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Learn more. New processes call for new technique in plant design. Today there is much talk of the production of motor spirit and other oils by high-pressure reactions. Such developments would still be at the laboratory stage had it not been for the work of the chemical engineer in taking advantage of the development of high-tensile steel and then applying his special knowledge to the design of new kinds of plant in which hydrogen and other gases and vapors are handled at high pressure and temperatures.

Thus, commercial success in translating a laboratory method of a preparation into a full-scale manufacturing process depends as much upon the careful plant design as upon consideration of the precise chemical reactions to be employed; in short, industrial efficiency and the profits expected to accompany this can only be realized by sound chemical engineering. Read and translate into Vietnamese engineering, branches, physical operations, agitation, heat transfer, marketable form, grinding, drying, evaporation, crystallization, construction, reagents, creep, motospirit, full-scale, sound chemical engineering B.

What is the chemical engineering concerned? What is the most important contribution of the chemical engineer? Can you tell some main operations involved in the industrial process? What is the commercial success of scientific research of chemical reaction? How can you get the industrial efficiency? A typical bituminous coal has the following composition: The series of operations involved in gas manufacture includes the processes of distillation, condensation of the products of distillation which are liquid or solid at atmospheric temperature, exhaustion of the uncondensed gas from the retorts, wet purification, by washing with water, dry purification, estimation of the volume of the purified gas, and distribution to the mains from which the customer draws his supply.

The distillation of coal is carried out by the following systems: Horizontal retorts 2. Continuously operated vertical retorts 3. Intermittent vertical retorts of chambers 4. Coke ovens: Most of the town gas supplied by the gas industry is made in horizontal or vertical retorts.

Vertical Retorts - Carbonization in vertical retorts may be continuous or intermittent. In the case of the former coal is fed continuously into the top of a retort by means of gravity, and is carbonized in its passage through the retort, coke being extracted by a slowly moving extractor at the base. As the coal is carbonized it swells considerably, and in consequence the retorts are wider in both dimensions at the bottoms than at the top.

The retorts in cross-section are either rectangular or oval and are of various sizes to carbonize from 3 to 12 tons per day. The actual amount of coal passing through the retort depends upon the class of coal being carbonized and the calorific value of the gas produced.

Steam is introduced at the base of the retort for the primary purpose of cooling the coke before it is discharge, but in so doing it produces water gas, thus increasing the gaseous yield. Steam is generated in waste-heat boilers in which the heat of the waste gases in utilized.

From the retort the gas passes to the hydraulic main. It leaves the main at a temperature of about C, and is reduced to the temperature of the air by condensers which are air-cooled or water-cooled, or both.

It is then subjected to purification and passed to the gas holder where it is stored. Read and translate into Vietnamese gas manufacture, condensation, atmospheric temperature, exhaustion, retorts, wet purification, estimation, distribution, horizontal retorts, vertical retorts, coke oven, extractor, carbonize, cross-section, rectangular or oval form, flexibility, hydraulic main, calorific value B.

What are the main composition of a typical bituminous coal? Can you tell the systems for the distillation of coal in the gas manufacture? What is the vertical retort? What is the difference between the vertical retort and continuous vertical one? What is concept of air-cooled or water-cooled apparatus? It is a heavy, oily liquid, density 1. This is the ordinary concentrated sulfuric acid of commerce.

Concentrated sulfuric acid is very corrosive. It has a strong affinity for water, and a large amount of heat is liberated when it is mixed with water, as the result of the formation of hydronium ion: The Manufacture of Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is made by two processes, the contact process and the lead-chamber process, which are now about equally important. The gas containing sulfur trioxide is bubbled through sulfuric acid, which absorbs the sulfur trioxide.

The principle of the lead-chamber process is shown by the following experiment. A large flask is fitted with four inlet tubes and a small outlet tube. Three of the tubes come from wash bottles, and the fourth from a flask in which water may be boiled. When steam is sent into the flask by boiling the water in the small flask, the crystals react to form drops of sulfuric acid, liberating oxides of nitrogen, which serve to catalyze the oxidation of sulfur dioxide by oxygen.

