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IMMUNOLOGY FOR DUMMIES PDF

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autoimmune diseases through clinical immunology are of great interest Immunology begins with the basic concepts and then details the immuno-. MCD Immunology. Alexandra Burke-Smith. 2. Innate Immunity. Acquired immunity. Depends of pre-formed cells and molecules. Depends on clonal selection, i.e. contains list Immune System and Immunology (PDF 63P) Arno Helmberg On-line of the immunology for dummies pdf (also known as tom ford.


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Immunology. • Immunology. – the study of how the body fights disease and infection. • Immunity. – State of being able to resist a particular infection or toxin. These lecture notes accompany my lectures on immunology in the study module "Infection, Pdf- version of musicmarkup.info Terms of. This text-book of immunology is cer- tainly one of the five top books in this field, and has two special commend- ing features. The first is that it is written by one.

The principal function of B cells is the production of antibodies against foreign antigens [ 2 , 3 ]. When activated by foreign antigens, B cells undergo proliferation and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells or memory B cells see Figure 2. These cells can be called upon to respond quickly and eliminate an antigen upon re-exposure. Plasma cells, on the other hand, do not express antigen-binding receptors. These are short-lived cells that undergo apoptosis when the inciting agent that induced the immune response is eliminated.

Immunity is your body's ability to recognize germs to prevent them from causing illness. The immune system's job is to help identify and eliminate dangerous germs that enter the body before they can cause disease or damage. There are two types of immunity: innate and adaptive. Innate Immunity Innate immunity is the immune system that is present when you are born.

It is your body's first line of defense against germs. It includes physical barriers, such as skin and mucous membranes, and special cells and proteins that can recognize and kill germs. The problem with these special cells and proteins is that they can kill a germ, but once the germ is dead, the innate immune system forgets it.

It does not communicate any information about the germ to the rest of the body. Without this information, the body cannot prepare itself to fight this germ if it should reinfect the body. Adaptive Immunity Adaptive immunity is protection that your body builds when it meets and remembers antigens, which is another name for germs and other foreign substances in the body.

When your body recognizes antigens, it produces antibodies to fight the antigens. First immunoglobulin Ig expressed during B cell development primary response; early antibody. Mucosal response; protects mucosal surfaces from toxins, viruses and bacteria through either direct neutralization or prevention of binding to mucosal surface. B cells arise from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and, following maturation, leave the marrow expressing a unique antigen-binding receptor on their membrane.

The principal function of B cells is the production of antibodies against foreign antigens [ 2 , 3 ]. When activated by foreign antigens, B cells undergo proliferation and differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells or memory B cells see Figure 2. These cells can be called upon to respond quickly and eliminate an antigen upon re-exposure.

Plasma cells, on the other hand, do not express antigen-binding receptors. These are short-lived cells that undergo apoptosis when the inciting agent that induced the immune response is eliminated. Given their function in antibody production, B cells play a major role in the humoral or antibody-mediated immune response as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response, which is governed primarily by T cells [ 2 , 3 ].

Antibody-mediated immunity is the branch of the acquired immune system that is mediated by B-cell antibody production. This, in turn, attracts the assistance of Th cells which secrete cytokines that help the B cell multiply and mature into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The secreted antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens, flagging them for destruction through pathogen and toxin neutralization, classical complement activation, opsonin promotion of phagocytosis and pathogen elimination.

Upon elimination of the pathogen, the antigen-antibody complexes are cleared by the complement cascade see Figure 2 [ 2 ]. Five types of antibodies are produced by B cells: Each of these antibodies has differing biological functions and recognize and neutralize specific pathogens. Table 2 summarizes the various functions of the five Ig antibodies [ 5 ]. Antibodies play an important role in containing virus proliferation during the acute phase of infection.

However, they are not generally capable of eliminating a virus once infection has occurred.

An introduction to immunology and immunopathology

Once an infection is established, cell-mediated immune mechanisms are most important in host defense. Cell-mediated immunity does not involve antibodies, but rather protects an organism through [ 2 ]:. Cell-mediated immunity is directed primarily at microbes that survive in phagocytes as well as those that infect non-phagocytic cells.

This type of immunity is most effective in eliminating virus-infected cells, but can also participate in defending against fungi, protozoa, cancers, and intracellular bacteria.

Cell-mediated immunity also plays a major role in transplant rejection. Acquired immunity is attained through either passive or active immunization. It can occur naturally by transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to the developing fetus, or it can be induced artificially by injecting a recipient with exogenous antibodies targeted to a specific pathogen or toxin.

The latter is used when there is a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to develop its own immune response, or to reduce the symptoms of chronic or immunosuppressive diseases. Active immunization refers to the production of antibodies against a specific agent after exposure to the antigen.

It can be acquired through either natural infection with a microbe or through administration of a vaccine that can consist of attenuated weakened pathogens or inactivated organisms,. As mentioned earlier, defects or malfunctions in either the innate or adaptive immune response can provoke illness or disease.

