His Dark Materials has 22 entries in the series. Philip Pullman Author (). cover image of The Science of Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials. WYŻSZA SZKOŁA FILOLOGICZNA we Wrocławiu Katedra Neofilologii Kamil Borysiuk Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials trilogy as an interrogation of Clive. (Philip Pullman) 1. Introduction In the final v olume of the fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials was published in London. Although it was only after New Line.
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Also by Philip Pullman. His Dark Materials: The Golden Compass • Book I. The Subtle Knife • Book II. The Amber Spyglass • Book III. Lyra's Oxford. The Broken. PDF | The purpose of this paper is to analyze five themes of the trilogy His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman in the light of their similarity to. Philip Pullman - Dark Materials 02 - The Subtle Knife. Read more His Dark Materials (The Golden Compass; The Subtle Knife; The Amber Spyglass).
The electrifying plots and unusual and mysterious characters make these novels excellent choices for reading aloud. Themes of good vs. This guide offers questions for discussion and includes activities that connect the language arts, social studies, science, music, and art curriculum. In The Golden Compass, young Lyra Belacqua journeys to the far North to save her best friend and other kidnapped children from terrible experiments by evil scientists. And finally, in The Amber Spyglass, Lyra and Will, with the help of two tiny Gallivespian spies and Iorek Byrnison, the armored bear, set out to a world where no other living soul has ever gone, to make their most haunting discovery yet. He received his degree in English from Oxford University and has taught middle school English for many years.
During the time she spends with Mrs Coulter, questioning her about the severing and knowing that the woman in front of her is giving her answers which are lies, Lyra questions how she could ever have found Mrs. Coulter so fascinating and clever.
Lyra escapes from Mrs Coulter, finds Roger and leads him and the other children away from Bolvangar. A fight starts among the rescuers and the defenders. Suddenly the balloon is under attack too; Lyra is captured by armoured bears and, luckily for her, brought to where they all were heading, to Svalbard where Lord Asriel is being held captive. On Svalbard Lyra outwits the king of the bears, Iofur Raknison, and at the same time helps Iorek to regain his rightful place on the throne.
Instead she is disappointed when she explains to him that she went through all kinds of trouble to get to him since she believes that the purpose of giving the alethiometer to her, was to pass it on to him , and she says that when he saw that she was there, he almost fainted as if he had seen some horrible thing he never wanted to see again.
In her anger she tells him that he is not her father. She claims to love Farder Coram and even the armoured bear Iorek more than she loves her own father. Her father, Lord Asriel, tells her that if she is going to be sentimental he will not waste his time talking to her. The next morning she wakes up, realising that both her father and Roger are gone. All alone below the Aurora, Lyra is too late to save Roger. In the second novel called The Subtle Knife we meet Will for the first time.
After a fight with an old man in the Tower of the Angels, Will becomes the bearer of the Subtle Knife — a knife that can cut through the fabric between worlds, which makes it easier to travel between universes.
In the end of novel three, The Amber Spyglass, Lyra and Will stand before their biggest challenge yet. They have to enter the land of the dead and to be able to enter they must leave their souls behind.
This means that Lyra has to leave her beloved Pantalaimon. Both of them are crying, screaming in pain. Lyra moves across the water into the land of the dead, leaving Pantalaimon bitter cold and frightened on the muddy ground — alone. Yet another task must be accomplished. After crossing the waters, the harpies guarding the gate to the land of the dead must let you in. In return they want something from you.
In this case, Lyra offered to tell them a story, and she makes one up, since she is in the habit of nearly ever tell the truth. But the harpies are not fooled; they scream at her and call Lyra a liar.
Luckily they manage to sneak in, and among thousands and thousands of ghosts they find Roger and Lyra tells him that she did hear Dr. With living beings entering the land of the dead, there is a lot of commotion.
To calm everyone down, Lyra tells the true story of her journey from Oxford to the present. Even the harpies sit silent and listen, and it turns out that true stories about life nourish them.
A bargain is made with the harpies, their mission will be to guide the ghosts out into the open 13 Dark Matter. You can see them sometimes in the Northern Lights.
Not further away, but interpenetrating with this one. The final and last challenge, before returning home, is for Will and Lyra to leave each other since they have fallen in love. They are confused and overwhelmed by happiness at the same time, suddenly without knowing how it happened they are kissing passionately, and with fast beating hearts they embrace each other.
