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New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice i Dedication to Peg ii New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice A text for all construction professionals Second. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Apr 21, , R. Emmanuel and others published New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice. Download New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice By Duncan Cartlidge – In the s, many pundits said that Quantity Surveyors were going the way of the.
Check stock Synopsis The construction industry has been undergoing rapid change in the last decade since the publication of the Latham and Egan reports, and quantity surveying professionals have been at the forefront of those challenges. Changing attitudes to procurement and partnering, and the evolving role of clients, have put the QS profession at the heart of delivering major construction projects. Duncan Cartlidge assesses what has driven these changes, and what they mean for the profession and for the industry as a whole. He explains modern procurement methods, and assesses how much impact technology has had on construction management - and how much it might have in the future. The first edition of this visionary book set out the future for Quantity Surveying - now that prediction has become reality, New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice is an even more indispensable guide to the opportunities and challenges facing the profession in the 21st Century.
Is this the right eBook for my device? How do I download this eBook? See help and FAQs pages. Estimator's Pocket Book 2e. Construction Project Manager's Pocket Quantity Surveyor's Pocket Book. Public Private Partnerships in Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube. Newsletter Sign up to the hive. New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice. By Duncan Cartlidge. Edition 2nd Edition. First Published Imprint Routledge.
DOI https: Pages pages. Subjects Built Environment. Export Citation. It has been argued that organisations like the Building Cost Information Service have been providing a benchmarking service for many years through its tender-based index. In addition, what is now required is a transparent mechanism to enable clients to determine for themselves which professional practice, contractor, subcontractor and so on delivers best value. Although the above figures appear to reinforce the march of design and build there is anecdotal evidence which suggests that as the recession took hold in clients were reverting to single-stage competitive tendering based on bills of quantities.
One of the main reasons cited for this was the poor quality control associated with design and build. Another interesting point about Table 1. By many of the above ingredients of the heady brew had been factored into UK construction practice. The main reason for this seems to be that everyone concerned in the construction process is familiar with the JCT, in all its forms, and more or less knows what the outcome will be in the event of a contractual dispute between the parties to the contract.
However, the JCT was often blamed for much of the confrontation that has historically been so much a part of everyday life in the construction industry and Latham in his report recommended the use of the NEC. One of the main differences between NEC and more traditional forms of contract is that the NEC has deliberately been drafted in non-legal language in the present tense, which may be fine for the parties to the contract but To date it appears as though the NEC is a step in the right direction for construction.
There are few disputes involving the NEC that have reached the courts and there is no substantive NEC case law, but time will tell whether that continues to be the situation when it becomes more widely adopted. New challenges As the second edition of New Aspects of Quantity Surveying Practice went to print in , sustainability and green issues were just coming to prominence in the world as a whole and the construction industry in particular.
In June the RICS published a guide entitled Surveying Sustainability which attempted to clarify for the professional the many issues surrounding the topic. As well as this guide a number of other government publications and targets have been and continue to be issued, which, taken together, make addressing sustainability a must for quantity surveyors.
Sustainability is so important for the construction industry because construction has been identified as one of the major contributors to carbon emissions and therefore to the great global warming debate, whether or not one actually subscribes to the various theories relating to climate change Figure 1.
The argument went that owing to a lack of recognised industry standard a new approach was required: A more detailed discussion of the NRM is given in Chapter 2. Conclusion There can be no doubt that the pressure for change within the UK construction industry and its professions, including quantity surveying, is unstoppable, and that the volume of initiatives in both the public and private sectors to try to engineer change grows daily.
Traditional manufacturing industries declined while services industries prospered, but throughout this period the construction industry has remained relatively static, with a turnover compared to GDP of 10 per cent.
The construction industry is still therefore a substantial and influential sector and a major force in the UK economy. Perhaps more than any other construction profession, quantity surveying has repeatedly demonstrated the ability to reinvent itself and adapt to change. Is there evidence that quantity surveyors are innovating and developing other fields of expertise?
In a report was published by the RICS Foundation which came to the conclusion that there was evidence of innovation, especially among the larger practices. The report was based on a survey of twenty-seven consultants from among the largest in the UK, ranked by the number of chartered quantity surveyors employed.
For the private limited companies this had resulted in organisations of a very different shape, with a flatter structure permitting more devolved responsibility and the potential for better communication throughout the organisation. The results indicate that in the case of the largest firms fewer than 50 per cent of fee income came from quantity surveying services. The services being offered by the firms include project management, legal services, taxation advice, value management and PFI consultancy.
