CHESS OPENINGS FOR. BEGINNERS. THE OPENINGS. Tbe Best Ways to Star t a Game. You have set u p the m en in or der., and you ar e to play with White. Modern Chess Openings, 13th Edition, by Nick de Firmian and Walter. Korn, published dred books on specific openings, unpublished analyses from the World. An alternative open source is available; see MediaWiki2LaTeX. For Help with downloading a Wikipedia page as a PDF, see Help:Download as PDF.
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in the opening through mistakes or falling in a book trap. It is important to study the This collection of chess opening traps is aimed at anyone who enjoys short. RussBell. Aug 9, #7. Good Chess Openings Books For Beginners and Beyond. musicmarkup.info pdf. ABOUT THE BOOK. 3. Chess Opening Fundamentals. When you come to play a chess game, it's important to start it properly. Otherwise you risk falling into an.
However, what if a piece has been immobilized and has no available squares? That means its value has diminished. For the most part, each piece is only as good as its possible squares. Time Stop looking at your watch! I do not mean that type of time. When players speak of time in chess, they are mostly referring to the speed at which you develop your pieces. Here are some ways to gain time in a chess game: 1.
Black uses the counter measure 3 …Bg4?! At a quick glance, it appears to be a decent move. Black develops a bishop and indirectly protects the e5 pawn by pinning the White knight. For Black to maintain material equality, he must surrender the bishop. The Black bishop will make its second move of the game while capturing a knight that has only moved once time.
The White knight is no longer pinned.
Then Black is forced to play 5 …Kxd8, forfeiting castling. White will follow with 6 Nxe5, winning a pawn. This knight threatens the bishop on g4 as well as the f7 square forking the king and rook. This is a poor choice for Black. So Black plays the logical 4 …Bxf3 instead Diagram 3.
Black moves the bishop for a second time to capture a knight that has only moved once time. Black also gives up the bishop pair, which in turn weakens the light squares.
For example, in Diagram 3. A fork is an attack on two pieces or more. The bishop pair refers to the side with both the light- and dark-squared bishops. Typically, when one of these bishops is lost, the squares of that colored bishop become weak. This is especially true if the opponent still has the bishop of that color. Chapter 3: The Elements in Motion Diagram 3. White correctly recaptures the bishop with 5 Qxf3 Diagram 3. The other logical move would be 5 gxf3, but this creates doubled pawns pawn structure.
Now White plays a move that has many great attributes: 6 Bc4 Diagram 3. First, it develops a piece. Second, checkmate is also threatened with 7 Qxf7. Finally, it frees up the last square for White to castle time, space, and king safety. It stops the checkmate while developing a piece toward the center. Are there any possible flaws to this move? Morphy plays the laterally disguised 7 Qb3 Diagram 3. White moves the queen for the second time in the game, but there is a good reason.
The White queen 38 Part 1: Chess Opening Fundamentals attacks the pawn on b7 and also forms a battery with the bishop on c4 that attacks the f7 square. The White queen creates a double attack, threatening to win two different pawns material.
How does Black cope with the multiple threats? Black must give up the pawn on either b7 or f7. Therefore, Black moves 7 …Qe7 to protect the f7 square Diagram 3.
The clear drawback of this move is that it blocks the bishop on f8. After this, White will be up a pawn material , but since the queens are gone, the game will most likely be decided in the endgame.
This would still be objectively winning, yet Morphy White was not going to have that …. Chess Language A battery is when two or more pieces queen and bishop help each other attack on the same file, rank, or diagonal. A double attack is when one piece attacks two or more different opponent pieces. White plays the powerful and poised 8 Nc3 Diagram 3. Morphy shows an unbelievable patience with the position.
Most players would have captured the free pawn on b7. However, this would have been the third time within the first eight moves that the White queen has moved time. So Morphy prefers to deploy another minor piece and control more space with 8 Nc3. Black is blindly grateful and plays 8 …c6 Diagram 3. The idea of this move is to protect the pawn on b7 with the queen.
Still, Black is not helping his cause, as he has only developed one minor piece—the knight. White brings along another friend with 9 Bg5 Diagram 3. This bishop pins the knight on f6 and tightens the straitjacket.
It also frees up the space for White to castle on the queenside. If we closely inspect Diagram 3. Because of this lead in time and development, Morphy also controls more space. Since he has more pieces out in the open controlling more squares, he is ready to overpower his opponent. Not to be forgotten, White is also ready to castle on the very next move, while Black is three moves away. The move 9 …b5 is also an attempt to gain a free move, forcing the bishop to retreat. Black could then try 10 …Nbd7 for a playable position.
White plays the seemingly shocking 10 Nxb5 Diagram 3. To the untrained eye, this may seem to be a surprising move since it gives up material.
The main idea of this sacrifice is to open up lines and avenues toward the king. To understand this position and the move played, we must apply the elements.
Despite the fact that White will lose material after 10 …cxb5, the position is as if White is up material. This means that White has more useful and active pieces in the game. Meanwhile, Black has not moved the knight on b8, the bishop on f8 is suffocated, and the rook on h8 is absolutely meaningless. To further add to the problems, it will take too long to activate these pieces so that Black can castle.
