ad affrontare la sfida Spedizione Postatarget - In caso di mancato recapito restituire all'ufficio Linee guida per la selvicoltura dei cedui di castagno - Federazione Hummel F.
Elementi tecnici dell'irrigazione. Sistemi di irrigazione Tecniche descrittive: descrizione sensoriale; profilo sensoriale; free choice profile.
Dispense delle lezioni a cura del docente in formato PDF Cubatura dei singoli alberi in piedi: postulato empirico della dendrometria;.
Il 10 settembre Daniza viene catturata in free-ranging, ma Viale Druso The average pentosans content in silver birch wood for all test plots was The content of mineral substances in the tested samples of birch wood was low 0.
The wood of other birch species contained from 0.
Silver birch wood is slightly acidic, as is the case with the majority of tree species growing in temperate zones. The average pH value of wood from all test plots was 4. The influence of the location of test plots on the chemical composition of silver birch wood from the 12 forest districts 17 test plots in total distributed throughout the country proved to be minimal with regard to the primary components of wood, namely cellulose, pentosans and lignin.
The sum of the contents of the principal wood components in individual locations ranged from The total content of substances extracted with water or ethanol combined ranged between 2. To show more clearly the slight differences in extractives water and ethanol content regardless of location, the five locations with the FMBF habitat type are placed on the right side of the graph Fig.
The high-cellulose wood from the locations listed also had the highest density Lachowicz ; Lachowicz et al. The lower the content of mineral components in the wood, the better it serves as a raw material for the production of wood-based boards, as a high ash content causes blunting of tools and makes drilling, milling, cutting and sanding processes more difficult.
The investigations of the chemical composition of silver birch Betula pendula Roth. The aim is to examine the influence of the chemical composition of birch wood on its effective and waste-free use as a raw material not only in the pulp and paper industry, but also as a renewable resource—lignocellulosic biomass.
In the latest study programmes concerning the structure of wood, emphasis is placed on a complete and accurate understanding of the chemical composition of the primary constituents especially hemicelluloses and lignin and of the secondary constituents substances soluble in water and organic solvents as well as their transformation under the influence of factors present during handling and processing thermal, hydrolytic, enzymatic, chemical, mechanical, etc.
Thus research aims to optimise the traditional methods and to develop new ecological methods of birch wood utilisation that are compatible with sustainable development.
In the course of their research, they investigated the influence of lignin content on the enzymatic hydrolysis yields. The greatest amounts of glucose and reducing sugars were obtained from cellulose pulp that contained the smallest amount of lignin.
The wood of silver birch Betula pendula Roth. During the production of pulp using a mechanical or chemical—mechanical method, water-soluble polysaccharides are released and accumulate in process waters. Because of this phenomenon, the aforementioned authors analysed sugar extracts obtained from 11 deciduous tree species including silver birch.
It was found that birch wood contained the highest quantity of 4-O-methylglucuronic acids, which undergo transformation during the production processes of sulphate wood pulp.
Comprehensive innovative utilization of birch wood in the future depends on obtaining knowledge on chemical reactions taking place between wood components during wood processing. In the literature, one can find in-depth research on the transformation of chemical constituents of birch wood by means of various technological processes.
According to Kocaefe et al. Under the influence of temperature, the wood changed colour from light to dark, quite possibly because the hemicelluloses separated into coloured substances and lignin changed its structure it is a well-known fact that lignin reacts with electromagnetic waves in the visible range.
Investigations of the discolouration of birch wood by vacuum drying proved that the change of colour is caused mainly by extractible phenolic compounds with low molecular weight Hiltunen et al. Some of the 23 phenolic substances glycosides , including three new ones, extracted from the wood of silver birch Betula pendula Roth.