Concerning the prophecy, Lyra was meant to fall in love to stop the Dust from disappearing from the worlds. And since Lyra and Will are from different worlds one might think that the problem is easily solved; they just decide in whose world they want to live and that is it. However, this is the problem. For a short while, ten years together felt like an option, but Will is the one who realises that neither of them would be able to survive if the other one would die.
The only way to spend their whole lifetimes together is to go on living, not together, but apart. In the overwhelming situation, Lyra decides to ask the alethiometer what is the right thing to do, but she finds out that she cannot read it anymore. She is struck by this inability and realises that she has lost her ability to read the alethiometer forever.
They know it has to be the one they opened for the ghosts in the land of the dead. So in the end, Lyra and Will sacrifice their happiness, for the sake of all the souls in the universes. Well, he had changed. From being used to living in the moment, suddenly Lyra has to plan for her future. She ponders about the future and the girls in her future school.
They might be more intelligent than she is and more sophisticated. They surely know a lot more about things important to girls of her age. She could not tell them anything about what she has been through. Therefore the last part of book three, The Amber Spyglass, has been included in the discussion to complete the journey of development.
Book number two, The Subtle Knife, focuses for the most part on Will, whom I have decided to regard as a subordinate character to Lyra and as a result book two is not as important as book one and three in my analysis. His Dark Materials is a work of fantasy and not autobiographical, which Buckley states that the majority of the Bildungsromane, in his study, are.
But since he declares that not all Bildungsromane have to be autobiographical, he claims that a Bildung narrative can be fictional. As Buckley describes, almost every character and incident that the hero encounters may have some final relation to the development of the hero, which is the case with Lyra.
Separation According to Buckley, several protagonists in his study are orphans, come from rural communities and are often from poor conditions. Lyra is an orphan living in a rural community, Oxford, although she is not poor — she has a relative, her uncle Lord Asriel, who works with politics and science and therefore she is brought up under reasonable conditions at Jordan College.
If that incident had not been observed by her, she would never have saved her uncle and her curiosity of the North would never have been awakened. But that is not enough; the second call if there may be more than one is when her best friend Roger is abducted by the Gobblers.
Now she feels that she has got to leave and rescue him. Mrs Coulter shows up and offers Lyra the opportunity to leave, for London at first, but then to the North. This is exactly what happens to the hero of the Bildungsroman; Lyra leaves the security of home — and as most bildung heroes do — she enters the big city.
For Lyra, London is very different from Oxford. Instead of playing outdoors with friends, Lyra is indoors at fancy parties among grownups.
She discovers that Mrs Coulter is not whom she appears to be; she is instead the brain behind the Gobblers and Lyra realises it is dangerous to be around Mrs Coulter, and so she leaves. To find out that the one person you know in the entire city has been untrue to you must feel like the greatest betrayal.
Among them Lyra develops a close relationship to Farder Coram. When she finds out that she is not an orphan and learns who her parents are she is torn emotionally. She finds it easier to accept Lord Asriel as her father, but to accept Mrs Coulter, a liar and a child abductor, as her mother is not easy. I believe Lyra feels alienated in two ways: from her friends and from her parents. The alienation from her friends shows in the way she makes up stories about her parents and her past; she is a remarkable liar and maybe she lies to create some kind of security about her self, because she does not really know who she is and does 19 not feel that she truly fits anywhere.
The lies maybe started so that she could gain power and authority among the children, to feel that she had a function to fill somewhere. When it comes to her parents, it is pretty clear that Lyra feels alienated from them; she does not know them and I presume she feels betrayed by the fact that they have left her believing for years that she is an orphan. Lyra talks back and tells him that a father should love his child.
She grows even more distant from her father when he deceives her by killing her friend Roger. From having disliked her mother, which is the opposite to what male bildung protagonists do, who usually are in conflict with their fathers, Lyra also starts to dislike or even hate her father.
In the end, she dislikes both her mother and her father. During her travels with the Gyptians, Lyra has found both a mentor and maybe even a father figure in Farder Coram, since he takes the time to listen to what she is saying and is interested in her.
He also gives her clues and advice on how to read the alethiometer. It is also likely that the hero has been destined to go on his journey ever since he was born.
