Hacking has been a part of computing for almost five decades and it is a very broad fundamental concepts of a computer and how it operates in a networked . Robert J. Sciglimpaglia, Jr., Computer Hacking: A Global Offense, 3 Pace Y.B. Int' l L. (). Available at: musicmarkup.info What we're talking about is hacking as a healthy recreation, and as a free . However, we have a Guide to (mostly) Harmless Hacking Computer Crime Law.
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PDF | On Jan 21, , Marco Bitetto and others published COMPUTER HACKING. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have Computer Hacking: A beginners guide to computer hacking. 17 Pages·· Windows and Web programming has grown into a massive database of tweaks and tips for. Windows XP Hacking Windows.
In the s, several teenagers were flung off the country's brand new phone system by enraged authorities. Here's a peek at how busy hackers have been in the past 35 years. Early s University facilities with huge mainframe computers, likeMIT's artificial. At first, "hacker" was a positive term for a person with a mastery of computers who could push programs beyond what they were designed to do. Early s John Draper makes a long-distance call for John free by blowing a Draper precise tone into a telephone that tells the phone system to open a line. Draper, who later earns the handle "Captain Crunch," is arrested repeatedly for phone tampering throughout the s.
Even the computer rooms are normally left open. Would you say this is a smart company that cares about protecting its data from hackers? Yes, they have plugged the electronic holes, but they have literally left the door wide open for hackers to physically breach their security!
You do not have to hack into a network remotely to gain access to data. You can gain physical access to a facility and perform your exploit from within. Over the last couple of decades, most companies have found it extremely difficult to maintain physical security. Thanks to advancements in technology, there are now more physical vulnerabilities that a hacker can take advantage of.
In todays world of USB drives, tablets, smartphones, and laptops, more and more data is being stored in smaller handheld devices. It is not that hard to get your hands on such devices, especially considering the fact that most employees take data with them when they leave work at the end of the day. Once you identify your target, you may not even have to enter the building; they will bring the data to you. In this chapter, you are going to learn about how to take advantage of some of the physical security vulnerabilities in buildings that you have targeted.
Once you have breached the on-site security and gained physical access, be prepared to penetrate the system from the inside. Types of Physical Vulnerabilities Failure to establish a front desk to monitor visitors who enter and exit the building.
Failure to enforce mandatory signing-in of all employees and visitors. Aloof employees and security staff who arent fully familiar with the IT repairmen, vendors, or suppliers. Tossing sensitive corporate and personal documents into the trash instead of shredding them. Failure to lock doors leading to computer rooms. Leaving digital devices lying around the offices. Failure to fix doors that cant shut properly. Creating your Plan One of the first things you will have to do is to come up with a way of breaching physical security.
This will require some extensive reconnaissance work on your part. You must identify the kind of security measures that the facility has put in place, the weaknesses and vulnerabilities present, and how to take advantage of them. This may seem simple on paper but it is not that easy once you get on the ground.
The assumption here is that you are working without an inside man to feed you the vital security information. It may be a couple of weeks before you are able to collect all the information you need to launch your attack.
A physical security breach means you must have the right skills and knowledge to not only enter the building, but also to maneuver your way inside, and then exit without being detected. If you lack the patience, physical fitness, and mental agility necessary for such a task, then do not attempt a physical breach. Stick to performing your attacks from a remote location. There are a number of physical security factors you will have to consider when planning how to gain access to your target.
These are categorized into two distinct classes: Physical Controls and Technical Controls. Physical controls You will have to consider how the security team controls, monitors, and manages access into and out of the facility. In some cases, the building may be divided into public, private, and restricted sections. You will have to determine the best technique to enter the section that contains the target.
Perimeter Security How do you plan on circumventing the perimeter security? You will need to know whether the facility has a wall, fence, dogs, surveillance cameras, turnstiles, mantraps, and other types of perimeter security. These are just the deterrents that you may have to deal with on the outside. A well-guarded facility will have secondary security layers as you get closer to the building. At this point, you should know where the weaknesses are in the design of the facility.
If there is a high wall that has big trees all around it, you can climb up the branches and jump into the compound. Of course, you will have to be physically agile and fit enough to do this. Learn the location of the security lights and where the dark spots or shadows fall. These can provide great hiding spots if you plan on gaining access at night. You should also consider dumpster diving as a way to gain access to sensitive data. Check the location of the dumpsters and whether they are easily accessible.
It would be a good idea to know when the garbage is collected so that you can fake being part of the garbage crew. They are also used to track the files and directories that an employee creates or modifies. Getting your hands on an ID badge may require you to steal one from a legitimate employee, or making your own fake badge. If you cant get an ID badge, then your other options would be: Enter as a visitor and evade your escort.
