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BOOK OF KNOWLEDGE OF INGENIOUS MECHANICAL DEVICES

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To judge by the dictum of al-Ja~i?: (d. A.D. ), 'Wisdom has descended upon these three: the brain of the Byzantine, the hands of the Chinese, and the tongue . The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. The site is hoping to bring back the book to life and to meet, through the book, the author, al Jazari. The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical DevicesbyIbn al-Razzaz al- JazariTranslated byDonald R. Hill.


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The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious. Mechanical Devices. (Kitiib ji ma

Hagop Kevorkian - Description Detached folio from a copy of the Kitab fi ma'arifat al-hiyal al-handasiya The book of knowledge of ingenious mechanical devices, known as "Automata" by al-Jazari; text: Arabic in black naskh script; recto: Basin of the two scribes, an instrument for use in blood-letting, 21 lines; verso: text, one column, 21 lines; one of a group of 8 folios. Label One of the earliest and most fascinating illustrated manuscripts from the Arab world is the so-called Automata by al-Jaziri. The text is devoted to the construction of fifty mechanical devices, including different types of clocks, fountains, and containers for liquids. While the compositions are primarily intended to illustrate the mechanisms of these ingenious instruments, their vibrant colors and fine surface details enhance the pictorial interest of these early scientific manuscripts. The first chapter of the Automata discusses complicated hydraulic clocks and their various components. One such clock is adorned with a copper disc decorated with the signs of the zodiac.

Leonardo da Vinci engineering career included military chapters as evident from his letter to Ludovico Sforza, ruler of Milan.

Al-Jazari: the Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices : D.R. Hill :

Also, if one cannot, when besieging a terrain, proceed by bombardment either because of the height of the glacis or the strength of its situation and location, I have methods for destroying every fortress. Two possible explanations: The principality in Diyarbakir was so peaceful that there was no need for a military engineer. The expectations from the Court engineer in Diyarbakir were different.

In he was appointed the governor of Jerusalem, a surprising twist to a story about a Muslim dynasty which ruled in Diyarbakir Anatolia.

We need to remember that the Middle East map in the 11th and 12th centuries is very different from the map we know today. This door was installed at the Artuqid Palace in Diyarbakir where al-Jazari was the court engineer. The Palace was built within the walls of Diyarbakir during the reign of Salih Nasreddin Mahmud Artuqid king who employed al-Jazari like his father and brother before him. In the 12th century, there were a few battles with the Crusaders, with Georgia and clashes of within the Muslims.

The Artuqids are a Turkmen dynasty which started as a warrior tribe, and its original power was military. In the 12th century, they were settling in the old cities of Amida the previous name Diyarbakir and Mardin.

These are ancient cities with urban culture since the Assyrians. The population is diverse and includes veteran Christian and newcomer Turkmen population as well as other migrants from Iran and other places that continued through the 13th century. Beyond the monumental Al- Jazari book, there was probably a workshop for copying and illustrating manuscripts.

Rachel Ward identified two other illuminated manuscripts that were produced there. There were new architectural designs, Sharon Talmor as part of her graduate work at the University of Tel Aviv found three which mark a new era in Islamic architecture. Label One of the earliest and most fascinating illustrated manuscripts from the Arab world is the so-called Automata by al-Jaziri. The text is devoted to the construction of fifty mechanical devices, including different types of clocks, fountains, and containers for liquids.

While the compositions are primarily intended to illustrate the mechanisms of these ingenious instruments, their vibrant colors and fine surface details enhance the pictorial interest of these early scientific manuscripts.

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The first chapter of the Automata discusses complicated hydraulic clocks and their various components. One such clock is adorned with a copper disc decorated with the signs of the zodiac.

Al Jazari – The Book Of Knowledge Of Ingenious Mechanical Devices

Each one encircles the sun and moon along its own orbit. At certain times of the day, the disc revolves and musicians play to announce the new hour. The Basin of the Scribes belongs to the chapter on pitchers, basins, and other vessels containing or measuring liquids. Like his father before him, he served as chief engineer at the Artuklu Palace, the residence of the Mardin branch of the Artuqids which ruled across eastern Anatolia as vassals of the Zengid dynasty of Mosul and later of Ayyubid general Saladin.