This is exactly the case with Lyra. After arriving at Dr. Lanselius in Trollesund, she is tested. The prophecy says that Lyra is the child that will save us all. Her entire journey from her departure from Oxford until her return is filled with trials. Females, however, do not have the same opportunities. Lyra is the protagonist in a twenty- first century novel, but even for her, sexuality is something she encounters only once throughout the trilogy: with Will in the end of The Amber Spyglass.
It is understandable that her encounters with sexuality are very few, since she is very young but I still believe that even if she had been in her older teens, she would not have had more than one sexual encounter — otherwise, since she is a woman, she could easily be vilified. Maybe, because of this social prescription, Lyra does not fall in love until the very end. This also marks another difference in Lyra from male protagonists; they can experience sexual encounters without being in love, whereas a woman only gives herself to the man she loves — or her husband if she forced into a marriage and has to fulfil her marital duty.
Male and female sexual encounters are not often seen and experienced in the same way. While male protagonists stay in the city and develop there, women are often placed outside the city, in the countryside as in Jane Eyre for example.
The idea behind situating women in the wild can be that there are not as many temptations outside the city: not as many people, not too many men to fall in love with and because of them fall in disgrace. This is one of the greatest ordeals for Lyra through the trilogy. She has to leave Pan, a part of her soul, behind — a torturing experience that demands both courage and strong will.
When she finally reunites with Pantalaimon, she and he are both changed. Until Lyra the name resembles the noun liar enters the land of the dead she has lied frequently and often avoided telling the truth. As the story develops, she learns that truth is the ultimate way to move forward.
In her confrontation with the harpies, she also learns that telling the truth is in the end what will set us all free. Pan has in the meantime almost figured out his settled form. They are very much on the threshold to completing their journey. Lyra has returned from a long journey where she has survived several trials; she has used her wit and imagination and escaped from captivity both in the care of Mrs Coulter and from Bolvangar and the bears of Svalbard.
She managed to save the children at Bolvangar and her friend Roger — although her mission concerning him was not fulfilled until she frees the souls from the land of the dead.
Her commitment in saving her friend is admirable, she never gives up. According to Buckley, the important task for the hero is to come to terms with himself or herself. In the end the person has achieved self-knowledge of who they are and what they are meant to do in life and can return home as an independent and confident individual.
The child she was in the beginning was very self-indulgent, trying to define herself through made up stories. She played pranks on people, did things without thinking of the consequences. This impulsive side of her may be a positive quality when it comes to understanding the alethiometer. A child simply does things, does not have the same self-awareness as an adult who would see the impossibility of reading a device who no one else can read without guidance.
As a child, nothing is impossible and when Lyra finds out that her father is Lord Asriel, she becomes even more confident in her own abilities. In returning to Oxford, she is more insecure and concerned about what people might think about her and she has lost her power in reading the alethiometer, but she now knows that she can regain the ability by working hard at it.
Buckley mentions that the ambition of many of Bildungsroman protagonists is to find what they are meant to do in life, mostly professionally. She will be a Scholar, learn to read the alethiometer and master it once again. In returning to Oxford, Lyra is also calmer and more respectful.
Campbell is of the opinion that the hero can achieve either a microcosmic or a macrocosmic triumph. Lyra manages to achieve both. When she, as a child, saves the children at Bolvangar, in her own universe, she accomplishes a microcosmic triumph.
Her deed affects everyone, irrespective which universe they live in. Conclusion Something happened when innocence changed into experience Pullman, Can His Dark Materials be considered a female Bildungsroman? I would definitely reply to that question in the affirmative. The novels are not autobiographical, but as Buckley himself points out, not all Bildungsromane are. The story is narrated in a chronological order, from beginning to end; there are no narrative flashbacks and no flash forwards.
Lyra is an orphan, comes from a rural community Oxford and leaves for the big city London , which she in time finds to be disappointing. She later leaves the city and travels further into the wild and dangerous unknown.
She achieves her mission in life, as she has been prophesised to do, and returns home to Oxford with a new understanding of life and herself. She has learned that one has to work for what one wants to achieve in life and to make the best of the means available in the life we live.