Use the tailgating technique, assuming the building doesnt have a mantrap. Befriend an employee in the smoking area and follow them in as you continue your conversation. Get a fake uniform and impersonate a contractor, salesperson, or repairman. If you want to go all-in, then consider acquiring a service truck and equipment to make you appear more legit. Intrusion Detection Systems These generally include motion detectors and intrusion alarms.
You will have to know the types of motion detectors you are dealing with. Are they infrared, heat-based, wave pattern, capacitance, photoelectric, or passive audio motion detectors? Each of these works differently and understanding its strengths and weaknesses will help you in your mission. You will also need to know the type of alarms inside the building. The facility may have sensors on the doors and windows, glass break detectors, water sensors, and so on.
While some alarms are meant to silently notify security of a potential breach, others are designed to deter or repel the attacker. A deterrent alarm will close doors and activate locks to seal everything and everyone in. A repellant alarm will make loud noises and emit bright lights to try and force an attacker out of the building. Technical controls This is usually focused on controlling access because it is the most vulnerable area of physical security.
Technical controls include smart cards and CCTV cameras. These have microchips and integrated circuits that process data and enable a two-factor authentication. Having the card alone will not get you access to a facility. However, smart cards have certain vulnerabilities. One method of bypassing smart cards is through fault generation.
This is where you reverse-engineer the encryption in order to find the encryption key and access the stored data. This involves inputting computational errors by altering the clock rate and input voltage or changing the temperature fluctuations. You could also use a side-channel attack to figure out how the card works without damaging it. This involves exposing the card to different conditions through electromagnetic analysis, differential power analysis, and timing.
Another way is to use software to perform a noninvasive attack. This involves hacking the software and loading commands that enable you to extract account data. Finally, there is a method known as micro-probing. This is an intrusive attack that involves connecting probes directly to the chip.
The goal here is to take the chip out and reset it. They are located at strategic places and are monitored by security guards sitting in a control room. However, there are always blind spots to be exploited, so you need to know where these are. The cameras can be wireless or web-based, which means you can either hack the camera feed and manipulate the images being shown on screen or jam the signal. Physical security is a critical part of cyber security. Hackers will always look for any weakness that they can find, whether online or offline.
Chapter 5: Social Engineering Did you know that in the year , the top three cyber-threat concerns were social engineering, insider threats, and advanced persistent threats? This shows you just how rampant social engineering attacks have become in cyber security. Why do you think social engineering is number one on that list?
A hacker is supposed to attack the system or network, so why would they focus on another aspect of an organizations security system? The answer lies in the people. The biggest weakness of every element of security is the people involved. We saw in the last chapter how the most advanced technology cannot protect you against cyber attacks if the people guarding the building are sleeping on the job. Through social engineering, you can hack the people by gaining their trust and exploiting them for the information you need.
However, you will require a certain degree of boldness and skill to get people to trust you, considering that you are a total stranger. One aspect of social engineering is that it is usually done together with a physical security hack. The aim is to make contact with someone who has specific information that can help you gain access to the files or resources of your intended target.
Send the target an email that contains links. When they click the link, malware or a virus is downloaded onto their computer, thus allowing you to control the system and acquire data. If you are an employee in a company and want to gain unauthorized access to confidential data, you could inform the security department that you have lost your access badge. They will give you the keys to enter the room thus allowing you to get to the physical and digital files you want.
You could impersonate a genuine product vendor and claim that your company needs to update or install a patch on the clients software e. You could then request to be given the administrator password. Alternatively, you could just ask them to download the fake software, which would then give you remote access to the targets network.
These examples may seem too simple or easy, but remember that social engineering is the most used tactic by hackers to breach cyber security. By learning how malicious hackers commit their exploits, you are better placed to prevent your own system, or others, from getting hacked. Social Engineering Strategies Lets look in depth at some of the strategies that hackers use when performing a social engineering attack.
Gaining Trust One of the best ways to build trust for a social engineering hack is through words and actions. You have to be articulate, sharp, and be a good conversationalist.
There are instances when a social engineer fails in their mission because they were careless in their talk or acted nervously. This often happens when the hacker displays the following signs: Talking too much or showing too much enthusiasm Acting nervously in response to questions Asking odd questions Appearing to be in a hurry Having information only reserved for insiders Talking about people in upper management within the organization Pretending like they have authority within the company As long as you practice good social engineering skills and techniques, you will be able to conceal these signs.
