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One of the important additional features in the developed software as compared to the commercial software is the display of depth vs. This allows clear visualization of the location of a defect in the structure, if any found. It can be measured in two different ways: by using a two reeiver system for the measurement of velocity on the surface procedure A and, by using a single transducer to measure the thickness averaged velocity procedure B. The details of these measurements are given below: 3. The schematic of the experimental set up for this procedure is shown in Fig.
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Baldev Raj Distinguished. Author by : Baldev Raj Language : en.
Non- destructive testing and evaluation. About practical non destructive testing by baldev raj pdf free download is Not Asked Yet? It is also becoming increasingly evident that it is both practical and cost-. The first edition of this book was published in to cover the principles, procedures, application, limitations and codes and standards of widely used non- destructive testing NDT techniques.
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Publications of Dr. Practical non destructive testing baldev raj. The current limits of non- destructive testing applied at tunnel linings were explored and. Flexural vibration, shown in a , has low frequency typically 2- 6 kHz and very large amplitude as compared to surface displacements caused by the arrival of reflected P-waves, shown in Fig.
Figures 8 c and d show the corresponding contributions to the spectrum: flexural vibrations produce a highamplitude, low frequency signals that dominate the waveform and spectrum, while the peak resulting from P-wave reflections has a higher frequency and lower amplitude, and is sometimes too small to be seen.
There are two methods for amplifying this high frequency peak: 1 using a smaller impactor and 2 digital high pass filtering. In Fig. The response of honeycombing at about mm in a mm thick concrete plate is shown in Fig. Multiple peaks centered at about 15 kHz mm thickness and a displaced thickness frequency peak at 5 kHz can be seen in Fig. The expected location of the solid thickness frequency is shown as a vertical cursor at 8 kHz.
Figure 10 a shows the typical impact echo signal of a reinforced rod intact with the concrete, at a depth of 50 mm. The frequency spectrum consists of a cluster of peaks centered at These clustered peaks are the characteristic response of steel reinforcement rods without delamination .
As discussed Fig.
The above correction factor is needed to take into account the interference of the wave reflecting from the concrete-steel interface, steelconcrete interface and the waves going around the rod. Figure 10 b shows the typical response of a delaminated rod at a depth of 35 mm.
The frequency spectrum shows the dominant peaks at 6. The peak at This is a typical response, if the section above the delamination is thin less than mm , as discussed earlier .
Hence, it is clear from the response of the reinforcement rod with and without delamination that, if the location of the reinforcement rod is known apriori, then it can be easily checked by impact echo testing that whether any delamination has occurred. The only difference is that the crack is kept in between the two transducers and the impact is given in between the crack and the transducer. When an impact is performed, the waves generated travel on the surface and picked up by the transducer 1 on the same side of the crack.
Figure 11b shows the signals received by the two transducers for the crack depth of 25 mm. The waves cannot reach the transducer 2 directly on the surface and the first wave to reach transducer 2 is the P-wave diffracted at the crack tip Fig. The time lag between the P-wave to reach directly to transducer 1 and after diffraction to transducer 2 can be calculated from Fig. Using this equation, the depth of the crack is found to be 28 mm, which is very close to the actual depth of the crack .
One of the important components of this containment structure is the ring beam. The inner containment dome of one of the PHWRs got delaminated during construction.
Impact echo testing has been carried out for assessment of the structural integrity of the ring beam . In order to develop the test procedure for carrying out the impact echo testing, two mock up calibration blocks were made.
The block-I Fig. In order to study the response of the delaminations of reinforced rods, various rods of diameter 20, 32 and The impact echo testing of this block indicated that the mm and mm voids at mm depth could be detected, however, the 50 mm void at mm depth could not be detected. Further, It was also demonstrated that if the location of the reinforcement rod is known apriori, then it can be easily checked by impact echo testing that whether any delamination has occurred Fig.
In order to establish the sensitivity of the technique i. In this block, 50 mm diameter voids were Fig. The voids at mm and mm depths could be detected.
However, the 50 mm diameter void at mm depth could not be detected. Based on these results, the delectability of the Impact-echo system in terms of the depth and the lateral dimension of the defect was also established. The study revealed that a void can be detected, if the ratio of the depth of location to the lateral dimension of the void is less than 5. Further, the impact echo testing on reinforced rods of various diameter at different depths indicated that a reinforced rod can be detected if the ratio of the depth of its location to the diameter of the reinforced rod is less than 3 .
Based on the optimized test parameters identified with the help of studies carried out on the mock up blocks, impact echo testing was successfully carried out on the ring beam of the reactor containment structure for assessing its structural integrity.
To the best of our knowledge, this was internationally the first time that impact echo technique has been employed for integrity evaluation of a critical component of the containment structure of a nuclear power plant. Figure 13a shows the response of a reinforced rod in the ring beam. The impact echo response of the rod is similar to that of an intact reinforced rod Fig. Further, a duct sheath at a depth of about mm could also be detected Fig.