Indian 'Beliefs' and 'Business' principles, it is certainly time to celebrate. Dr. Devdutt Patnaik in his book Business Sutra: A Very Indian Approach to Management. approach to management devdutt pattanaik as PDF for free at The Biggest ebook library in the world. Get business sutra a very indian approach to management. Business Sutra: A Very Indian Approach to Management. Show all authors PDF download for Devdutt Pattanaik (). Business Sutra: A.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Indonesian|
|Genre:||Health & Fitness|
|ePub File Size:||29.38 MB|
|PDF File Size:||12.23 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
this book presents a radical and nuanced approach to management, business and leadership in an increasingly polarised world. and our relationship with Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. Devdutt Pattanaik has written over twentyfive books and articles on Indian mythology for. Business Sutra by Devdutt Pattanaik - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides online. PPT of the Book Business Sutra. PDF | On Mar 1, , Seema Sambargi and others published Book:Business Sutra-A very Indian Approach to Management.
May 06, Maria rated it it was amazing A few months ago, I ran into a slight problem. I had a bit of a misunderstanding with Mrs. Asha Singh not her real name , a neighbourhood friend of mine, someone I've known since I arrived in India about two decades ago. We'd gone for a bit of shopping. Asha Singh, I'd come to understand, had been collecting discount coupons for a very large chain store. Her husband would go there, download the monthly provisions and pay for them and he would hand Mrs. Asha Singh these discount coupons every ti A few months ago, I ran into a slight problem.
The bond with God is not assumed; it has to be ritually enacted through circumcision or baptism. This reveals the deep-rooted need for documentation and written memorandums of understanding. Every time Josephine concludes a conversation with Mukul, her counterpart in India, she sends an email summarizing the contents of her call.
When Mukul does not do the same, Josephine finds it annoying. She reminds him of company policy, compelling him to comply. Within Christianity itself there were many schisms, with the Churches of Rome in the West and Byzantium in the East vying for supremacy.
Every side believed in one God, one life, one way of living life, but they differed violently over who had the patent over the right way. The end of the Crusades saw the start of the scientific revolution in Europe, inspired by the rediscovery of Greek beliefs. Truth imposed by authority was rejected; truth churned by reason was sought. The scientist was the Greek hero on a lone quest, those who opposed him were the Olympian gods.
It laid the foundation for colonization and imperialism. Scientists did not find any rational explanation for the existence of inequality and social unfairness. They blamed it on irrational ideas like God whose existence could not be measured or proved. With the scientific revolution, society no longer needed anchors of faith.
Knowledge mattered, not belief. Everything had to be explained in tangible material terms. The goal had to be here and now, not in the hereafter. The goal had to be measurable, even in matters related to society. Thus rose economic theories that saw all the problems of society as a consequence of faulty wealth generation Capitalism and faulty wealth distribution Communism.
Both promised a heaven, one through development and the other through revolution. But not everyone was willing to give up religion altogether. The Church became the new Olympus to be defied.
Scientific evidence was demanded for their dogmas and their claim of divine rights. Failure to present it led to the Protestant Revolution, spearheaded by the newly emerging class of merchants, industrialists, and bankers. They valued autonomy over all else, and sought equal if not higher status than landed gentry, who for centuries had been inheriting both fortune and status, without any personal effort.
The Protestant Revolution was marked by great violence, especially the Thirty Years' War that devastated Europe in the seventeenth century. It marked the end of feudal orders and the rise of nation states. Many Protestants made the newly discovered continent of America their home: this was the New World, the Promised Land.
Everyone was equal; everyone had a right to personal faith in the privacy of their homes; work was worship, and wealth born of effort was seen as God's reward for the righteous. This was the Protestant work ethic, a unique combination of biblical value for compliance and Greek disdain for authority. Much of the political system of the United States came to be modelled along the lines of the pre-Christian Roman republic, complete with a senate in times of peace and a dictator in times of war.
The American system ensured the victory of democracy, secularism, and most importantly Capitalism. It is from this context that management science arose. Not surprisingly, the recommendations of management science resonate with not just a scientific obsession with evidence and quantification but also biblical and Greek beliefs.