The story so far 31 Table 1. It is claimed that one of the key objectives of the PFI is to bring private sector management expertise and the disciplines associated with private ownership and finance into the provision of public services.
However, if the PFI is to deliver value for money to the public sector, the higher costs of private sector finance and the level of returns demanded by the private sector investors must be outweighed by lower whole-life costs and increased risk transfer.
As will be discussed later in the chapter PPPs, and in particular the PFI, are now a global procurement model in which the UK is a world leader in terms of experience and know-how. The Ryrie Rules were partially phased out in and finally abandoned in with the launch of the PFI. The Autumn Statements of and by Chancellor Kenneth Clarke were used to reshape the design and nature of the initiative.
The intention was to bring the private sector into the provision of services and infrastructure, which had formerly been regarded as primarily a public 0. For many political spectators PFI was a natural progression for the Thatcher government that had so vigorously pursued a policy of privatisation during the s.
However, as far as government is concerned there is a clear distinction between the sale of existing public assets, which they see as privatisation, and the PFI, which they do not. It was against this backdrop therefore that in the PFI was launched and almost immediately hit the rocks. In addition, there was still a large divide and inherent suspicion between the public and private sectors and very little guidance from government as to how this divide could be crossed.
The second major problem in trying to get the PFI off the ground related to the way in which a whole range of projects in the early days of the initiative were earmarked by overzealous civil servants as potential PFI projects, when they were quite obviously not. This practice earned PFI the reputation of incurring huge procurement costs for consortia and contractors before it became apparent that the business case for the project would not hold water.
Figure 6. The Labour government was elected to power on a pledge to put partnership at the heart of modernising public services. Within a week of winning the election in May a Labour government appointed Malcolm Bates to conduct a wide-ranging review of the PFI. The first Bates Report made twenty-nine recommendations to which the dissolving of the Private Finance Panel in favour of a Private Finance Taskforce was key.
Following the publication of the second Bates Report in and its recommendation that deal-making skills could be strengthened and that all public sector staff engaged in PFI projects should undergo annual training, PricewaterhouseCoopers was tasked with producing a PFI Competence Framework.
In Sir Peter Gershon was invited to review civil procurement in central government. The subsequent report highlighted a number of weaknesses in government procurement systems as follows: Included in its remit is the sourcing and provision of finance or other forms of capital where these are not readily available from established financial markets, and it makes a charge for its services.
Most significantly, PUK may be seen to mark a move towards greater centralisation in the management of PPP projects and the development of standard documents, including contracts, in direct contrast to the mids when each government department was encouraged to develop its own specialist expertise. However, the government was also anxious to spread the use of private investment into local authorities, and in April the Local Authorities Associations established the Public Private Partnership Programme or 4Ps in England and Wales.
The local authority services covered by the 4Ps are, for example, housing, transport, waste, sport and leisure, education, etc. During the second and third terms of the Labour government in the UK a number of specialist PPP procurement routes have been devised in order to meet the needs of particular public sector agencies.
LIFT has been developed to meet a very specific need in the provision of primary and social healthcare facilities in inner city areas, that is to say GP surgeries, by means of a long-term partnering agreement. In order to participate in the programme, projects must be within areas designated as LIFT by the Department of Health.
Although LIFT is at present confined to the health sector, other sectors are looking closely at the model for possible adaptation to other public service provision. LIFT is based upon an incremental strategic partnership and is fundamentally about engaging a partner to deliver a stream of accommodation and related services through a supply chain, established following a competitive EU-compliant procurement exercise.
Similar to the approach adopted by framework agreements, there should be no need to go through a procurement process again for a bidder to undertake these additional projects. Therefore, just as in the case of ProCure 21 see below , there should be considerable savings in terms of cost and time over the duration of the partnership arrangement. Frameworks Framework agreements are being increasingly used to procure goods and services in both the private and public sectors.
In the private sector BAA was the first big player to make use of framework agreements and covered everything from quantity surveyors to architects and small works contractors. Promoting high-quality design. Ensuring that performance is monitored and improved through benchmarking and performance management. In common with most large public sector providers the NHS has suffered from the usual problems of schemes being delivered late, over budget and with varied levels of quality combined with little consideration for wholelife costs.
One of the main challenges to NHS capital procurement is the fragmentation of the NHS client base for specific healthcare schemes, since it comprises several hundreds of health trusts which all have responsibility for the delivery of schemes and each having differing levels of expertise and experience in capital procurement.