Such disorders are generally caused by an overactive immune response known as hypersensitivity reactions , an inappropriate reaction to self known as autoimmunity or ineffective immune responses known as immunodeficiency.

Pdf dummies immunology for

Hypersensitivity reactions refer to undesirable responses produced by the normal immune system. There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions [ 6 , 7 ]:. Type I hypersensitivity is the most common type of hypersensitivity reaction. It is an allergic reaction provoked by re-exposure to a specific type of antigen, referred to as an allergen. Unlike the normal immune response, the type I hypersensitivity response is characterized by the secretion of IgE by plasma cells.

Later exposure to the same allergen, cross-links the bound IgE on sensitized cells resulting in degranulation and the secretion of active mediators such as histamine, leukotriene, and prostaglandin that cause vasodilation and smooth-muscle contraction of the surrounding tissue. Common environmental allergens inducing IgE-mediated allergies include cat-, dog- and horse epithelium, pollen, house dust mites and molds. Food allergens are also a common cause of type I hypersensitivity reactions, however, these types of reactions are more frequently seen in children than adults.

Treatment of type I reactions generally involves trigger avoidance, and in the case of inhaled allergens, pharmacological intervention with bronchodilators, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents. More severe cases may be treated with immunotherapy. Type II hypersensitivity reactions are rare and take anywhere from 2 to 24 hours to develop. Some examples of type II hypersensitivity reactions include: Type III hypersensitivity reactions occur when IgG and IgM antibodies bind to soluble proteins rather than cell surface molecules as in type II hypersensitivity reactions forming immune complexes that can deposit in tissues, leading to complement activation, inflammation, neutrophil influx and mast cell degranulation.

This type of reaction can take hours, days, or even weeks to develop and treatment generally involves anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids. Examples of type III hypersensitivity reactions include systemic lupus erythematosus SLE , serum sickness and reactive arthritis. Unlike the other types of hypersensitivity reactions, type IV reactions are cell-mediated and antibody-independent.

They are the second most common type of hypersensitivity reaction and usually take 2 or more days to develop. In general, these reactions are easily resolvable through trigger avoidance and the use of topical corticosteroids.

Types of hypersensitivity reactions [ 6 , 7 ]. Autoimmunity involves the loss of normal immune homeostasis such that the organism produces an abnormal response to its own tissue.

The hallmark of autoimmunity is the presence of self-reactive T cells, auto-antibodies, and inflammation. Prominent examples of autoimmune diseases include: Immunodeficiency refers to a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent. Immunodeficiency disorders may result from a primary congenital defect primary immunodeficiency or may be acquired from a secondary cause secondary immunodeficiency , such as viral or bacterial infections, malnutrition or treatment with drugs that induce immunosuppression.

Certain diseases can also directly or indirectly impair the immune system such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. HIV directly infects Th cells and also impairs other immune system responses indirectly [ 9 , 10 ].

Overview of the defining features of innate and adaptive immunity [ 1 ]. There is a great deal of synergy between the adaptive immune system and its innate counterpart, and defects in either system can lead to immunopathological disorders, including autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies and hypersensitivity reactions.

The remainder of this supplement will focus on the appropriate diagnosis, treatment and management of some of these more prominent disorders, particularly those associated with hypersensitivity reactions. This informative, entry-level course was authored by Dr. Francesca Antonetti and can be accessed through the Serono Symposia International Foundation website at: The authors would like to thank Julie Tasso for her editorial services and assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

Practical guide for allergy and immunology in Canada. Later exposure to the same allergen cross-links the bound IgE on sensitized cells resulting in degranulation and the secretion of active mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins that cause vasodilation and smooth-muscle contraction of the surrounding tissue.

Common environmental allergens inducing IgE-mediated allergies include pet e.

Basic Immunology

Food allergens are also a common cause of type I hypersensitivity reactions, however, these types of reactions are more frequently seen in children than adults. Treatment of type I reactions generally involves trigger avoidance, and in the case of inhaled allergens, pharmacological intervention with bronchodilators, antihistamines and anti-inflammatory agents.

Some types of allergic disease can be treated with immunotherapy see Allergen-specific Immunotherapy article in this supplement. Severe cases of type 1 hypersensitivity anaphylaxis may require immediate treatment with epinephrine. Some examples of type II hypersensitivity reactions include: Type III hypersensitivity reactions occur when IgG and IgM antibodies bind to soluble proteins rather than cell surface molecules as in type II hypersensitivity reactions forming immune complexes that can deposit in tissues, leading to complement activation, inflammation, neutrophil influx and mast cell degranulation.

This type of reaction can take days, or even weeks, to develop and treatment generally involves anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids. Examples of type III hypersensitivity reactions include systemic lupus erythematosus SLE , serum sickness and reactive arthritis. Unlike the other types of hypersensitivity reactions, type IV reactions are cell-mediated and antibody-independent.