The vision statement is the Promised Land; the contract is the Covenant; systems and processes are the Commandments; the 'fifth' level leader who is professionally ambitious and personally humble is the prophet; the invisible shareholder is the de-facto God. The innovator is the Greek hero, standing proud atop Maslow's hierarchy of needs, self-actualized, and secure in Elysium.
All this makes management science a secular expression of beliefs that have always existed in the West. Kshitij always smiles when his partner from a very reputed global strategic firm meets him in the club. Kshitij reveals, "He is always selling something or the other.
Two years ago he told me about the importance of a matrix structure where no one is too powerful. Now he is selling the idea of creating a special talent pool of potential gamechangers. Then he kept talking about getting people aligned to a single goal. Now he talks about flexibility. They can never make up their mind. They claim to be global, but are so evangelical. But we have to indulge them; their way of thinking dominates the world.
It comforts investors. A pragmatic culture, the Chinese have never invested too much energy in the religious or the mythic. What distinguishes Chinese thought from Western thought is the value placed on nature. In the West, nature is chaos that needs to be controlled. In China, nature is always in harmony; chaos is social disorganization where barbarians thrive. The mythologies of China are highly functional and often take the form of parables, travelogues, war stories and ballads.
The word commonly used for God is Shangdi, meaning one who is above the ruler of earth. The word for heaven is Tian. But God in Chinese thought is not the God of biblical thought.
The words Shangdi and Tian are often used synonymously, representing morality, virtue, order and harmony. There are gods in heaven and earth, overseen by the Jade Emperor, who has his own celestial bureaucracy. They are invoked during divination and during fortune telling to improve life on earth. More importantly, they represent perfection.
The words Shangdi and Tian are often used synonymously. It explains the preference for a top-down authoritarian approach to order that has always shaped Chinese civilization. The Chinese respect ancestors greatly. They are believed to be.
They are invoked during divination and during fortune telling to improve life on earth.
More importantly. This is called the Mandate of Heaven. There are gods in heaven and earth. Taoism became more popular in rural areas amongst peasants while Confucianism appealed more to the elite in urban centres.
These two schools shaped China for over a thousand years. This was Buddhism. China saw the consolidation of two mythic roots: There is talk of immortality. It speaks of various gods who wander between heaven and earth. It is highly personal and speaks of the way Tao through riddles and verses. The division of the pure soul and impure flesh seen in Western traditions does not exist.
It speaks of diet. Great value is placed on virtue. The gwanji system of business relationships that this gives rise to is very unlike the caste system. It denied society. This is established more by ritual and protocol.
It denied. In line with the Taoist way. It spoke of rebirth. The Buddhism that thrived in China leaned more towards the altruistic Mahayana school than the older. It was seen as foreign until it adapted to the Chinese context.
In keeping with Confucian ideals. Central to it is the idea of China. It is the Middle Kingdom. Journey to the West. Tangibility plays a key role in Chinese thought.
To maintain a calm exterior even in the face of the most severe crisis is indicative of moral courage and inner strength. Disharmony is disease in the Taoist scheme of things. Confucius advises people. Even when there is health and order. To lose face is to dishonour the ancestors. Nothing discomforts the Chinese more than chaos. Any breakdown. Over two thousand years ago.
Order for the Chinese waxes towards the centre of power where the emperor resides. In the social hierarchy. Order in China has always been enforced with ruthlessness. He claimed he could turn anyone into a soldier.
Sun Tzu took up the challenge and asked the women to stand in a. In the periphery. To humour him. Sun Tzu believed in winning wars without fighting. The concubines giggled in response and did nothing. Sun Tzu ordered the execution of the king's favourite concubine. But what followed was far more remarkable: The women giggled again. Everyone was horrified by this. In India. When asked his views about the world. The king was grudgingly impressed and he appointed Sun Tzu as his general.
Saud who had worked in various branches of a multinational company made the following comment. The third time. Sun Tzu repeated his order. I find Indians exasperating as they have an opinion for everything but decide on nothing. I find China more organized but am unnerved by its ambitions and lack of transparency.