In practice the reactions take place in large lead-lined chambers. The Uses of Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is used for the manufacture of soluble phosphate fertilizers and in the manufacture of many chemicals and drugs. It is also used as the electrolyte in ordinary storage cells, and hot concentrated sulfuric acid is an effective oxidizing agent. Read and translate into Vietnamese sulfuric acid, density, droplet, yield, sulfur trioxide, affinity, hydronium ion, pour, apt to, sputter, container, catalytic oxidation, bubble, fertilizer, electrolyte, drug B.

What is the sulfuric acid? What is the b.

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Can you describe the method for the manufacture of sulfuric acid? What is the main principle of the lead-chamber process? Give examples of some usages of sulfuric acid. GLASS Glass is generally a mixture of several silicates, produced by melting together silica, an alkali and lime or lead. There are two general kinds of glass: The former is the more common, is cheaper, harder, more resistive and less fusible than lead glass. In general, the higher the percentage of silica the harder, less fusible, and more brittle the glass.

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Fusibility is decreased and hardness increased by increasing the lime. In colored glass a part of the lime and lead is replaced by oxides of iron, manganese, cobalt, etc. The addition of borates and phosphates improves glass for various optical and chemical purposes, as do also zinc and barium. German optical glass contains both zinc and barium. Practically all glass is decolorized in manufacture by the addition of manganese dioxide. Window glass is generally a soda-lime glass and, formerly, was always blown.

Plate glass is usually soda-lime glass cast on large iron plates and subsequently ground and polished. Ground plate glass is extensively used for flooring. Pressed glass is made by forming heat-softened glass to shape in dies under pressure.

It is fairly inexpensive. Wire glass is glass having an iron wire screen thoroughly embedded in it. It is used for flooring, fireproof doors, etc. Pyrex glass is a low-expansion boro- silicate containing no metals of the magnesia-lime-zinc group and no heavy metals. Principal uses are chemical ware, baking ware, high-tension insulators, sight glasses for chemical apparatus, glass pipe lines for chemical plants, etc. Owing to the low coefficient of expansion Pyrex glass withstands sudden changes of temperature without breaking.

Safety glass consist of two layers of plate glass firmly held by an intermediate layer of celluloid, attached to the glass by a suitable adhesive. It can be struck by a sharp hammer blow without shattering, and when sufficiently thick is practically bulletproof. Read and translate into Vietnamese glass, silicate, silica, lime-glass, lead-glass, resistive, fusible, luster, brilliance, cut-ware, optical purposes, brittle, feasibility, soda-lime, cast, wire glass, embed, resistance, fireproof, insulator, adhesive, shattering, bulletproof B.

What is the glass? How many kinds of glass do you know? And what are they? What are the difference of lime glass and lead glass? Can you tell something about the safety glass? Say few words about the production of glass? The method is based on the use of a high-frequency generator which offers the possibility of heating the reactants to high temps.

The mineral sample is ground to particle sizes of 0. Then 0. Then 1. CaCl2 is added. The crucible is heated in a furnace at for 20 min. To remove H2O absorbed during weighing. After this the crucible is lowered into a dry quartz tube which is closed with a rubber stopper. The quartz tube is placed in a cooling jacket of running H2O.

The temp. As a result all the alk. This reaction is completed after several min. Later complete dissolving of the salts from the crucible requires about 3 hrs. The soln. One difficulty encountered was the masking of the emission from K by an excess of Ca. An expt. Microcline was used as the mineral. It was found that complete extn. A study of reproducibility of results was made by using Microcline, muscovite and biotite.

In comparing the rapid new method with the usual methods for detg. K in minerals, It was found that the K content obtained was higher with the new method. Preliminary studies on using the new method in rock analysis have given entirely satisfactory results. A sketch of the app. Read and translate into Vietnamese detn. What is the rapid method for determination of potassium?

