Anatomy and Phisiology of Farm Animals (Frandson, Wilke and Fails) - https:// musicmarkup.info Anatomia de los animales domésticos INCOMPLETO - (Getty, Sisson and .. Períodos de Desenvolvimento dos Gatos - musicmarkup.info Português: Imagem de Robert Getty. Date, Source, SISSON/GROSSMAN. Anatomia dos animais domésticos. Author, John B. Herrick. getty, r - sisson/grossman, anatomia dos animais domésticos - volume 1 e 2 konig anatomia animais domesticos 4ed free ebooks in pdf format - a borostyanko.
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Morphol, 25 4 : , There are several classical descriptions of the male reproductive tract, always aiming at establishing a correlation with shape, testicular size, age and sexual maturity. This study analyzed 50 male Gallus domesticus, 1 to 64 weeks old. The birds were collected with 10 days and then weekly until 24 weeks, following 37, 48, 59 and 64 weeks, and sacrificed by cervical displacement. It was observed the sintopies of testis with the other organs.
However, this species is characteristics, such long orange beak and black spot on threatened as victim of anthropic actions, including end, its black plumage, an area of bare orange skin animal trafficking [5,6].
Thus, this work aimed to perform an weight grams . In this sense, the present loot nests of other birds and feed their eggs or puppies work shows unprecedentedly discovered about this . The first branches of Aorta fundamental for regeneration of forests . The planet are three coronary arteries: Right, Left and Dorsal.
The Cerrado is member and Cervicobrachial to neck and right thoracic the second largest Brazilian biome, consisting of a mosaic limb. It is a bird Piciforme order flora diversification of Cerrado environments. The group and Ramphastidae family, found in all central part of of birds presents an expressive concentration of species in Brazilian territory and some parts of site, exhibiting Cerrado, since practically half of species registered in abundance in Cerrado and Atlantic Forest [1,3,4].
Due Brazil can be found in this biome.
Major revisions of unmistakable and unmistakable characteristics, Toucanos www. All procedures were ramifications. In domestic birds, the first branches of conducted in accordance with ethical principles and Ascending Part are Right Coronary and Left approved by the Institutional Ethics in Research CoronaryAa. Branches, unlike mammals.
The Deep Branch is larger The study was made in the research laboratory of than Superficial and travels through interventricular human and comparative anatomy of Federal University of septum.
The right coronary artery is larger than left. Subsequently was made a Right and Left Subclavian Arteries.
Each system secluded, exposing dorsal wall of abdomen. The were removed to expose abdominal aorta artery and its Descending Aorta, along its path through thorax and branches.
At the fifth costal level, used to photographical documentation and description descending aorta emits two large branches, Celiac A. In the pelvic Anatomical Nomenclature. A Brachiocephalic a. Subclavian a.. A Cervicobrachial a.
The descending aorta begins at cranial pole of together Celiac A. The first major branch of descending as Intercostals Aa. Aorta follows which dorsally crosses renal lobe in lateral direction, but caudally, now much smaller in caliber, on ventral surface does not provide any branches before reaching of synsacrum and divides into Internal Iliacs Aa. Thereafter, a large Sciatica A. Medial Caudal. Internal Iliac provides branches to appears on each side, as penultimate branch of aorta, intrapelvic structures and medial flow goes to uropygium.
Both Sciatic Arteries A large Caudal Mesenteric Artery arises from Internal cross laterally caudal lobe of the kidney and path emits a Iliac and suppresses intra-pelvic viscera and caudal part branch for renal lobe, then follows freely until Ileum- of intestine Figure 3. Ornitologia Neotropical.
The empty forest. Celiac A. Studies on , Baumelet al. Besides, studies on the birds reproductive tract, mainly concerning physiological, endocrinologic and histological aspects were carried out by Aire , , and Aire et al. Besides these species, Mercadante et al.
Also, Lake , states that birds do not have a pampiniform plexus typical of mammals. Hess et al described the ductus sucession from the seminiferous tubules to the ductus deferens papilla, as well the microscopy of the epididymal region and ductus deferens in turkey Meleagrisgallopavo. On the other hand, Reviers , by studying the testis development of hybrid Rhode x Wyandotte, reported the testis ponderal growth by using the organ weight and histological analysis through seminiferous tubules diameter measures.
Similarly, Vehrencamp in studies with weighing and measures of ani Crotophaga sulcirostris testis, carried out measurements of seminiferous tubules diameters, correlating them according to age.
Based on this literature, we proposed to observe the macroscopy of the male reproductive tract organs, as well analyze and describe the testicular development related with the organ weight and dimensions, and infer the sexual maturity age with basis on testis macroscopic data.
The samples of 2 animals were slaughtered initially with 10 days and then, weekly, until 24 weeks. Further with 37, 48, 59 and 64 weeks, that is, 9, 11, 14 and 15 months, respectively.