One extremely effective tactic to use to gain someones trust is to go out of your way to do someone a favor and then immediately ask for one in return. Another tactic is something that youve probably seen in a movie. You set someone up by creating a particular problem for them. When the victim cries out for help, you dash to the scene and save them. This works to create a bond between you and the potential target. A fake work ID and uniform can sometimes help you impersonate an employee in a company, thus allowing you to enter the facility undetected.
People will even give you passwords and other sensitive information as long as you appear to be one of them. Phishing Hackers who use social engineering attacks are able to exploit their targets using technology since its easier and more entertaining.
People can be very nave especially when they are online. It is simply amazing how trusting people are in this day and age of increasing cyber attacks. Phishing involves sending the target emails that appear to be from a legitimate or trusted source. The aim is to get them to share sensitive or personal information either by sending it directly or clicking on links. The email will look like the real deal to the intended target but that is because you will have spoofed the IP address to display an email address that appears genuine.
You can pretend to be a close friend, relative, or colleague and request them to send you their personal information. You can also pretend to be a financial institution and ask them to click the link in order to update their account information. When they do so, they will be directed to a fake website that mirrors the real one.
As they log in, you can gain access to their usernames, user IDs, passwords, bank account number, or social security number.
Spamming is another tactic you can perform. You just send them a ton of emails and wait for them to become curious and open at least one of them. The email will contain a request to download a free gift ebook, video, coupon, etc.
One of the most common tricks is to claim to be a verified software vendor. All you have to do is send the target a software patch via email and ask them to download it for free. What they dont realize is that the software is actually a Trojan horse or backdoor that allows you to have complete control of their system.
Phishing scams work so well because they are very difficult to trace back to the hacker. The tools that social engineers use, for example, remailers and proxy servers, provide adequate anonymity to keep them from being found out. How to Prevent a Social Engineering Hack As a budding hacker, you are probably more interested in learning how to perform an attack rather than preventing it.
However, as we said in the beginning, hacking can work both for good and for bad. It is important, therefore, that you understand how an attack can be prevented so that you can advise a client accordingly.
This information will also help you perform more effective exploits. After all, theres no need to waste time and energy attacking the target using a technique that they have already protected against. Organizations will generally use two techniques to prevent social engineers from exploiting their vulnerabilities: 1. Developing and enforcing strict policies The organization can create hierarchies of information, where users are permitted to access some but not all data.
There should also be strict enforcement of wearing ID badges by all employees and consultants, and every guest must be escorted by security. When fired employees, contractors, or suppliers leave the premises, they should be stripped of their IDs.
The same password should also not be used for more than a set duration. Finally, in the event that a breach or suspicious behavior is detected, there must be a quick response by the security personnel. The most important aspect of any organizational policy is observance. The people involved must understand the requirements and follow them at all times. Training the users in security awareness Most employees simply do not know what to do when they are faced with a social engineering attack.
There has to be some kind of user awareness and training in order to teach people how to identify and respond to hackers.
This training should be continuous rather than a one-time event. The training program should be easy enough for those who are not technically-minded to understand. It is also important for upper managers to lead by example and undertake the training too.
Since social engineering attacks arent just targeted at organizations, we need to examine how individuals can protect themselves.
Some of the ways of preventing this kind of attack include: 1. Avoid giving out passwords to random people. Avoid sending your personal information via email or social media without verifying the identity of the receiver. Make sure that you know who is sending you a friend or connection request on Facebook, LinkedIn, or Twitter.
Avoid downloading attachments from unidentified IP addresses, or clicking on links in spam mail. Avoid the tendency to hover your cursor over an email link. Hackers are able to embed malware in a link and trigger a download the moment the mouse moves over it. Anti-malware is a good way to prevent this type of hack. The truth is that while social engineering can be a bit complicated to pull off, preventing it is also very difficult. An organization cannot control all the people linked to it at all times, and as individuals, everyone has their own unique weakness.
It is your job to find it and exploit it. Chapter 6: Hacking Passwords One of the most common ways to ensure the safety of your data is to password-protect it. We have become so used to putting passwords in all our digital devices that we actually believe that this measure is enough to keep our information safe. However, the truth is very different. Hacking attacks and Examples Test. Hacking Computer Systems and Tutorials.
Hacking into Computer Systems. Hacking Website Database and owning systems. Network Hacking and Shadows Hacking Attacks. Penentration Testing With Backtrack 5. Reverse Engineering for Beginners. Reverse Enginnering The Real Hacking.
Reverse Enginnering Hacking and Cracking. Secrets of Super and Professional Hackers. Security Crypting Networks and Hacking. The Hackers Underground Handbook hack the system. Ultimate Guide to Social Enginnering attacks.
Web App Hacking Hackers Handbook. Knowledge Score: Handwritten notes available for students of computer science, who have taken programming as a subject.
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