The solution to these problems was to develop an approach to procurement known as NHS ProCure 21 as a radical departure from traditional NHS procurement methods and its cornerstone of the massive capital investment programme in the NHS in the period up to The principle underpinning the ProCure 21 programme is that of partnering with the private sector construction industry. There are three types or PFI transactions currently in operation. The Private Finance Initiative is the widest used, most controversial and bestknown form of PPP, currently accounting for approximately 80 per cent of all expenditure on PPPs in the UK construction sector.
Classic PFI. Financially free-standing projects. Joint ventures. Delivering added value 1. Classic PFI Typically the private sector finances, builds and then operates over a thirtyto sixty-year period a traditional public sector asset and in return receives a unitary payment based upon performance and availability. In some cases e. Since its opening in Consort Healthcare maintains non-clinical hospital services such as car parking, catering, cleaning, planned maintenance, etc.
The public sector client, Lothian NHS Trust, retains the responsibility for the clinicians and clinical services, including all medical staff.
In return for providing and running the hospital building and all the ancillary services, Consort Healthcare receives a predetermined performance-based unitary payment for the duration of the PFI contract thirty years plus , providing, of course, that output and performance targets and standards are maintained, and the NHS Trust continues to enjoy a state-of-the-art hospital, including any commitments by Consort to refresh and update the technology and equipment during the contract period.
At the end of the contract period the hospital will be handed back, at no cost, to the NHS Trust in a good state of repair. If successful, the consortium will be registered as a Special Purpose Company, usually at the time of financial close.
The company has a contractual link with the public sector sponsor or provider, the provider of finance, as well as the design, build and operating sectors of the project.
In addition, the funder also usually has its own agreement with the sponsor which usually contains a step-in clause. This agreement is a safety net in the event that the Special Purpose Company ceases trading or persistently fails to deliver services to the required contract standards. Optimum progress is made when the project is managed by a person who has the time and authority to take decisions and negotiate with bidders, instead of having to keep referring back. The public sector client also usually relies heavily on input from consultants in the fields of; procurement, including EU procurement law see Chapter 5 , project planning, production of an output specification, evaluation of bids, drawing up contract documents and business cases, etc.
The funder One of the defining characteristics of PFI procurement is that the project is financed from private sector sources instead of central public funds. These checks often pose serious questions about risk and other aspects of the contract that downloadrs and providers think they have already resolved.
This final step can be a trial of nerves as this process can take several weeks or even months, and can and frequently does involve previously agreed points being renegotiated to the satisfaction of the funders. The design and construction The design and construction part of the process is usually the most straightforward and easily understood part of the procedure, with the majority of design teams and contractors leaving the project once the construction phase is completed and ready to start operating.
One of the major criticisms of PFI projects has been their lack of architectural merit and design innovation.
In the case of ITCs there is often a contractual obligation to ensure that the hardware and software are kept up to date with the latest versions of programmes and technologies. The operator is clearly the major player in ensuring project success and receives payment based on the quality and reliability of the services.
Financially free-standing projects The second PFI model is one where the private sector supplier designs, builds, finances and then operates an asset, recovering costs entirely through direct charges on the private users of the asset e.
Public sector involvement is limited to enabling the project to go ahead through assistance with planning, licensing and other statutory procedures. There is no government contribution or acceptance of risk beyond this point and any government customer for a specific service is charged at the full commercial rate. Joint ventures Joint ventures are projects to which both the public and private sectors contribute, but where the private sector has overall control.
In many cases the public sector contribution is made to secure wider social benefits, such as road decongestion resulting from an estuarial crossing.
In other cases government may benefit through obtaining services not available within the timescale required. The project as a whole must make economic sense and competing uses of the resources considered. The main requirements for joint venture projects are: Control of the joint venture should rest with the private sector.
After taking this into account, costs will need to be recouped from users or customers. The allocation of risk and reward will need to be clearly defined and agreed in advance, with private sector returns genuinely subject to risk.
If there is a government equity stake, it will not be a controlling one. The government may also contribute in terms of initial planning regulations or straight grants or subsidies. Why PFI? The uniqueness of PPPs lies in the partnership of two sectors public and private which have over the past sixty years or so, in the UK at least, followed very different paths, with very different objectives.
In broad terms the benefit for the private sector includes the predictability of guaranteed long-term income streams and for the public sector, cost and time certainty in the delivery of a new or refurbished built asset that enables it to deliver a public policy outcome. In addition, given the unenviable track record of the UK construction industry, the public sector client does need to start paying for the facility or service until it is ready for use.
