Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. CYBERETHICS. Morality and Law in Cyberspace. Richard A. Spinello. Dean of the Faculties. Carroll School of Management. Boston College. Chestnut Hill. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. Spinello, Richard A., author. Cyberethics: morality and law in cyberspace / Richard A. Spinello, Ph.D.
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Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Mar 1, , Richard Spinello and others published CyberEthics: Morality and Law in Cyberspace. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , R. A. Spinello and others published Cyberethics: morality and law in cyberspace (2nd edn. Cyberethics: Morality and Law in Cyberspace becomes particularly valuable. This book helps readers understand the moral and social problems that technology.
Privacy history[ edit ] In the late 19th century, the invention of cameras spurred similar ethical debates as the internet does today. During a seminar of Harvard Law Review in , Warren and Brandeis defined privacy from an ethical and moral point of view to be: "central to dignity and individuality and personhood. Privacy can be decomposed to the limitation of others' access to an individual with "three elements of secrecy, anonymity, and solitude. Solitude refers to the lack of physical proximity of an individual to others. Secrecy refers to the protection of personalized information from being freely distributed. Individuals surrender private information when conducting transactions and registering for services.
Ethical business practice protects the privacy of their customers by securing information which may contribute to the loss of secrecy , anonymity , and solitude.
Credit card information, social security numbers, phone numbers, mothers' maiden names, addresses and phone numbers freely collected and shared over the internet may lead to a loss of Privacy.
Fraud and impersonation are some of the malicious activities that occur due to the direct or indirect abuse of private information. Identity theft is rising rapidly due to the availability of private information in the internet.
For instance, seven million Americans fell victim to identity theft in , and nearly 12 million Americans were victims of identity theft in making it the fastest growing crime in the United States. Listed below are a few recommendations to restrict online databases from proliferating sensitive personnel information. Exclude sensitive unique identifiers from database records such as social security numbers, birth dates, hometown and mothers' maiden names.
Exclude phone numbers that are normally unlisted. Clear provision of a method which allows people to have their names removed from a database.
Banning the reverse social security number lookup services. These facilities can preserve large volumes of consumer information for an indefinite amount of time.
Some of the key architectures contributing to the erosion of privacy include databases, cookies and spyware. However, the fact is enough personal information can be gathered from corporate websites and social networking sites to initiate a reverse lookup.
Therefore, is it not important to address some of the ethical issues regarding how protected data ends up in the public domain? As a result, identity theft protection businesses are on the rise. Companies such as LifeLock and JPMorgan Chase have begun to capitalize on selling identity theft protection insurance.
Property[ edit ] Ethical debate has long included the concept of property. This concept has created many clashes in the world of cyberethics.
One philosophy of the internet is centered around the freedom of information. The controversy over ownership occurs when the property of information is infringed upon or uncertain. Much of this, however, was copyrighted music and illegal to transfer to other users. Whether it is ethical to transfer copyrighted media is another question.
Proponents of unrestricted file sharing point out how file sharing has given people broader and faster access to media, has increased exposure to new artists, and has reduced the costs of transferring media including less environmental damage. Supporters of restrictions on file sharing argue that we must protect the income of our artists and other people who work to create our media. This argument is partially answered by pointing to the small proportion of money artists receive from the legitimate sale of media.
We also see a similar debate over intellectual property rights in respect to software ownership. The two opposing views are for closed source software distributed under restrictive licenses or for free and open source software.
A counter argument to this is that standing on shoulders of giants is far cheaper when the giants do not hold IP rights. Some proponents for open source believe that all programs should be available to anyone who wants to study them.
Digital rights management DRM [ edit ] Main article: Digital rights management With the introduction of digital rights management software, new issues are raised over whether the subverting of DRM is ethical. Some champion the hackers of DRM as defenders of users' rights, allowing the blind to make audio books of PDFs they receive, allowing people to burn music they have legitimately bought to CD or to transfer it to a new computer.
Others see this as nothing but simply a violation of the rights of the intellectual property holders, opening the door to uncompensated use of copyrighted media.
Another ethical issue concerning DRMs involves the way these systems could undermine the fair use provisions of the copyright laws.
The reason is that these allow content providers to choose who can view or listen to their materials making the discrimination against certain groups possible. Programs or any technologies that attempt to circumvent DRM controls are in violation of one of its provisions Section Beck, trans.
Liberal Arts Press, New York, Google Scholar E. University of Chicago Legal Forum, , Google Scholar D. The Wall Street Journal, April 3, Tyranny in the Infrastructure. Wired, 5 7 , July, The Laws of Cyberspace. Spinello andH.
Tavani, editors, Readings in Cyberethics. The Spam Wars. The Industry Standard, December 31, Code and other Laws of Cyberspace. Basic Books, New York, Google Scholar W. City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn. Google Scholar J.
Reason, Relativity, and Responsibility in Computer Ethics. Texas Law Review, , Google Scholar A. The Control Revolution. Century Foundation Books, New York,