Medieval India refers to the period of the Indian subcontinent's history from the 6th century to the 16th century. It is divided into two periods: The. Medieval History By Satish Chandra Pdf Part musicmarkup.info - eBook. To find more books about medieval history by satish chandra pdf part 1, you can use related. About the Author: The author of History of Medieval India, Satish Chandra, has worked as the Chairman of the University Grants Commission and has also been .
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The present volume dealmg with a historical survey of medieval India has been prepared by Professor Satish Chandra, who is also the Cha1rman of the. History . 1 medieval india 2 3 medieval india from sultanat to the mughals part one OLD NCERT,Modern India (Bipan Chandra) Medieval History Satish Chandra. weaknesses of India's medieval social, economic and political structure The position of state finances Medieval History Satish Chandra - () Part 2.
Skip to. PDF, ePub Download : Medieval India Romila.. Topics medieval india history, satish chandra. PDF download.
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For some time, they also brought under their sway Tonkin north Vietnam and Annam south Vietnam. In the north, they overran Korea. Thus, the Mongols established one of the largest empires in East Asia. The Venetian traveller, Marco Polo, who spent some time at the court of Kublai Khan, the most famous of the Mongol rulers of China, has left a picturesque account of his court.
Marco Polo returned to Italy by sea, visiting Malabar in India on the way. The countries of Southeast Asia had to meet the expansionist urges of some of the Chinese rulers, China having developed a strong navy by this time.
But during most of the time, the Southeast Asian states remained independent. The two most powerful kingdoms which flourished in the region during the period were the Sailendra and Kambuja empires. The Sailendra dynasty which arose in the seventh century, and constituted the Sri Vijaya empire, flourished till the tenth century.
According to a ninth century Arab writer, the empire was so large that even the fastest vessel could not complete a round trip of it in two years. The Sailendra rulers had a powerful navy, and dominated the sea trade to China.
It further extended the limits of the Sri Vijaya empire and continued till the fourteenth century. The Pallavas of south India also had a powerful navy. The sea trade with the countries of Southeast Asia and China was so important that in the tenth century, a Chola ruler sent a series of naval expeditions to Sumatra and Malaya to keep the sea lanes of communications open.
Since the early centuries of the Christian era and even before; India had close trade and cultural contacts with the countries of the area. Many Chinese and Indian scholars visited Palembang, the capital of the empire, which was located in Sumatra, and which had been a Sanskrit and Buddhist centre of study even earlier.
The rulers built magnificent temples during the period, the most famous of them being the temple ofBorobodur in east Java dedicated to the Buddha. It is a whole mountain carved into nine stone terraces, surmounted by a stupa.
Indian epics, such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata are displaye,c;l in the panels of the temple. These epics continued to provide the themes for literature, folk-art, puppet-plays, etc.
The Kambuja empire extended over Cambodia and Annam south Vietnam and replaced the Hinduized kingdom ofFunan which had dominated the area earlier. Its most magnificent achievementmaybeconsideted the group of temples near-Ankor Thom in Cambodia. Of these, the largest is the temple ofAnkor Wat. It has three kilometres ofcovered passages containing beautiful statues ofHindu gods, goddesses and nymphs apsaras , and skillfully executed panels containing scenes from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
This entire group of buildings had been completely forgotten by the outside world and been largely taken over by the jungle, till it was in Many Indian traders went to south China, after travelling overland.
Many brahmans, and later Buddhist monks settled in countries of Southeast Asia and in south China. Buddhism travelled from China to Korea and Japan.
While Buddhism declined in India, in course of time, it continued to flourish in Southeast Asia. Thus, India had close commercial and cultural contacts both with the West, Southeast Asia, China, as also Madagascar and countries on the east coast of Africa. The various kingdoms in Southeast Asia acted as a kind of a bridge for commercial and cultural contacts between India and China, and the outside world. Though deeply influenced by Indian civilization and culture, they were able to attain a distinctive culture of their own of a very high order.
But the Arabs did not displace the Indian traders and preachers. In the early phase, they did not make any special effort to convert the people of the area to Islam.
Elsewhere, Buddhism continued to flourish. Unlike the Gupta and Harsha's empire in north India, none of the other kingdoms in north India were able to bring the entire Ganga. Malwa and Rajasthan were the essential links between the Ganga valley and Gujarat. This defined the geographical limits of an empire in north India.