They are the second most common type of hypersensitivity reaction and usually take 2 or more days to develop. In general, these reactions are easily resolvable through trigger avoidance and the use of topical corticosteroids. An example of this is the skin response to poison ivy. Types of hypersensitivity reactions [ 6 , 7 ]. Autoimmunity involves the loss of normal immune homeostasis such that the organism produces an abnormal response to its own tissue. The hallmark of autoimmunity is the presence of self-reactive T cells, auto-antibodies, and inflammation.

Prominent examples of autoimmune diseases include: Poorly regulated inflammatory responses and tissue damage as a result of inflammation are often immunopathological features. Defects in immune regulation are associated with many chronic inflammatory diseases, including: Classical features of inflammation are heat, redness, swelling and pain. Inflammation can be part of the normal host response to infection and a required process to rid the body of pathogens, or it may become uncontrolled and lead to chronic inflammatory disease.

The overproduction of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 as well as the recruitment of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and monocytes through the function of chemokines are important drivers of the inflammatory process. Additional mediators produced by recruited and activated immune cells induce changes in vascular permeability and pain sensitivity.

Immunodeficiency disorders may result from a primary genetic defect primary immunodeficiency—see Primary Immunodeficiency article in this supplement which can effect either innate or acquired immune function through inhibition of selected immune cells or pathways, or it may be acquired from a secondary cause secondary immunodeficiency , such as viral or bacterial infections, malnutrition, autoimmunity or treatment with drugs that induce immunosuppression. Certain diseases can also directly or indirectly impair the immune system such as leukemia and multiple myeloma.

HIV directly infects Th cells and also impairs other immune system responses indirectly [ 9 , 10 ]. Innate immunity is the first immunological, non-specific mechanism for fighting against infections. This immune response is rapid, occurring minutes or hours after aggression and is mediated by numerous cells including phagocytes, mast cells, basophils and eosinophils, as well as the complement system. Adaptive immunity develops in conjunction with innate immunity to eliminate infectious agents; it relies on the tightly regulated interplay between T cells, APCs and B cells.

A critical feature of adaptive immunity is the development of immunologic memory or the ability of the system to learn or record its experiences with various pathogens, leading to effective and rapid immune responses upon subsequent exposure to the same or similar pathogens.

Basic Immunology - 1st Edition

Overview of the defining features of innate and adaptive immunity [ 1 ]. There is a great deal of synergy between the adaptive immune system and its innate counterpart, and defects in either system can lead to immunopathological disorders, including autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies and hypersensitivity reactions. The remainder of this supplement will focus on the appropriate diagnosis, treatment and management of some of these more prominent disorders, particularly those associated with hypersensitivity reactions.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The authors would like to extend special thanks to Dr. The authors would like to thank Julie Tasso for her editorial services and assistance in the preparation of this manuscript.

Jean S. Marshall has no competing interests to disclose. Ethics approval and consent to participate are not applicable to this review article. Practical guide for allergy and immunology in Canada The full contents of the supplement are available online at https: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

For pdf immunology dummies

Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. Published online Sep Kim 4, 5. Harold L. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Marshall, Email: Corresponding author.

An introduction to immunology and immunopathology

Associated Data Data Availability Statement Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analyzed during the development of this review. Abstract Beyond structural and chemical barriers to pathogens, the immune system has two fundamental lines of defense: Background There are continuous advances in our current understanding of the immune system and how it functions to protect the body from infection.

The immune system: Innate immunity Innate immunity can be viewed as comprising four types of defensive barriers: Open in a separate window. Adaptive immunity The development of adaptive immunity is aided by the actions of the innate immune system, and is critical when innate immunity is ineffective in eliminating infectious agents.

T cells and APCs T cells derive from hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow and, following migration, mature in the thymus. B cells B cells arise from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and, following maturation, leave the marrow expressing a unique antigen-binding receptor on their membrane.

Antibody-mediated vs.

Cell-mediated immunity does not involve antibodies, but rather protects an organism through [ 2 ]: Passive vs. Immunopathology As mentioned earlier, defects or malfunctions in either the innate or adaptive immune response can provoke illness or disease. Hypersensitivity reactions Hypersensitivity reactions refer to undesirable responses produced by the normal immune system. There are four types of hypersensitivity reactions [ 6 , 7 ]: Type I: Type II: Type III: Type IV: Autoimmunity Autoimmunity involves the loss of normal immune homeostasis such that the organism produces an abnormal response to its own tissue.

Inflammation Poorly regulated inflammatory responses and tissue damage as a result of inflammation are often immunopathological features. Conclusion Innate immunity is the first immunological, non-specific mechanism for fighting against infections. Innate immune system Adaptive immune system Cells Hematopoietic cells: