PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Principles of Management & Organisational musicmarkup.info Management Principles and Practice. P. G. D. B. M. (Semester-I) Examination, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR. ( Pattern). Management is a science because it contains general principles. It is also .. Managerial practice depends on circumstances (i.e., a contingency or a situation) .
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|ePub File Size:||21.76 MB|
|PDF File Size:||20.65 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
Principles and Practices of Management. 3. Preface. I am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the students. The book has been . This tutorial talks about the Principles of Management, the basic guidelines that This tutorial first justifies how management is both an art as well as science and goes Management began to materialize as a practice during the Industrial. Chapter 1: Introduction to Principles of Management. and Practices, was recognized as one of the most published authors of the s, and is a Fellow of .
Industrial revolution brought about a complete change in the methods of production, tools and equipments, organization of labour and methods of raising capital. Employees went to their work instead of receiving it, and so, the factory system, as it is known today, become a dominant feature of the economy. Under this system, land and buildings, hired labour, and capital are made available to the entrepreneur, who strives to combine these factors in the efficient achievement of a particular goal. All these changes, in turn, brought about changes in the field of management. Traditional, conventional or customary ideas of management were slowly given up and management came to be based on scientific principles. In the words of L.
Radical decentralization self-organization Formalized strategic analysis To beat back the forces of commoditization, a company must be able to deliver the kind of unique customer value that can only be created by employees who bring a full measure of their initiative, imagination, and zeal to work every day.
The machinery of bureaucracy was invented in an age when human beings were seen as little more than semiprogrammable robots.
Bureaucracy puts an upper limit on what individuals are allowed to bring to their jobs. Where do you find organizations in which people give all of themselves? You might start with Habitat for Humanity, which has built more than , homes for low-income families since Share a beer with a few of the part-time hackers who have churned out millions of lines of code for the Linux operating system.
Each of these organizations is more of a community than a hierarchy. People are drawn to a community by a sense of shared purpose, not by economic need. Control is more peer based than boss based.
Emotional satisfaction, rather than financial gain, drives commitment. For all those reasons, communities are amplifiers of human capability. Whole Foods, you will remember, long ago embraced the notion of community as an overarching management principle. Deconstruct your management orthodoxies.
To fully appreciate the power of a new management principle, you must loosen the grip that precedent has on your imagination. Painful as it is to admit, a lot of what passes for management wisdom is unquestioned dogma masquerading as unquestionable truth.
How do you uncover management orthodoxy? Pull together a group of colleagues, and ask them what they believe about some critical management issue like change, leadership, or employee engagement. For example, if the issue is strategic change, you may find that most of your colleagues believe that Change must start at the top; It takes a crisis to provoke change; It takes a strong leader to change a big company; To lead change, you need a very clear agenda; People are mostly against change; With any change, there will always be winners and losers; You have to make change safe for people; Organizations can cope with only so much change.
Empirically, these beliefs seem true enough, but as a management innovator, you must be able to distinguish between what is apparently true and what is eternally true. And yes, just about every story of corporate renewal is a turnaround epic with the new CEO cast as corporate savior. But is this the only way the world can work?
Why, you should ask, does it take a crisis to provoke deep change? For the simple reason that in most companies, a few senior executives have the first and last word on shifts in strategic direction. It usually takes a crisis to motivate deep change. As a management innovator, you must subject every management belief to two questions. Second, can you imagine an alternative to the reality the belief reflects? Take the typical assumption that the CEO is responsible for setting strategy.
Yet, if the goal is to accelerate the pace of strategic renewal or to fully engage the imagination and passion of every employee, a CEO-centric view of strategy formulation is unhelpful at best and dangerous at worst. Is there any reason to believe we can challenge this well-entrenched orthodoxy? Look at Google. The company organizes much of its workforce into small, project-focused teams with only a modicum of supervision one Google manager claimed to have direct reports!
Its developers post their most-promising inventions on the Google Labs Web site, which gives adventurous users the chance to evaluate new concepts. Few companies have worked as systematically as Google to broadly distribute the responsibility for strategic innovation. Its experience suggests that the conventional view of the CEO as the strategist in chief is just that: a convention.
And when you hold other management maxims up to the bright light of critical examination, you are likely to find that many are equally flimsy. As old certainties crumble, the space for management innovation grows. Exploit the power of analogy. Servant leadership.
The power of diversity. Self-organizing teams. These are newfangled notions, right?
Each of those important management ideas was foreshadowed in the writings of Mary Parker Follett, a management innovator whose life was bracketed by the American Civil War and the Great Depression.
The most essential work of the leader is to create more leaders. Adversarial, win-lose decision making is debilitating for all concerned. Contentious problems are best solved not by imposing a single point of view at the expense of all others but by striving for a higher-order solution that integrates the diverse perspectives of all relevant constituents. A large organization is a collection of local communities.
Individual and institutional growth are maximized when those communities are self-governing. Vested with little formal authority and faced with the challenge of melding the competing interests of several fractious constituencies, Follett developed a set of beliefs about management that were starkly different from those that prevailed at the time.
