Sir Isaac Newton is generally regarded as the most original and influential theorist in the history of science. His passion was to unite knowledge and belief. sir isaac newton biography in hindi pdf Biography Sir Isaac Newton Sir Issac Newton ( ) was an English mathematician, physicist and scientist. Sir Isaac Newton FRS PRS was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, "Isaac Newton, heretic: the strategies of a Nicodemite" (PDF). .. on Newton's biography, optics, physics, reception, and on his views on science and .. Esperanto · Estremeñu · Euskara · فارسی · Fiji Hindi · Føroyskt · Français .
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LanguageEnglish. BIOGRAPHY, HINDI. IdentifierIsaacNewton-Hindi. Identifier- arkark://t0fv2gg9m. OcrABBYY FineReader Ppi 8 Isaac Newton. Potted biography. • born in Lincolnshire, East Midlands of England. • He was a small & weak baby. • Father died before birth. Mother. Isaac Newton was born on Christmas Day, 25 December in the county of Lincolnshire. His father, also named Isaac Newton, had died three months before .
His father, also named Isaac Newton, had died three months before. Born prematurely , Newton was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. Newton disliked his stepfather and maintained some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of "Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them. His mother, widowed for the second time, attempted to make him a farmer, an occupation he hated. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student,  distinguishing himself mainly by building sundials and models of windmills.
His mother, widowed for the second time, attempted to make him a farmer, an occupation he hated. Motivated partly by a desire for revenge against a schoolyard bully, he became the top-ranked student,  distinguishing himself mainly by building sundials and models of windmills. He started as a subsizar —paying his way by performing valet 's duties—until he was awarded a scholarship in , guaranteeing him four more years until he could get his MA.
He set down in his notebook a series of " Quaestiones " about mechanical philosophy as he found it. In , he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that later became calculus.
Soon after Newton had obtained his BA degree in August , the university temporarily closed as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student,  Newton's private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent two years saw the development of his theories on calculus ,  optics , and the law of gravitation. In April , he returned to Cambridge and in October was elected as a fellow of Trinity. However, by the issue could not be avoided and by then his unconventional views stood in the way.
His studies had impressed the Lucasian professor Isaac Barrow , who was more anxious to develop his own religious and administrative potential he became master of Trinity two years later ; in Newton succeeded him, only one year after receiving his MA. Most modern historians believe that Newton and Leibniz developed calculus independently, although with very different mathematical notations.
Occasionally it has been suggested that Newton published almost nothing about it until , and did not give a full account until , while Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in Leibniz's notation and "differential Method", nowadays recognised as much more convenient notations, were adopted by continental European mathematicians, and after or so, also by British mathematicians.
In , Duillier started to write a new version of Newton's Principia, and corresponded with Leibniz. Thus began the bitter controversy which marred the lives of both Newton and Leibniz until the latter's death in He discovered Newton's identities , Newton's method , classified cubic plane curves polynomials of degree three in two variables , made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences , and was the first to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations.
He approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms a precursor to Euler's summation formula and was the first to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. Newton's work on infinite series was inspired by Simon Stevin 's decimals. He was appointed Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in , on Barrow's recommendation.
During that time, any Fellow of a college at Cambridge or Oxford was required to take holy orders and become an ordained Anglican priest. Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II , whose permission was needed, accepted this argument. Thus a conflict between Newton's religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.
From to , Newton lectured on optics. Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. This is known as Newton's theory of colour. As a proof of the concept, he constructed a telescope using reflective mirrors instead of lenses as the objective to bypass that problem. Newton ground his own mirrors out of a custom composition of highly reflective speculum metal , using Newton's rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes.
In late ,  he was able to produce this first reflecting telescope. It was about eight inches long and it gave a clearer and larger image. In , the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Newton's ideas, Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. Newton and Hooke had brief exchanges in —80, when Hooke, appointed to manage the Royal Society's correspondence, opened up a correspondence intended to elicit contributions from Newton to Royal Society transactions,  which had the effect of stimulating Newton to work out a proof that the elliptical form of planetary orbits would result from a centripetal force inversely proportional to the square of the radius vector.
But the two men remained generally on poor terms until Hooke's death. Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating into a denser medium. He verged on soundlike waves to explain the repeated pattern of reflection and transmission by thin films Opticks Bk.
II, Props. However, later physicists favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for the interference patterns and the general phenomenon of diffraction.
Today's quantum mechanics , photons , and the idea of wave—particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Newton's understanding of light. In his Hypothesis of Light of , Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. The contact with the Cambridge Platonist philosopher Henry More revived his interest in alchemy.
John Maynard Keynes , who acquired many of Newton's writings on alchemy, stated that "Newton was not the first of the age of reason: He was the last of the magicians. Newton's postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing " occult agencies" into science.