In south India, the Cholas were able to bring the Krishna, Godavari and the Kaveri deltas under their control. This was the basis of their supremacy in south India.
Large states arose in north India and the Deccan between AD and Lalitaditya even invaded Bengal or Gaud, and killed its reigning king. But his power waned with the rise of the Palas and the Gurjara-Pratiharas.
The Pratiharas also clashed with the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. The Pala empire was founded by Gopala, probably in AD when he was elected king by the notable men of the area to end the anarchy prevailing there. Gopala was not born in a high, much less a royal family, his father probably being a soldier.
His reign was marked by a tripartite struggle between the Palas, the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas for the control ofKanauj and north India. The Pratihara ruler advanced upon Gaud Bengal , but before a decision could be taken, the Pratihara ruler was defeated by the Rashtiakuta ruler, Dhruva, and was forced to seek refuge in the deserts ofRajasthan.
Dhruva then returned to the Deccan. This left the field free for Dharmapala who occupied Kanauj and held a grand darbar which was attended by vassal rulers from Punjab, eastern Rajasthan, etc. We are told that the rule of Dharmapala extended upto the furthest limit of India in the northwest and, perhaps, included Malwa and Berar. Apparently, this implied that the rulers of these areas accepted the suzerainty ofDharmapala. The triumphal career of Dharmapala may be placed between AD and Dharmapala could not, however, consolidate his power in north India.
However, Bihar, in addition to Bengal, remained under the control of the Palas for most of the time. Probably a part of modern Nepal was also brought under Pala suzerainty. For some time, their control extende. Their power is attested to by an Arab merchant, Sulaiman, who visited India. He tells us that it was c;:ustomary for the Pala king to be accompanied by a force of 50, elephants, and that 10,, men in his army were employed 'in fulling and washing clothes'.
Even if these figures may be exaggerated, we can assume that the Palas had a large military force at their disposal. But we do not know whether they had a large standing army, or whether their forces consisted largely of feudal levies. Information about the Palas is also provided to us by Tibetan chronicles, although these were written in the seventeenth century.
According to these, the Pala rulers were great patrons of Buddhist learning and religion. The Palas built many viharas in which a large number of Buddhist monks lived.
The noted Buddhist scholars, Santarakshita and Dipankara called Atisa , were invited to Tibet, and they introduced a new form of Buddhism, there. As a result, manyTibetan Budd. They gave grants to large numbers of brahmans from north India who flocked to BengaL Their settlements helped in the extension of cultivation in the area, and the transformation of many pastoralists and food-gatherers to settle down to cultivation.
The growing prosperity of Bengal helped in extending trade and cultural contacts with countries of Southeast Asia-Burma, Malaya, Java, Sumatra, etc. The request was granted and bears testimony to the close relations between the two empires. Most scholars consider that they originated from the Gurjaras who were pastoralists and fighters, like the Jats. The Pratiharas established a series of principalities in central and eastern Rajasthan.
They clashed with the Rashtrakutas for the control of. The Arabs made a big thrust towards Gujarat but were decisively defeated by the Chalukyan ruler of Gujarat in Although small Arab incursions continued, the Arabs ceased to be a threat thereafter.
The real founder oftlie Pratihara empire and the greatest ruler of the dynasty was Bhoja. We do not know much about the early life of Bhoja, or when he ascended the throne. He rebuilt the empire, and by about AD he had recovered Kanauj which remained the capital of the Pratihara empire for almost a century.
He then turned towards central India and the Deccan and Gujarat. This led to a revival of the struggle with the Rashtrakutas. In a sanguinary battle on the bank of the Narmada, Bhoja was able to retain his control over considerable parts ofMalwa, and some parts of Gujarat.
But he could progress no further in the Deccan. Hence, he turned his attention to the north again. According to an inscription, his territories extended to the western side of the river Sutlej. Arab travellers tell us that the Pratihara rulers had the best cavalry in India. Import of horses froni Central Asia and Arabia was an important item of India's trade at that time.
Following the death of Devapala and the weakening of the Pala empire, Bhoja also extended his empire in the east. The name ofBhoja is famous in legends. Bhoja was a devotee ofVishnu, and adopted the title of 'Adivaraha' which has been found inscribed in some of his coins. He is sometimes called Mihir Bhoja to distinguish him form Bhoja Paramara of Ujjaill who ruled a little later.