As is so often the case with innovation, a unique vantage point yielded unique insights. If your goal is to escape the straitjacket of conventional management thinking, it helps to study the practices of organizations that are decidedly unconventional.
With a bit of digging, you can unearth a menagerie of exotic organizational life-forms that look nothing like the usual doyens of best practice.
Imagine, for instance, an enterprise that has more than 2 million members and only one criterion for joining: You have to want in. It has virtually no hierarchy, yet it spans the globe.
Its world headquarters has fewer than employees. Local leaders are elected, not appointed. Before starting the design phase, finance leaders gathered at an off-site meeting to begin a rigorous exercise in alignment. Instead, they mostly operated as lone rangers, in characteristic startup style. Each of the executives in the group made a thoughtful individual presentation about the case for change. Most of them agreed on the general direction the company needed to take to achieve rapid growth.
But their descriptions of how to move in that direction—for example, what the first concrete steps should be—were all over the map. They were then tasked to work together to develop a case for change that every one of them could support. To hammer out these agreements, these top executives had to listen closely to their colleagues and weigh conflicting points of view. The exercise was demanding, but they began to coalesce around a coherent vision for what the company should look like in 10 years.
Most importantly, the experience of working together so intensely led the executives, for once, to act as a collaborative and committed team.
By the end of the off-site meeting, they found that they were all using the same language to describe what the company needed to do. As one participant noted, the experience had transformed him, which in turn gave him confidence that together they could cascade the plan to other groups at other levels of the hierarchy.
Involve every layer. Strategic planners often fail to take into account the extent to which midlevel and frontline people can make or break a change initiative.
The path of rolling out change is immeasurably smoother if these people are tapped early for input on issues that will affect their jobs. Frontline people tend to be rich repositories of knowledge about where potential glitches may occur, what technical and logistical issues need to be addressed, and how customers may react to changes.
In addition, their full-hearted engagement can smooth the way for complex change initiatives, whereas their resistance will make implementation an ongoing challenge.
Planners who resist early engagement at multiple levels of the hierarchy often do so because they believe that the process will be more efficient if fewer people are involved in planning. But although it may take longer in the beginning, ensuring broad involvement saves untold headaches later on.
The leadership team had met intensively to develop clear definitions of the cultural traits the organization would require going forward. Make the rational and emotional case together. Hewlett-Packard CEO Meg Whitman and her senior executive team appear to be following this principle in their transformation efforts. In any organization facing a challenging environment, the emotional connection fostered by moves like these is likely to make a major difference.
Act your way into new thinking. Many change initiatives seem to assume that people will begin to shift their behaviors once formal elements like directives and incentives have been put in place. People who work together on cross-functional teams will start collaborating because the lines on the chart show they are supposed to do so.
Managers will become clear communicators because they have a mandate to deliver a message about the new strategy. Yet lines on a chart and bold statements of intent have only so much impact. Start by defining a critical few behaviors that will be essential to the success of the initiative. Then conduct everyday business with those behaviors front and center. Senior leaders must visibly model these new behaviors themselves, right from the start, because employees will believe real change is occurring only when they see it happening at the top of the company.
Leaders of a major global manufacturer seeking to escape bankruptcy believed the company had lost touch with customers because of entrenched problems in its culture. Managers operated in an overly layered system without much accountability. They were ponderous, risk averse, insular, and prone to spending time on approvals and office politics. Instead of implementing a dramatic, full-scale turnaround, the change team demanded that leaders adopt three specific behaviors: Make major, visible decisions in days instead of weeks or months.
Spend time with people at the frontline leadership supervisory level, asking for their input and engaging them in frank discussions. Ensure the middle and lower ranks have direct contact with real-life customers.
Because these behavioral shifts were both limited and clearly spelled out, they were implemented quickly. Engage, engage, engage. Leaders often make the mistake of imagining that if they convey a strong message of change at the start of an initiative, people will understand what to do. Nothing could be further from the truth.
Powerful and sustained change requires constant communication, not only throughout the rollout but after the major elements of the plan are in place. A global publisher undertook a major initiative to become more digital, putting in place far-reaching structural changes.
The top leaders decided to engage people throughout the company at a variety of levels. First, they convened a series of town halls where large groups were given the news and invited to ask how the company-wide shift would affect them. Executives followed this with function-wide meetings where people could learn, for example, about the prospective impact on finance or human resources.
Finally, an internal trade fair was planned to showcase what various teams were doing to make the company more digital. This multifaceted and ongoing communications effort kept the message alive, giving every employee an understanding of the change and a stake in the outcome.
Lead outside the lines. Change has the best chance of cascading through an organization when everyone with authority and influence is involved. Companies that succeed at implementing major change identify these people early and find ways to involve them as participants and guides. People influenced by them feel good about working for the organization and have a desire to go above and beyond. They serve as both exemplars and communicators, spreading the word about why change is important.
Informal leaders must be identified before they can be engaged. The best way to do this in a large organization is to run a network analysis. By mapping out connections and seeing who people talk to, you can complement the formal org chart with one that enables you to lead outside the lines.
Leverage formal solutions. Many companies fall short in this area. A law firm tried to professionalize its clubby culture, which clients perceived as inwardly focused.