Alexander would have wanted the gymnosophist to change. Each one thought the other was a fool. The gymnosophist replied. But while the gymnosophist would have allowed Alexander to stay the fool and discover wisdom eventually. What about you? Alexander asked him what he was doing. Both laughed. There he found a person whom he later identified as a gymnosophist: The point then is not to control life but to. When you live only once the value of life is the sum total of achievements.
Faith in rebirth has huge implications. It means we alone are responsible for all that has happened to us. A child is born with karmic baggage. Every experience. The events of past lives impact the present while the events of the present life will impact the future.
Belief in multiple lives establishes a worldview that is comfortable with the absence of binary logic.
It means allowing for intellectual. Everyone's perspectives are bound to change over time. This is the Indian way. What was food for the commoner in Europe became food for the elite in India. But then they realized most Indians do not eat beef and pork. And what was a common man's budget in Europe was a rich man's budget in India. Chinese ideas reveal a preference for cities such as the Forbidden City of the Dragon Emperor that offers the promise of greater order.
Jerusalem and later. Berlin and London. Indian thought springs from villages on the fertile riverbanks of the Indian subcontinent where change takes time. With prosperity came the cities of the Indus valley. The villages offered refuge to escaping philosophers and artists. The spices and textiles of India were sought all over the world. Huns and Mongols. More people came in than went out. Bahmanis and the Mughals. But these rose and fell. These barriers have been penetrated primarily by trade routes and occasionally by invaders.
Indian thought yearns not for an efficient way like Western thought. What was not good in this life. The Greek way celebrates rule-breaking heroes. The accommodating rebirth framework ensured everything was included. These mingled and merged with prevailing ideas. India celebrates both: This is best explained as follows: In Chinese thought.
Embodied as the Goddess. Greek tales speak of wild nymphs and satyrs who create pandemonium and need to be tamed. For Krishna. This idea of the Goddess in Hinduism is very different from the Goddess of modern Western literature that reimagines divinity along feminist lines. For Vishnu she is Lakshmi.
For Ram. The Indian will answer. Depending on the context. Indians are comfortable with ambiguity and contextual thinking.
They seek clarity. What God do you refer to? God can be an external agency. But our God is distinct from Goddess. We also have many gods. Rahul then told Steve. There was cutlery on the table. They went to a very famous hotel in New York. You can mix and match and eat. Dinner is like India.
So Rahul decided to take him out to lunch. In the evening. All items were served simultaneously. Rahul took him to an Indian restaurant where a thali was served.
Everyone had to eat by hand. The Ramayan of the rule-following Ram complements the Mahabharat of the rule-breaking Krishna. They will always be unique. Both make sense under the larger umbrella of the Brahma Puran. They will never be equal. The joint venture will be a union of two very different cultures. The Vishnu Puran speaks of the householder's way of life. Are you ready for it? Or do you want to wait till one changes his beliefs and customs for the benefit of the other? These complement Nigama or Veda where thoughts remain abstract.
All these fall in the category of Agama or Tantra where thoughts are personified as characters and made 'saguna'. But many chose to explain similar ideas without using theistic vocabulary. The astikas and nastikas differed on the idea of God.
These were the nastikas. Vedic texts came to be known as astika because they expressed themselves using theistic vocabulary. They did not speak so much about God as they did about a state of mind: For centuries. The shramanas also believed that there have always existed Jinas and Buddhas in the cosmos. The one to achieve this state was Jina or tirthankar according to the Jains.
The astikas came to be known as Hindus. Like Hinduism it is theistic but it prefers the formless to the form. Jains and Sikhs. Sikhism emerged over the past years in Punjab.
Hindus were further distinguished from Buddhists. The British made it a category for administrative convenience to distinguish people who were residents of India but not Muslims. Right-wing fundamentalists tend to appropriate this word more out of chauvinism than curiosity. They can be grouped under a single umbrella called 'sanatan'.
They differentiate between truth that is bound by space. All of them value thought over things. It refers to wisdom that has no founder and is best described as open-source freeware. At different times. Unfettered by history and geography. Every idea is accepted but only that which survives the test of time.
As man. This is prakriti. The human mind can do this because it can imagine and separate itself from the rest of nature. The law of karma. This is the nature of nature. What exists will wither away and what has withered away will always come back.