What are the particle size of mineral sample after grinding?

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Tell some steps of preliminary studies on using a new method in rock analysis? Write and read all words in abbreviations in the lesson. By the use of these isotopes an element can be observed in the presence of large quantities of the same element. For example, one of the earliest uses of tracers was the experimental determination of the rate at which lead atoms move around through a crystalline sample of the metal lead. This phenomenon is called self-diffusion.

If some radioactive lead is placed as a surface layer on a sheet of lead, and sample is allowed to stand for a while, it can then be cut up into thin sections parallel to the original surface layer, and the radioactivity present in each section can be measured.

The presence of radioactivity in layers other than the original surface layer shows that lead atoms from the surface layer have diffused through the metal.

Perhaps the greatest use for isotopes as tracers will be in the field of biology and medicine. The human body contains such large amounts of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, etc.


An organic compound containing a radioactive isotope, however, can be traced through the body. An especially useful radioactive isotope for these purposes is carbon This isotope of carbon has a half-life of about years. It undergoes slow decomposition with emission of beta rays, and the amount of the isotope in a sample can be followed by measuring the beta activity.

Large quantities of C14 can be readily made in a uranium pile, by the action of slow neutrons on nitrogen. The process can be carried out by running a solution of ammonium nitrate into the uranium pile, where it is exposed to neutrons. The carbon which is made in this way is in the form of bicarbonate ion, and can be precipitated as barium carbonate by adding http: Read and translate into Vietnamese radioactive, non-radioactive, isotope, traces, phenomenon, self-diffusion, determination, surface layer, sheet, parallel, radioactivity, biology, medicine, pile, expose to, bicarbonate B.

What is an extremely valuable technique for research in recent years? What is the phenomenon called self-diffusion? Can you cite some usage of isotopes as tracers in the body? How many elements are there in the body? Is it difficult to determine the state of the organic material in the body. It is a colorless, mobile, flammable liquid with a mildly pungent and somewhat aromatic odor. It is miscible in all proportions with water and with organic solvents such as ether, methanol, ethyl alcohol, and esters.

Acetone is used chiefly as a solvent and as a raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds. Acetone is not easily oxidized; it is unaffected by nitric acid at room temperature and is stable to neutral permanganate.

The more powerful oxidizing agents, such as alkaline permanganate and chromic acid, break it down to acetic and formic acid, and the latter decomposes further to carbon dioxide and water. Acetone does not reduce ammoniacal silver or Fehling's solution.

The flash point of acetone is C. Acetone occurs in small quantities in human blood and urine. It is also formed by thermal decomposition of coal peat, acetic acid salts, formates, and citric acid, and by the dry distillation of sugars with lime. The largest use of acetone is in the production of acetic anhydride, which in turn is chiefly consumed in making cellulose acetate for acetate rayon, photographic film, and plastics. Acetone is also an excellent solvent for nitrocellulose and is used in making films, cements, artificial leather, and other similar products.

By far the largest production of acetone is from petroleum-derived propylene by way of isopropyl alcohol. The production of acetone from isopropyl alcohol may be conducted either by catalytic dehydrogenation or by catalytic oxidation. The oxidation, being exothermic, is difficult to control; typical catalysts are copper, copper alloys, silver, and metal oxides, and temperatures are in the range to C.

The availability of high-quality acetone in large quantities from the petroleum chemical industry has been a major factor in the expansion of rayon production and other acetone-consuming industries in recent years. Read and translate into Vietnamese acetone, ketone, pungent, aromatic odor, organic solvents, ether, methanol, ethyl alcohol, ester, synthesis, unaffect, permanganate, flash point, coal peat, lime, cellulose acetate, photographic film, plastics, dehydrogenation, promoters, exothermic, petroleum B.