According to Mayr, the book's style resembles that of a modern "do-it-yourself" book. Some of his devices were inspired by earlier devices, such as one of his monumental water clocks, which was based on that of a Pseudo-Archimedes. Al-Jazari goes on to describe the improvements he made to the work of his predecessors, and describes a number of devices, techniques and components that are original innovations which do not appear in the works by his precessors Mechanisms and methods While many of al-Jazari's inventions may now appear to be trivial, the most significant aspect of al-Jazari's machines are the mechanisms, components, ideas, methods, and design features which they employ Camshaft A camshaft, a shaft to which cams are attached, was introduced in by al-Jazari, who employed them in his automata, water clocks such as the candle clock and water-raising machines.

The cam and camshaft also appeared in European mechanisms from the 14th century Crankshaft and crank-slider mechanism The eccentrically mounted handle of the rotary quern-stone in fifth century BCE Spain that spread across the Roman Empire constitutes a crank. The earliest evidence of a crank and connecting rod mechanism dates to the 3rd century AD Hierapolis sawmill in the Roman Empire.

In , al-Jazari invented an early crankshaft, which he incorporated with a crank-connecting rod mechanism in his twin-cylinder pump.

Like the modern crankshaft, Al-Jazari's mechanism consisted of a wheel setting several crankpins into motion, with the wheel's motion being circular and the pins moving back-and-forth in a straight line.

The crankshaft described by al-Jazari transforms continuous rotary motion into a linear reciprocating motion, and is central to modern machinery such as the steam engine, internal combustion engine and automatic controls.

He used the crankshaft with a connecting rod in two of his water-raising machines: the crank-driven saqiya chain pump and the double-action reciprocating piston suction pump.

His water pump also employed the first known crank-slider mechanism. Design and construction methods English technology historian Donald Hill writes: We see for the first time in al-Jazari's work several concepts important for both design and construction: the lamination of timber to minimize warping, the static balancing of wheels, the use of wooden templates a kind of pattern , the use of paper models to establish designs, the calibration of orifices, the grinding of the seats and plugs of valves together with emery powder to obtain a watertight fit, and the casting of metals in closed mold boxes with sand.

Escapement mechanism in a rotating wheel Al-Jazari invented a method for controlling the speed of rotation of a wheel using an escapement mechanism.

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Mechanical controls According to Donald Hill, al-Jazari described several early mechanical controls, including "a large metal door, a combination lock and a lock with four bolts. Water-raising machines al-Jazari's hydropowered saqiya chain pump device.

Al-Jazari invented five machines for raising water, as well as watermills and water wheels with cams on their axle used to operate automata, in the 12th and 13th centuries, and described them in It was in these water-raising machines that he introduced his most important ideas and components.

Saqiya chain pumps The first known use of a crankshaft in a chain pump was in one of al-Jazari's saqiya machines. The concept of minimizing intermittent working is also first implied in one of al-Jazari's saqiya chain pumps, which was for the purpose of maximising the efficiency of the saqiya chain pump. Al-Jazari also constructed a water-raising saqiya chain pump which was run by hydropower rather than manual labour, though the Chinese were also using hydropower for chain pumps prior to him.

The book of knowledge of ingenious mechanical devices (Kitāb fī ma 'rifat al-hiyal al-handasiyya)

Saqiya machines like the ones he described have been supplying water in Damascus since the 13th century up until modern times, and were in everyday use throughout the medieval Islamic world. Double-action suction pump with valves and reciprocating piston motion Citing the Byzantine siphon used for discharging Greek fire as an inspiration, al-Jazari went on to describe the first suction pipes, suction pump, double-action pump, and made early uses of valves and a crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism, when he invented a twin-cylinder reciprocating piston suction pump.

This pump is driven by a water wheel, which drives, through a system of gears, an oscillating slot-rod to which the rods of two pistons are attached. The pistons work in horizontally opposed cylinders, each provided with valve-operated suction and delivery pipes.

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The delivery pipes are joined above the centre of the machine to form a single outlet into the irrigation system. This water-raising machine had a direct significance for the development of modern engineering.

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