While truth in the West exists outside human imagination. This is the Indian differentiator: In sanatan. Those who have yet to achieve this state are gods or devatas. Of all living creatures. He who does so is God or bhagavan. The animate respond to death in different ways: The argumentative Indian did not want to win an argument. The root of the difference was always traced to a different belief that shaped a different view of the world in the mind. Respect for all subjective realities gave rise to the doctrine of doubt syad-vada and pluralism anekanta-vada in Jainism.
With diversity came arguments. The wise amongst them sought to clarify thoughts. This explains why Indians do not value rules and systems in their own country as much as their counterparts in Singapore. What matters is the reason why rules are being followed or broken.
The Indian legal system is primarily equipped only to catch rule-breaking Ravans. During the same period. Their cases are still pending. Between and Brahma pronounced by laying stress on the last vowel only and brahmana pronounced by laying stress on the first vowel and the last consonant.
Why are they following or breaking the rule? The answer to this question is more critical than whether they are following or breaking the rule. In early Nigamic scriptures. Belief is forged as imagination responds to the challenges of nature: Fear contracts the mind and wisdom expands it. It has to do with belief. From the roots brah. He depends on fear for his existence. Brahma and his sons are either not worshipped or rarely worshipped.
The sons of Brahma represent mindsets born of fear: By the time of the Agamic scriptures. From fear comes his identity. Fear provokes him to create a subjective truth. The brahman is swayambhu. They may not be Gods. Asuras and rakshasas started being visualized as 'evil beings' by Persian painters of the Mughal kings and being referred to as 'demons' by European translators of the epics. It also refers to brahmana 'varna'. Both are always insecure.
Fear makes Ravan defy other people's rules. Fear makes Duryodhan pretend to follow rules. Ram and Krishna embody the brahman. This is rana-bhoomi. Effigies of Ravan may be burned in North India during Dassera celebrations and sand sculptures of Duryodhan may be smashed in Tamil Nadu during Therukuttu performances.
Duryodhan is given a place in swarga or paradise. Vishnu descends avatarana. At no point does he seek to defeat. At the end of the Mahabharat. The point is not to punish the villains. Liberation from the fear of death and change transforms Brahma and his sons into. The Ramayan repeatedly reminds us of how intelligent and talented Ravan is. They may be killed. He offers them the promise of ranga-bhoomi. Those who come to him bring Lakshmi along with them. The swayambhu is so dependable that he serves as a beacon.
That is why it is said Lakshmi follows Vishnu wherever he goes.
Brahma oversees the birth of the tirthankar. In Buddhist stories. Both the. In Jain stories. The quest for amrit makes Brahma pray to Shiva and Vishnu in Hindu stories. Brahma beseeches the Buddha to share his wisdom with the world. The head of the people department. The owner of the company. This idea cannot be forced down anyone's throat. Walia believes that everyone believes in different things. Europeans started coming to India from across the sea.
Indians never had to articulate their way of life to anyone else. Walia values perspective and context. What was a source of luxury goods until the seventeenth century. Orientalists spent the nineteenth century disparaging the new colony. Sanatan had to be suddenly defended against Western ideas. Indians became exposed to Western ideas for the first time as they studied in missionary schools to serve as clerks in the East India Company.
So the Europeans started articulating it themselves on their terms for their benefit. After the eighteenth century fascination with all things Indian. Every time a local tried to explain the best of their faith.
Indians were illequipped to do so. Attempts were even made to redefine Hinduism in Christian terms. Hindu goal-based 'missions' came into being. This was when increasingly the idea of dharma started being equated with rules. Salvation for Indian thought came when Gandhi used non-violence and moral uprightness to challenge Western might. Gandhi's writings. Gandhi's satyagraha was about compelling agraha on moral and ethical grounds. This may have had something to do with the fact that he trained as a lawyer in London.
The non-violent doctrine of Jainism. That being said. When India secured political freedom. Indianness today is understood within the Western template.
These are so widespread that conclusions that emerge from them are assumed to be correct. Most understanding of Indian thought today is derived from the works of nineteenth century European Orientalists.