The departure with the call to adventure is fulfilled when Lyra decides to save Roger. The supernatural aid is the Master handing her the alethiometer. Crossing the first threshold is achieved when she travels with Mrs Coulter to London, but Pullman develops the story further and actually lets Lyra cross the threshold to the unknown three times included the journey to London when he lets her go to the dark and desolate North and also when the bridge through the Aurora brings her to another universe.
Lyra enters the belly of the whale when she descends to the 23 land of the dead and leaves her soul. Finally, Lyra crosses the return threshold as a whole new person, an adult. Will Parry , a sensible, morally conscious, assertive year-old boy from our world.
He becomes the bearer of the subtle knife. Will is independent and responsible for his age, having looked after his mentally ill mother for several years. She takes the permanent form of a large, shadow-colored cat. The Authority is the first angel to have emerged from Dust. He controls the Church, an oppressive religious institution. He told the later-arriving angels that he created them and the universe, but this is a lie.
Although he is one of the two primary adversaries in the trilogy — Lord Asriel is his primary opponent — he remains in the background; he makes his only appearance late in The Amber Spyglass. The Authority has grown weak and transferred most of his powers to his regent, Metatron. He is extremely aged, fragile and naive. Lord Asriel , ostensibly Lyra's uncle, is later revealed to be her father. He opens a rift between the worlds in his pursuit of Dust.
His dream of establishing a Republic of Heaven to rival the Authority's Kingdom leads him to use his power to raise a grand army from across the multiverse to rise up in rebellion against the forces of the Church. Marisa Coulter is the coldly beautiful, manipulative mother of Lyra and former lover of Lord Asriel.
She has black hair, a slim build, and looks younger than she is. Initially hostile to Lyra, she realises that she loves her daughter and seeks to protect her from agents of the Church, who want to kill Lyra. Metatron , Asriel's principal adversary, was a human in biblical times Enoch and was later transfigured into an angel. The Authority has displayed his declining health by appointing Metatron his Regent. As Regent, Metatron has implanted the monotheistic religions across the universes.
He becomes vulnerable to the seductive advances of Marisa Coulter, who betrays him by luring him into the underworld to his death. He is the series' main antagonist. He is an old Englishman, appearing to be in his sixties. He normally wears pale suits and is described as smelling sweetly. He is ultimately poisoned by Mrs. Coulter, to whom he has previously been a lover. Mary Malone , is a physicist and former nun from Will's world. She meets Lyra during Lyra's first visit to Will's world.
Lyra provides Mary with insight into the nature of Dust. Agents of the Church force Mary to flee to the world of the mulefa. There she constructs the amber spyglass, which enables her to see the otherwise invisible Dust.
Her purpose is to learn why Dust, which mulefa civilization depends on, is flowing out of the universe. Mary relates a story of a lost love to Will and Lyra, and later packs for them a lunch containing "little red fruits", which her computer, "the Cave," had instructed her to do. Iorek Byrnison is a massive armoured bear. Iorek's armour is stolen, so he becomes despondent.
With Lyra's help he regains his armour, his dignity, and his kingship over the armoured bears. In gratitude, and impressed by her cunning, he dubs her "Lyra Silvertongue". A powerful warrior and armoursmith , Iorek repairs the Subtle Knife when it shatters.
He later goes to war against The Authority and Metatron. Lee Scoresby , a rangy Texan , is a balloonist. He helps Lyra in an early quest to reach Asriel's residence in the North, and he later helps John Parry reunite with his son Will. Serafina Pekkala is the beautiful queen of a clan of Northern witches. Helped by other Jordan College employees, he is raising the supposedly orphaned Lyra.
Faced with difficult choices that only later become apparent, he tries unsuccessfully to poison Lord Asriel. Roger Parslow is the kitchen boy at Jordan College and Lyra's best friend. John Parry is Will's father. He is an explorer from our world who discovered a portal to Lyra's world and became the shaman known as Stanislaus Grumman or Jopari, a corruption of his original name. We later discover that Ma Costa nursed Lyra, when she was a baby. John Faa : The King of all the Gyptians.
He journeys with Lyra to the North with his companion Farder Coram. Faa and Costa rescue Lyra when she runs away from Mrs. Then they take her to Iorek Byrnison. Father Gomez is a priest sent by the Church to assassinate Lyra.
The angel Balthamos kills Gomez before he can reach her.