Here Newton used what became his famous expression "hypotheses non-fingo" . With the Principia , Newton became internationally recognised. Newton found 72 of the 78 "species" of cubic curves and categorised them into four types. Newton also claimed that the four types could be obtained by plane projection from one of them, and this was proved in , four years after his death. In the s, Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal and symbolic interpretation of the Bible.
A manuscript Newton sent to John Locke in which he disputed the fidelity of 1 John 5: Scholars long debated whether Newton disputed the doctrine of the Trinity.
His first biographer, Sir David Brewster , who compiled his manuscripts, interpreted Newton as questioning the veracity of some passages used to support the Trinity, but never denying the doctrine of the Trinity as such. John —were published after his death. He also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy. Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England for Cambridge University in and , but according to some accounts his only comments were to complain about a cold draught in the chamber and request that the window be closed.
Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in , a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax , then Chancellor of the Exchequer. He took charge of England's great recoining, trodden on the toes of Lord Lucas, Governor of the Tower, and secured the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley. He retired from his Cambridge duties in , and exercised his authority to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters.
Counterfeiting was high treason , punishable by the felon being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convicting even the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult, however, Newton proved equal to the task.
Newton had himself made a justice of the peace in all the home counties. It is a matter of debate as to whether he intended to do this or not. The knighthood is likely to have been motivated by political considerations connected with the Parliamentary election in May , rather than any recognition of Newton's scientific work or services as Master of the Mint. Newton was one of many people who lost heavily when the South Sea Company collapsed. Toward the end of his life, Newton took up residence at Cranbury Park , near Winchester with his niece and her husband, until his death in Mercury poisoning could explain Newton's eccentricity in late life.
Although it was claimed that he was once engaged,  Newton never married. The French writer and philosopher Voltaire , who was in London at the time of Newton's funeral, said that he "was never sensible to any passion, was not subject to the common frailties of mankind, nor had any commerce with women—a circumstance which was assured me by the physician and surgeon who attended him in his last moments".
Newton had a close friendship with the Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier , whom he met in London around  —some of their correspondence has survived. The mathematician Joseph-Louis Lagrange said that Newton was the greatest genius who ever lived, and once added that Newton was also "the most fortunate, for we cannot find more than once a system of the world to establish.
Newton was relatively modest about his achievements, writing in a letter to Robert Hooke in February If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. Two writers think that the above quotation, written at a time when Newton and Hooke were in dispute over optical discoveries, was an oblique attack on Hooke said to have been short and hunchbacked , rather than—or in addition to—a statement of modesty.
I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. Royal Society scientists deemed Newton to have made the greater overall contribution. Newton's monument can be seen in Westminster Abbey , at the north of the entrance to the choir against the choir screen, near his tomb.
It was executed by the sculptor Michael Rysbrack — in white and grey marble with design by the architect William Kent.
The monument features a figure of Newton reclining on top of a sarcophagus, his right elbow resting on several of his great books and his left hand pointing to a scroll with a mathematical design.
Above him is a pyramid and a celestial globe showing the signs of the Zodiac and the path of the comet of A relief panel depicts putti using instruments such as a telescope and prism. Here is buried Isaac Newton, Knight, who by a strength of mind almost divine, and mathematical principles peculiarly his own, explored the course and figures of the planets, the paths of comets, the tides of the sea, the dissimilarities in rays of light, and, what no other scholar has previously imagined, the properties of the colours thus produced.
Diligent, sagacious and faithful, in his expositions of nature, antiquity and the holy Scriptures, he vindicated by his philosophy the majesty of God mighty and good, and expressed the simplicity of the Gospel in his manners.
Mortals rejoice that there has existed such and so great an ornament of the human race!
Smyth, The Monuments and Genii of St. Paul's Cathedral, and of Westminster Abbey , ii, — Newton was shown on the reverse of the notes holding a book and accompanied by a telescope, a prism and a map of the Solar System. A large bronze statue, Newton, after William Blake , by Eduardo Paolozzi , dated and inspired by Blake 's etching , dominates the piazza of the British Library in London.
Although born into an Anglican family, by his thirties Newton held a Christian faith that, had it been made public, would not have been considered orthodox by mainstream Christianity;  in recent times he has been described as a heretic. By he had started to record his theological researches in notebooks which he showed to no one and which have only recently been examined.
They demonstrate an extensive knowledge of early church writings and show that in the conflict between Athanasius and Arius which defined the Creed , he took the side of Arius, the loser, who rejected the conventional view of the Trinity. Newton "recognized Christ as a divine mediator between God and man, who was subordinate to the Father who created him.
Newton tried unsuccessfully to obtain one of the two fellowships that exempted the holder from the ordination requirement. At the last moment in he received a dispensation from the government that excused him and all future holders of the Lucasian chair. In Newton's eyes, worshipping Christ as God was idolatry , to him the fundamental sin. Snobelen says, "Isaac Newton was a heretic. He hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs. In a minority view, T. Pfizenmaier argues that Newton held the Eastern Orthodox view on the Trinity.
Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Newton's best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the Universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. He said, "Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done. Along with his scientific fame, Newton's studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. He believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza.
The ordered and dynamically informed Universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason. In his correspondence, Newton claimed that in writing the Principia "I had an eye upon such Principles as might work with considering men for the belief of a Deity". But Newton insisted that divine intervention would eventually be required to reform the system, due to the slow growth of instabilities. He had not, it seems, sufficient foresight to make it a perpetual motion.
Newton's position was vigorously defended by his follower Samuel Clarke in a famous correspondence. A century later, Pierre-Simon Laplace 's work " Celestial Mechanics " had a natural explanation for why the planet orbits do not require periodic divine intervention. Newton and Robert Boyle 's approach to the mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts , and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians.
The attacks made against pre- Enlightenment "magical thinking", and the mystical elements of Christianity , were given their foundation with Boyle's mechanical conception of the Universe. Newton gave Boyle's ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them.
In a manuscript he wrote in never intended to be published he mentions the date of , but it is not given as a date for the end of days. It has been falsely reported as a prediction. He was against date setting for the end of days, concerned that this would put Christianity into disrepute. And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of [long-]lived kingdoms the period of days, if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A. It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner.
Christ comes as a thief in the night, and it is not for us to know the times and seasons which God hath put into his own breast. Few remember that he spent half his life muddling with alchemy, looking for the philosopher's stone.
That was the pebble by the seashore he really wanted to find. Of an estimated ten million words of writing in Newton's papers, about one million deal with alchemy. Many of Newton's writings on alchemy are copies of other manuscripts, with his own annotations. In , after spending sixteen years cataloging Newton's papers, Cambridge University kept a small number and returned the rest to the Earl of Portsmouth. In , a descendant offered the papers for sale at Sotheby's.
Keynes went on to reassemble an estimated half of Newton's collection of papers on alchemy before donating his collection to Cambridge University in All of Newton's known writings on alchemy are currently being put online in a project undertaken by Indiana University: Newton's fundamental contributions to science include the quantification of gravitational attraction, the discovery that white light is actually a mixture of immutable spectral colors, and the formulation of the calculus.
Yet there is another, more mysterious side to Newton that is imperfectly known, a realm of activity that spanned some thirty years of his life, although he kept it largely hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues. We refer to Newton's involvement in the discipline of alchemy, or as it was often called in seventeenth-century England, "chymistry. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded. It was Newton's conception of the universe based upon natural and rationally understandable laws that became one of the seeds for Enlightenment ideology.
Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Newton's work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature. Newton himself often told the story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. John Conduitt, Newton's assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Newton's niece, also described the event when he wrote about Newton's life: In the year he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire.
Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity which brought an apple from a tree to the ground was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought.
In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry , "Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree. It is known from his notebooks that Newton was grappling in the late s with the idea that terrestrial gravity extends, in an inverse-square proportion, to the Moon; however it took him two decades to develop the full-fledged theory.
Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon's orbital period, and get good agreement.
He guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it "universal gravitation". Various trees are claimed to be "the" apple tree which Newton describes. The King's School, Grantham claims that the tree was downloadd by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster's garden some years later.
The staff of the now National Trust -owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Newton. A descendant of the original tree  can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale in Kent  can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent , a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the scientist. For the agriculturalist, see Isaac Newton agriculturalist. Influential British physicist and mathematician. Portrait of Newton by Godfrey Kneller , Woolsthorpe , Lincolnshire , England.
Kensington , Middlesex , England. Isaac Barrow  Benjamin Pulleyn  . Roger Cotes William Whiston. Main article: Early life of Isaac Newton. Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation. Religious interpretations of the Big Bang theory.
Further information: Writing of Principia Mathematica. Cubic plane curve. Later life of Isaac Newton. See also: Isaac Newton in popular culture. Religious views of Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton's occult studies and eschatology.
Newton, Isaac. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. University of California Press , Brackenridge, J. The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia: The Optical Papers of Isaac Newton. Opticks 4th ed. New York: Dover Publications. Newton, I. Motte, rev. Florian Cajori. University of California Press Whiteside, D. The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton.
Cambridge University Press. The correspondence of Isaac Newton, ed. Turnbull and others, 7 vols —77 Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections from His Writings edited by H. Millar and J. Nourse Newton, I. Cohen and R. Harvard University Press Newton, I. Hall and M. Cambridge University Press Newton, I. Isaac Newton's 'Theory of the Moon's Motion' Isaac Newton Isaac Newton portal. At Newton's birth, Gregorian dates were ten days ahead of Julian dates: By the time of his death, the difference between the calendars had increased to eleven days: His death occurred on 20 March according to the Old Style calendar, but the year is usually adjusted to A full conversion to New Style gives the date 31 March See Thony, Christie Calendrical confusion or just when did Newton die?
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