Thus India. In other words. The pursuit of secular. This academic tsunami is only now withdrawing. Vishnu and Shiva. Any attempt to join the dots differently. Barthes and Berger. Rajagopalachari and Iravati Karve. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Only in recent times have a few Indian scholars started taking up the challenge to re-evaluate ancient Indian ideas on Indian terms.
Rabindranath Tagore. Jyotibha Phule. These were not available to early writers who sought to express Indian thoughts in Indian terms. As a result of this. Western universities continue to approach Indian mythology with extreme Western prejudice. There is vast difference between what we claim to believe in and what we actually believe in. Ravan and Duryodhan. No discussion of India can be complete without referring to the plight of the dalits.
Caste is not so much a religious directive as it is an unwritten social practice. A systemic. With a typical Western sense of urgency. Every time someone tries to say anything good about India.
So the attempt to wipe it out by standard Western prescriptions. It determined social station. Whether a person belonged to a higher or lower jati. Jobs were classified as higher and lower depending on the level of ritual pollution. A person's jati was his identity and his support system. The priest and the teacher rose to the top of the pyramid while sweepers.
In between the purest and the lowest were the landed gentry and the traders. This peculiar behaviour was termed Sanskritization by sociologists. This institutionalized the jati system very organically over centuries. At the same time it was not as open to individual choice as one would have liked it to be. When members of one jati became economically more prosperous or politically more powerful. Orientalists of the nineteenth century. Jati is tangible or saguna. The sages of India did not value jati as much as they valued varna.
Jati is fixed by virtue of birth but varna can flow and rise. A mind that expands in wisdom will see jati in functional terms. Varna is intangible. The teacher and his students tried to shoo him away. But because he belonged to the shudra jati. A chandala is the keeper of the crematorium. The chandala clearly belonged to the brahmana varna. Observing this. Society chose to revere the teacher instead.
In medieval times. As he was leaving. The chandala had truly understood what the teacher only preached. Another dharma-shastra known as Manu Smriti. It did not help that in the nineteenth century the British used Manu's treatise.
One of the dharma-shastras known as Atreya Smriti stated that every child is born in the shudravarna and can rise to the brahman-varna through learning. With that. Atri was proposing the path of wisdom while Manu was proposing the path of domination. The literate nation. The rich nation. A neo-caste system is being organized. People are being valued not for who they are varna but for the lifestyle they lead jati.
The modern passport functions just like caste. With reward and reprimand failing. But these are never at the cost of shareholder value. Rules are being designed. Once again. Everyone knows how difficult it is to change one's passport.
Greed is qualitatively similar in all nations. The rational arguments of the West do not seem to be making people ethical or moral. Everyone is. Everyone speaks of the truth. No attempt is made to expand the mind. Unable to get belief alignment. Everyone is convinced personality is hardcoded. But at least something is happening at the ground level where the situation is rather dismal. There is no feeling. The lady who heads the department. They hope this will help improve their brand image.
Nobody will say this as they are trained to be politically correct in public by their media team. But before we judge humanity harshly. Only a tiny percentage of our genes are exclusively human. Fear has enabled us to survive for three billion years. In doubt. That is. The majority voted in favour of laptops. Therefore the premise of the book is very strong: understand the beliefs of Indians to get insights that can be leveraged in running organizations in India.
I believe Devdutt has an uncanny ability to make sense of mythology and help us make meaning of every day questions. When Ganesha looks at the world from two elephant eyes and some other god looks at the world with six pairs of human eyes, they may see different things. The seat of imagination is also right there. Could it be that the ritual was a reminder to use the greatest gift of humans ie imagination?
Yet, the book does not create the magic that some of his previous books did. In this book when Devdutt connects the stories and beliefs that make up the Indian culture, to the complex world of business he muddies the water even more. We know that in organizations, the leaders have to manage several stakeholders eg customer, employee, reporting manager, colleagues, support staff etc.
If he had left it at that, people would draw their own meaning. Instead he illustrates each such concept through a mythological story or sutra , adds his beautifully drawn sketches which are a treat, and amplifies it one last time through a mini case or business scenario.
Tathastu is the return on investment: revenue in the marketplace or salary paid by the employer.