The difficulties with the traditional fragmented approach to public procurement have been threefold: Projects can only proceed once the public funding is in place and this can be problematic. Agencies have to bid annually, recently changed Delivering added value to three-yearly, for funds from the Treasury and inevitably many projects fail to secure funding and do not go ahead.
If funding is secured, design and procurement is usually on the basis of cheapest bottom-line price rather than value for money, with little or no consideration given to long-term running, maintenance or decommissioning costs. Once funding is approved the project delivery is often unreliable both in terms of cost and time certainty, as previously discussed in Chapter 1.
The maintenance of built assets is also dependent upon central government funding, which like the funding of capital projects is unpredictable. Often funds for capital building programmes have to be diverted to carry out essential maintenance or repair work.
In addition, traditional procurement models leave the public sector client vulnerable to high levels of risk which, it has been proved, it is ill-equipped to manage. PFI procurement results in a large proportion of risk being transferred to the contractor or private sector. Compared with the traditional and often fragmented approaches to construction procurement PPPs, depending upon the model used, offer the advantages of synergies between traditionally diverse processes in the delivery and operation of built assets; for example: This is not a new concept and buildability may also be achieved through other forms of procurement, such as design and build.
Most PFI projects are able to deliver this well, with designers working alongside the contractor. Synergy between the construction phase and the operational phase.
This is mainly to do with the suitability and reliability of the construction, taking into account whole-life costs over the expected life of the project.
Not unnaturally, there is growing evidence that companies that can combine, design, construction and hard facilities management in-house are increasingly successful in the PPP market for example, the UK arm of the French giant Bouygues.
With current PFI projects coming to a close, it is believed by some that this will result in a loss of PFI expertise north of the border. The future of other PPP programmes is, at the time of writing, uncertain.
So what is the current state of health of the PFI and why is it used? When it was first launched in the principle rationale was to: These motives still remain largely the driving force as the procurement policy matures. Phase 1 Feasibility — Stages 1—4. Phase 2 Procurement — Stages 5— Phase 3 Contract management Stage During the past five years or so there have been various attempts to modify the procurement process as it has been criticised for lacking flexibility and being too long.
For example, in the PFI project for the redevelopment of West Middlesex Hospital which opened in a round of bidding was omitted in order to speed up the process. Subsequently the National Audit Office concluded that the Trust ran an effective bidding competition but that it should be noted that if this strategy was to be used in future PFI deals then the following safeguards need to be put in place to maintain competitive tension when using this approach. It is recommended that the public sector client should: The stages that have proven to be of crucial importance in determining the case for the use of PFI are: Risk transfer is one of the key tests for a good PFI deal as value for money can be demonstrated to increase each time a risk is transferred.
There are two aspects to risk transfer: Between the public and private sector. Between the members of the PFI consortium. In most PFI projects the risks that are earmarked for transfer to the private sector are by now fairly standardised and well understood; however, major difficulties can arise in deciding who within the consortium carries the various burdens of risk.
In the case of risk transfer between public and private sectors the main drivers are transparency and the need to demonstrate value for money; in the case of risk transfer within the consortium the commercial interests of the various players — that is to say; financial institutions, contractors, operators — dominate the discussion. The principle governing risk transfer is that the risk should be allocated to whoever from the public or private sector is able to manage it at least cost; that is to say, identified risks should be either retained, transferred or shared.
The valuation of risk transfer, however problematic, often tips the scales on PFI deals as the public sector comparator alone often shows that value for money has not been demonstrated. Stage 12 — Selection of the preferred bidder. Consider key risks. Market soundings may be appropriate at this stage — see Chapter 6. The outline Service Specification should be prepared.
Method statements and technical details may be legitimately being sort. Quite lengthy — 3 to 4 months. Opportunity for short listed bidders to absorb contract criteria and respond with a formal bid. See Chapter 6.
HM Treasury. Added to this is the fact that by their very nature PFI projects tend to be highly complex, requiring decisions to be taken during the development of the bid at Stage 8 that not only involve capital costs, but also long-term costs. Increasingly, as explained earlier in this chapter, the impact of EU procurement directives must be considered.
In addition, the quantity surveyor with experience in PPP can provide expert input into the pre-qualification stage — Stage 7. The stage at which the bidders are selected by the private sector consortia is based upon, among other things, their knowledge of a specialised sector of public services and their ability to manage risk. General cost advice The traditional quantity surveying role is advising on capital costs, including the preparation of preliminary estimates, bills of quantities, obtaining specialist quotes, etc.