Bhoja probably died in about He was succeeded by hiss-on Mahendrapala I. Mahendrapala, who ruled till about maintained the empire ofBhoja and extended it over Magadha and north Bengal. His inscriptions have also been found in Kathiawar, east Punjab and Awadh.
Mahendrapala fought a battle with the king of Kashmir but had to yield to him some of the territories in the Punjab won by Bhoja. Al- Masudi, a native ofBaghdad. He calls the Gurjara-Pratihara kingdom alJuzr a corrupt form of Gurjara , and the king Baura, probably a mispronounciation of Adivaraha the title used by Bhoja, although Bhoja had died by that time. The king's army had four divisions, each consistingof7,00, to 9,00, men: 'with the army ofthe north he fights against the ruler of Multan and other Muslims who align themselves with him.
He had only elephants trained for war, but the best cavalry of any king in the country. The Pratiharas were patrons oflearning and literature. The Pratihara also embellished Kanauj with many fine buildings and temples.
During the eighth and ninth centuries, many Indian scholars went with embassies to the court of the caliph at Baghdad.
These scholars introduced Indian sciences, especially mathematics, algebra and medicine to the Arab world. We do not know the names of the Indian kings. The Pratiharas were well-known for their hostility to the Arab rulers of Sind.
Despite this, it seems that the movement of scholars and goods between India and West Asia continued even during this period. This weakened the Pratihara empire, and Gujarat probably passed into the hands of the Rashtrakutas, for al-Masudi tells us that the Pratihara empire had no access to the sea. The loss of Gujarat, which was the hub of the overseas trade and the main outlet for north Indian goods to West Asian countries, was another blow to the Pratiharas.
This was followed by th. The kingdom was founded by Dantidurga who set up his capital at Manyakhet or Malkhed near modem Sholapur. The Rashtrakutas soon d6minated the entire area of northern Maharashtra. They also engaged with the Pratiharas for the overlordship of Gujarat and Malwa as we have seen above.
Although their raids did not result in the extension of the Rashtrakuta empire to the Ganga valley, they brought rich plunder, and added to the fame of the Rashtrakutas. The Rashtrakutas also fought constantly against the eastern 'chalukyas of Vengi in modern Andhra Pradesh and in the south against the Pallavas ofKanchi and the Pandyas of Madurai.
After a successful expedition against Nagabhatta of Kanauj and the annexation of Malwa, Govinda Illturned to the south. We are told in an inscription that Govinda 'terrified the Kerala, Pandya and the Chola kings and caused the Pallavas to wither. The Ganga of Karnataka , who became dissatisfied through baseness, were bound down with fetters and met with death.
Amoghavarsha ruled for 64 years but by temperament he preferred the pursuit of religion and literature to war. He was himselfan author and is credited with writing the first Kannada book on poetics.
He was a great builder, and is said to have built the capital city Manyakhet so as to excel the city oflndra. There were inany rebellions in the far flung Rashtrakuta empire under Amoghavarsha.
These could be barely contained, and began afresh after his death. His grandson, Indra III, re- established the empire.
INDIA According to al-Masudi who visited India at that time, the Rashtrakuta king, Balhara or Vallabharaja, was the greatest king oflndia and most of the Indian rulers accepted his suzerainty and respected his envoys. He possessed large armies and innumerable elephants. After his death, all his opponents united against his successor.
The Rashtrakuta capital, Malkhed, was sacked and burnt in This marked the end of the Rashtrakuta empire. The Rashtrakuta rulers were tolerant in their religious views and patronised not only Saivism and Vaishnavism but Jainism as well.
The famous rock-cut temple of Siva at Ellora was built by one of the Rashtrakuta kings, Krishna I, in the ninth century. The Rashtrakutas allowed Muslim traders to settle, and permitted Islam to be preached, in their dominions. We are told that the Muslims had their own headman, and had large mosques for their daily prayers in many of the coastal towns in the Rashtrakuta empire. This tolerant policy helped to promote foreign trade which enriched the Rashtrakutas.
In their courts, we find not only Sanskrit scholars, but also poets and others who wrote trr Praktir a:n. As before, the monarch was the centre of all affairs. He was the head of the administration as well as the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Squadrons ofinfantry and cavalry were stationed in the courtyard. Captured war-elephants and horses were paraded before him. He was attended by royal chamberlains, who regulated the coming and going of vassal chiefs, feudatories, ambassadors, and other high officials who regularly waited on the king.