The animals were weighed and sacrificed by cervical displacement. After abdominal laparotomy, the visceras were carefully handled for the reproductive organs approach, allowing the study of the testis general morphology and topographical relations. The parts were schematized and photographed, then the organs were removed and the gonads dissected under estereoscopic microscope. The testis macroscopic structure was analyzed "in situ", taking into consideration the following parameters: dimensions length and width , shape, position asymetry, holotopy and sintopy.
The testis were removed and weighed in analytical scale.
RESULTS The testes are even organs, internal, parallel, displaced at the sides of the body median line, presenting rounded surface, however, with varied shape. Until the 20th week, they were oval, elongated, curve, tortuous and, sometimes, with fine caudal extremity Fig. The testis presented a central area slightly depressed through which the testicular arteries from the abdominal aorta artery supply them Fig. B artery baa and ductus deferens dd.
Comparative analysis of the right and left testis length showed that up to 24 weeks of age the left testis had higher length, in most cases Fig. Yet, at advanced ages, the right testis length was predominant Fig.
The testis were displaced caudally to the lungs and ventrally to the right and left kidneys and keep relation to the right and left hepatic lobes visceral face, respectively. Until the age of 20 weeks, they were displaced over the kidneys cranial portion Fig.
Fowl testis with: A 13 weeks of age. Right testis RT with lenght higher than the left testis LT ; lung 1 ; right kidney rk ; left kidney Ik. Thus, up to 21 weeks of age, we noticed that the spleen occupies a ventral position in relation to the left testis, while the aglandular stomach is lateral to it. However, between 22 and 59 weeks, the spleen begins occupying the medial position and the aglandular stomach is ventrally to the left testis Fig.
With the testis length growth, the jejunum, which had relation with the right testis cranial pole, begins to maintain close relation to its caudal pole Fig. The extratesticular seminiferous path is made up bilaterally of the epididymis and ductus deferens. The epididymis are firmly applied to the corresponding testis dorsomedial face and continue with the ductus deferens, which are located at the sides of the body median line medially to the ureters Fig.
Distally, the ductus deferens are lateral to the ureters to open themselves through the ductus deferens papilla in the urodeo, median segment of the cloaca, followed by the proctodeo, last segment of the cloaca, on whose ventral floor is the phallus, the male copulator organ Fig.
When resting, the cloaca dorsal and ventral labiuns are rolled up, seem to be the cloaca opening in form of a transverse fissure Fig. However, when the labiuns evert, we observed that the opening may be a vertical fissure Fig.
It is compounded by the median phallic body or white body Fig. The growth variation model allowed us to verify when the testis reached their maximum growth, until what age they presented growth and the beginning of the decrease.
For the weight, we noticed that the right testis reached its maximum growth at days, more precocious than the left one, with days. Weight decrease began at days for the right testis and days for the left testis.
We observed that the length of both testis presented maximum expression at days and the beginning of decrease occurred at days for the right testis and days for the left one. As for width, the maximum growth of the left side was precocious at days in relation to the right with days, presenting decrease from and days, respectively Table 1 and Fig. Testicular weight variation rate due to the animal age.
On the other hand, Artoni described that the right testis of adult quail tends to be a little longer and thick than the left one, which is more rounded, shorter and wider. Yet, in Columbia Livia, L. Such data are different from those found by us, where it was noticed a great variation in the fowl testis form until the 20th week, age from which a definitive and oval shape was assumed.
Similarly to Gray, Mercadante et al. However, the last two authors refer just to the presence of a testicular artery for testis irrigation, while our results corroborate with those by Gray, where several small testicular arteries reach the testis. Concerning sintopy, our results agree with those by Lake and Mercadante et al. Yet, in our results, we observed that up to the 20th week they were placed on the kidneys cranial portion and grew markedly from the 21st week, reaching the kidneys median portion.
According to Latimer and Artoni, the testis weight varied with basis on an annual testicular cycle. Maybe comparatively, Kaupp reports that males become sexually active when the testis reach their maximum size.
Such data corroborate with ours, where the maximum weight of the right and left testis occurred at and days, respectively, suggesting sexual maturity in this species. Besides, correlate studies establish comparative parameters of age, testicular weight and lineage Parker et al. Munro et al. The ductus deferens descending course parallel to the ureter in direction to the urodeo is similar in fowl Lake, ; King , male pigeon Mercadante et al. Similarly to Mercadante et al.
Aire, T. Micro-stereological study of the avian epididymal region. Anat, 4 , The ductuli efferents of the epididymal region ofbirds. The rete testis of birds. Anat, 1 , The structure of the excurrent ducts of the testis of the guinea-fowl Numida meleagnis. The post-hatching development of the gonads in the fowl, Gallus domesticus.