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Internet mail protocols have become not just an enabling technology for messaging, but a programming interface on top of which core applications are built. Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Visual Basic Internet Programming. Read more Mozillas Firefox, Thunderbird und Lightning: Internet, Mail und mehr. Programming Internet Email HQ [SMTP,MIME,IMAP,POP3] Communicating with Email and the Internet: Learning Made Simple · Read more.
English vs. French if the server maintain multiple versions for the same document.
Accept: mime-type-1, mime-type-2, If the server has multiple versions of the document requested e. This process is called content-type negotiation. Accept-Language: language-1, language-2, If the server has multiple versions of the requested document e.
This process is called language negotiation. Accept-Charset: Charset-1, Charset-2, Accept-Encoding: encoding-method-1, encoding-method-2, If the server has encoded or compressed version of the document requested, it can return an encoded version supported by the client.
The server can also choose to encode the document before returning to the client to reduce the transmission time. The server must set the response header "Content-Encoding" to inform the client that the returned document is encoded. The common encoding methods are "x-gzip. Connection: Close Keep-Alive - The client can use this header to tell the server whether to close the connection after this request, or to keep the connection alive for another request.
Referer: referer-URL - The client can use this header to indicate the referrer of this request. If you click a link from web page 1 to visit web page 2, web page 1 is the referrer for request to web page 2. All major browsers set this header, which can be used to track where the request comes from for web advertising, or content customization.
Nonetheless, this header is not reliable and can be easily spoofed. Note that Referrer is misspelled as "Referer" unfortunately, you have to follow too. User-Agent: browser-type - Identify the type of browser used to make the request. Server can use this information to return different document depending on the type of browsers.
Cache-Control: no-cache Instead, it uses "Pragma: no-cache". This header will be described in later chapter on authentication.
This header will be discussed in later chapter on state management. If-Modified-Since: date - Tell the server to send the page only if it has been modified after the specific date. GET Request for Directory Suppose that a directory called "testdir" is present in the document base directory "htdocs". Otherwise, the server returns the directory listing, if directory listing is enabled in the server configuration. Otherwise, the server returns " Page Not Found".
The following trace was captured using telnet. A connection is established with the proxy server, and a GET request issued. Absolute request-URI is used in the request line.
However, the server returns only the response header without the response body, which contains the actual document. Sometimes, HEAD is not listed.
Based on the data submitted, the server takes an appropriate action and produces a customized response. Once they fill in the requested data and hit the submit button, the browser packs the form data and submits them to the server, using either a GET request or a POST request.
Each field has a name and can take on a specified value. This is known as a query string. It will send the query string to the server as part of the request. Special characters are not allowed inside the query string. If this amount exceed a server-specific threshold, the server would return an error " Request URI too Large". The URL-encoded query string would appear on the address box of the browser. POST method overcomes these drawbacks.
If POST request method is used, the query string will be sent in the body of the request message, where the amount is not limited. The request headers Content-Type and Content-Length are used to notify the server the type and the length of the query string. POST method will be discussed later. Suppose the user enters "Peter Lee" as the username, "" as password; and clicks the submit button.
You should never use send your password without proper encryption. Hostname: The DNS domain name e. Upcoming SlideShare. Like this presentation? Why not share!
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Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Published in: Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author: David Wood Pages: O Reilly Media Language: English ISBN