In addition, value management and value engineering techniques described earlier in this chapter are increasingly being called on to produce cost-effective design solutions. Due diligence. Advice on whole-life costs. It has already been stated that to many the key to running a successful PPP contract is control of whole-life costs.
In recognition of this many surveying practices now have in-house advice available in this field. Specialist advice. Obviously, highly complex projects, for example, the construction and management of a major hospital, require a great deal of input from specialists for example, medical planners able to advise on medical equipment, etc. Surveying practices committed to developing their role in PPP already have at their disposal such expertise, which in some cases is in-house.
Funders Due diligence The financial and funding aspects of major projects are becoming increasingly susceptible to both technical as well as commercial risks. Investors and funding institutions are looking more and more for independent scrutiny of Delivering added value all aspects of development from, design integrity to contractual robustness of the contract and beyond to the expenditure levels and progress against programmes.
The skills of the quantity surveyor provide an excellent platform for the investigative and analytical processes necessary to satisfy these requirements. The public sector downloadr Procurement advice For many in the public sector, this method of procurement is just as unfamiliar as the private sector. The surveyor can advise the contracting authority on how to satisfy the requirement of this method of procurement.
It is widely agreed that the appointment of a project manager at an early stage is vital to PPP project success. In addition, pressure is being exerted to speed up the procurement process, a factor that makes the role of the project manager even more crucial. The preparation and development of the OBC in Stage 3 involves the preparation of a risk register, the identification and quantification of risk; all of which are services that can be supplied by the quantity surveyor.
Advice on facilities management. Technical advice on this topic during the drawing up of the service specification during Stage 3 and beyond. In addition to the built asset the surveyor employed in this role can monitor facilities management operation. Services to consortium building contractors The role recognised by many surveyors as their main involvement in PPP, it includes preliminary cost advice, preparation and pricing of bills of quantities, and supply chain management.
In a House of Lords Select Committee concluded that the PFI was just about delivering value in terms of the provision of new public facilities, but there are others, for example, Professor Allyson Pollock, who gave evidence to the House of Lords and who will never be convinced of the benefits that PFI has brought to many public services.
Bibliography Audit Commission Catalyst Trust Central Books. CGR Technical Note 1 European Commission European Commission. Flyvbjerg, B. Cambridge University Press. Gosling, T. Institute for Public Policy Research. HM Treasury a. HM Treasury b. Policy Statement No. HM Treasury Technical Note No. Institute for Public Policy Research Kelly, G. The New Partnership Agenda, London: The Institute of Public Policy Research.
Meeting the Investment Challenge Office of Government Commerce. Ministry of Finance PPP Knowledge Centre. National Audit Office National Audit Office a.
Delivering added value National Audit Office b. National Audit Office c. Modernising Construction. Office of the Deputy Prime Minister Local Authority Private Finance Initiative: Proposals for New Projects, London: Partnerships for Schools Building Schools for the Future, London: PricewaterhouseCooper Public Private Partnerships: A Clearer View October , London: Robinson, P.
Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Beyond Partnering: Williams, B. EU Facilities Economics, London: BEB Ltd. Zitron, J. Client and Practitioner Perspectives. Major Project Association. Journals Buckley, C. The Times, 22 October.
Government Opportunities Challenges to Procurement: PPP tips the balance. Thomas, R. Initiative fails the test of viability. Guardian, 22 October. Wagstaff, M. The case against. Building Magazine, 14 January. Waites, C. Are we really getting value for money? Websites www. The RICS survey of contracts in use captured a smaller number of projects than previous surveys but was able to reveal the following trends: The use of electronic tendering and procurement systems remains at low levels despite the encouragement given by professional bodies such as the RICS to adopt paperless systems.
The industry continues to show its conservatism, with the vast majority of building projects using a standard form of contract and JCT contracts continue to be the preferred family of use. Despite the fact that the NEC suite of contracts has been widely available for a number of years and strongly recommended by Latham and Egan, uptake continues to be slow, although there are signs that the NEC is gaining in popularity.
The dominant procurement strategy is now design and build, although that is not universally the case, with bills of quantities still remaining popular in Scotland as well as in the public sector, where accountability is important.
It remains to be seen how long the various editions of the Standard Method of Measurement remain in use. The industry does not seem to be impressed with partnering with little increase year on year of this approach and has little use of partnering arrangements with standard forms of contract.