What is acetone? What is acetone chiefly used for? Does acetone occur in human body? What is the largest usage of acetone? Describe some methods of production of acetone. It is best known as the chief acid constituent of vinegar. When cooled to below 16 degrees, pure acetic acid forms colorless crystals. These crystals resemble ice in appearance; hence the pure acid is usually called "glacial" acetic acid. There are many ways to prepare acetic acid.

It can be obtained by the oxidation of ethyl alcohol which in turn is prepared by fermentation. Or, it can be obtained from cider vinegar which is prepared from the juice of apples. For a long time acetic acid was produced by the distillation of wood. Seven gallons of acid were extracted from one ton of wood. Acetic acid is also produced by synthetic methods.

One such method employs acetylene as the starting point which itself is obtained as a by-product in the production of hydrogen during the refining of petroleum.

The acetylene is passed through a dilute solution of sulfuric acid containing a catalyst. Acetaldehyde is formed by this reaction and is then oxidized to acetic acid.

The most convenient way to prepare glacial acetic acid in the Lab is by the distillation of sodium acetate with sulfuric acid. Place 10 grams of sodium acetate in an evaporating dish. Apply gentle heat and continue heating, with stirring, until the water of crystallization is driven off and a dry powder remains. Be very careful not to heat too strongly, as the compound will decompose and char. Transfer the powder to a flask and add 7 cc. If a condenser is available, fit it quickly to the flask.

If not, substitute a one-hole stopper and glass tubing leading to another vessel immersed in ice water. Heat gently. Acetic acid distils over and collects in the receiving container.

If you care to purify the acid, it must be distilled again and that potion boiling at about degrees should be collected. To demonstrate how easily acetic acid freezes, immerse a partially filled test tube of the pure acid forms salts.

For example, neutralization with sodium carbonate will produce sodium acetate. And, using calcium carbonate, calcium acetate is obtained. By heating dry calcium acetate, acetone is produced. Similarly, ammonia will produce ammonium acetate and from this compound acetamide is prepared. With organic alcohols, acetic acid forms esters. Read and translate into Vietnamese familiar, constituent, vinegar, in appearance, glacial acetic acid, fermentation, cider, juice, of apples, acetylene, refining, gentle, chat, acetaldehyde, decompose, vessel, immerse, collect, receiving, container, neutralization B.

What is the acetic acid?

Where can you see acetic acid every day? Can you describe one of the methods for preparing acetic acid? What is the most convenient way for preparing glacial acetic acid in the lab.? Say a few words about acetic acid in your own way.

The joints in the apparatus are made of asbestos paper covered with water glass. Eight grams of iron powder is added through the side neck to the stirred nitrobenzene.

This addition requires about one hour, and the mixture is stirred and heated for another hour before the addition of a second portion of iron and bromine.

Two portion, each of 8g of iron powder and 60 cc of bromine, are added under the same conditions as the first addition, and the mixture is stirred and heated for one hour between the completion of one addition and the beginning of another. The evolution of hydrogen bromide slackens considerably toward the last of the heating, and there is practically no more bromine vapor in the condenser.

A final addition of 2g of iron powder is made, and the heating continued for one hour longer. The reaction product, which is a dark reddish-brown liquid, is poured or siphoned into 1. The mixture is distilled with steam and the first portion of the distillate is collected separately to remove a small amount of unchanged nitrobenzene. It is necessary to collect about 12 l of distillate in order to obtain all the m- Bromonitrobenzene. The yellow crystalline solid is filtered with suction and pressed well on the funnel to remove water and traces of nitrobenzene.

It melts at This product is satisfactory for most purposes. If a purer material is desired, the crude M-Bromonitrobenzene may be distilled under reduced pressure. The recovery on purification is about 85 per cent. Bruhl recorded the b. Read and translate into Vietnamese three-necked flask, round-bottomed flask, efficient reflux, outlet tube hole, separatory funnel, mechanical stirrer, nitrobenzene, asbestos paper, oil bath, side neck, bromine, slacken, dark reddish- brown liquid, siphon, saturated solution, suction, crude product, reduced pressure, recovery B.

Can you draw a three-necked, round-bottomed flask? Can you explain the flask, provided with an efficient reflux condenser bearing an outlet hole above a surface of water? What is the reaction product in the flask?

What is the method of producing purer Bromonitrobenzin from m-Bromonitrobenzen? The polymers resulting from this reaction are of the elastic type, such as synthetic rubbers, and the non-elastic types, such as synthetic plastics.

The rubber-type of compounds are known as elastomers. Actually, the elastomers do not duplicate natural rubber, and in many respects superior to the natural product.

Among the many types of rubber like compounds, Thiokol is perhaps the most easily adapted for school laboratory preparation. It is produced essentially from the reaction of sodium tetrasulfide with ethylene dichloride. Dissolve 3 grams of sodium hydroxide in 60 cc of water.

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Place the solution in a large beaker and heat to boiling. To the boiling liquid, add 6 grams of finely powdered sulfur. Add small portions at a time, stirring constantly. After all has been added, continue stirring and heating for a few minutes. Then, remove the heat, add about 50 cc of water, stir, and filter off any unreacted sulfur. For an emulsifying agent, we will use a soap solution. Dissolve about one-half gram of soap flakes in 10 cc of hot water. Heat the sodium polysulfide solution prepared above in a large beaker to a temperature of 70 degrees, and add the soap solution into it.

Next, while stirring, add 10 cc of ethylene dichloride in small portions. It is important that you keep the temperature at 70 degrees. If it should rise, remove the heat immediately, and if necessary, cool the beaker externally.

Continue stirring at the 70 degrees temperature until the liquid becomes milky-white in color. The solution will pass through various shades of orange, yellow and ivory. But do not be satisfied until you obtain an entirely white color. This white emulsion is the "latex". Cool the solution and add 5 cc of concentrated ammonium hydroxide, which will act as stabilizer. The latex emulsion will gradually settle to the bottom of the container.

Carefully pour off the clear liquid from the top. Then add the white emulsion to cc of water in a beaker. Add 5cc of concentrated ammonium hydroxide and stir well. Our final step is to coagulate the rubber. Add the acetic acid in small quantities with continual stirring until the Thiokol separates out of solution as a lump in the bottom of the container.

Remove the lump and wash is thoroughly with water. This is the crude synthetic rubber.

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Note that it is moderately elastic. The elasticity can be increased by treatment with zinc oxide and carbon black. Place the lump of rubber in a mortar. Add about one-half gram of zinc oxide and small pinch of carbon black. Work the chemicals into the rubber by kneading with the pestle.

Do not grind - rather press the chemicals in. Note the elasticity after you have treated the rubber for about 15 minutes. The process you have just completed is similar to that of processing natural rubber. The difference, of course, is that the milky latex is obtained from the rubber tree instead of from chemical reactions. The natural latex is also stabilized and then coagulated with acetic acid. This rubber is then vulcanized and further treated with carbon black or zinc oxide which help to increase its resiliency, strength, and toughness.

Natural rubber is a complex polymerized form of isoprene. The Thiokol that you have prepared is actually a "substitute" rubber. It is unaffected by hydrocarbons and most solvents. Thus it is used in making hoses used to handle such liquids. Read and translate into Vietnamese synthetic rubber, polymerization, inter-molecular combinations, polymer, elastic, synthetic plastics, elastomer, duplicate, Thiokol, sodium tetrasulfide, ethylene dichloride, filter off, sodium polysulfide, emulsifying, milky-white in color, latex, stabilizer, coagulate, moderately elastic, elasticity, pinch, vulcanize B.

What is synthetic rubber? What is Thiokol? Can you tell something about latex? What is the method for increasing the elasticity of rubber? Could you compare the difference of natural rubber and synthetic rubber? The solid fuels are essentially naturally occurring materials, principally wood, peat, and coal, although for special purposes they are carbonized for the production of charcoal and coke.

Coal is usually classified as hard and soft. Hard coal, which is called anthracite coal, is about 90 per cent carbon.