As you will see, 10 Nxb5 is absolutely justified! White could have also tried sacrificing the bishop by 10 Bxb5?! After Black captures the bishop 10 …cxb5 , White will play 11 Nxb5. In Chapter 2, we were able to see how this game ended, but it is not so easy to decline a sacrifice and see that far in the future.
Granted, Black would still be down at least a pawn and have many weaknesses, but he would not have lost so quickly.
Maybe he knew all of this and did not want to delay the inevitable. I highly doubt it …. There is only one sound choice: 11 …Nbd7 Diagram 3. Do you remember what to do now? If you skipped Chapter 2, shame on you. I forgive you, but can you find the move? Each and every variation will attempt to apply the elements in some way.
So I will bring you up-to-date with more current moves played by the best of the best. We will also analyze some variations, which might not follow our principles so well.
None has stood the test of time like e4. The move 1 e4 has been the true benchmark for all openings. This move has been championed and promoted by the majority of World Champions. These are wonderful footsteps to follow in. What makes 1 e4 the most highly regarded of all time?
In Chapter 3, we discussed the effectiveness of e4. Use the elements! It stamps its presence in the center and frees squares for the bishop and queen space and time. If you look ahead, it is possible to castle by the fourth move if 1 e4 is played king safety. No first move can allow you to castle quicker than 1 e4—only tie. A very element-satisfying move indeed! The Black side must find a suitable reaction. Notice that this move applies the elements 46 Part 2: 1 e4 Openings in an identical fashion as 1 e4.
It also discourages White from playing 2 d4, building a classic center which can be gained by controlling the four central squares with two pawns. After 1 …e5 many ideas were tried, but only some were successful.
I will also take a look at some popular variations you need to know. All the games in Chapter 4 will begin 1 e4 e5 Diagram 4. After we explore this starting position and the different branches, you should be confident enough to play these positions from either side. Diagram 4. Petrov Defense The Petrov or Petroff Defense is characterized by an overall solid position, conceding a small amount of space to White. These attributes give this opening the reputation of a reliable defense.
When top Grandmasters need a draw, the Petrov is an opening they often opt to play. The game begins 1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 attacking the e5 pawn. Black plays 2 …Nf6, launching the Petrov Defense Diagram 4. From here, White can take a few different roads. The pawn is taken without hesitation. Chapter 4: 1 e4 e5 Diagram 4. Watch Out! No matter how Black responds here, the queen is lost.
A logical game continuation is 5 Qxe4 d6 6 d4 dxe5 7 dxe5 Nc6 8 Bb5 Bd7 9 Nc3 10 Bf4, leaving White up a pawn and in better position. Black is worse off here, but this beats parting with the queen.
Black should play the superior 3 …d6. Then White plays 4 Nf3, retreating the knight, and Black can safely move 4 …Nxe4, taking the pawn Diagram 4.
However, Black should be very attentive over the next few moves. Black takes the pawn with bravery. If White plays 5 Qe2 now, Black defends just fine with 5 …Qe7. The main line of this system is to play the central advance 5 d4.
Sure, you could play this, but I recommend a much simpler approach. You should try 5 Nc3 Diagram 4. World-class players, including the current World Champion Viswanathan Anand, have had success with 5 Nc3.
If Black backs the knight up, time and space will be lost. So Black simply trades knights to avoid disobeying the elements with 5 …Nxc3. Why should Black avoid playing the natural looking 5 …Bf5 instead? Then White plays 6 dxc3, freeing the bishop on c1.
White has doubled c-pawns, but the pieces are more active as a result. Next, Black hustles to castle by playing 6 …Be7. White follows up by playing 7 Bf4, possibly preventing the Black knight from going to e5. Black continues with 7 …, and White plays 8 Qd2 Diagram 4. Chapter 4: 1 e4 e5 49 Watch Out! After 5 Nc3, Black should not play 5 …Bf5. White will pin this knight 6 Qe2, threatening to win a piece. Black can play 6 …d5, but that runs into 7 d3 winning the knight on e4.
Other than 6 …d5, Black can protect the knight with 6 …Qe7, but after 7 Nd5! Black is lost. Also, if Black tries 7 …Qd7, this fails to 8 d3. Ironically, it was Anand who fell into this trap in the late s. Black can continue 8 …Nd7, heading to c5 space. The bishop on c8 is blocked for only a short time. The game can move forward with 9 Nc5. Both sides have arranged most of their army, except their light-squared bishops.
Remove or trade pieces that are cramping your position. Use lesser-valued pieces such as pawns to force back more powerful pieces stopping your progress. Pawn Structure Imagine two opposing armies on a direct collision course. The soldiers in front must bear the brunt of the initial contact. These are the pawns. Where you decide to place these pawns will determine your pawn structure on the chessboard. Essentially, the organization and placement of your pawns is pawn structure.
Although the pawns are modest in size and value, other pieces, except the knights, cannot join the battle unless the pawns are moved. Then why are they so important? Pawns outnumber any other piece on the board, and they are critical in determining the style of the game.
When a pawn attacks a more valuable piece, it should move The Chess Sage away to avoid the loss of material. It by a pawn. Pawns establish the style, will be useful to know how to pace, and structure of the opening. Pawn Chains These are a sequence of pawns located on the same diagonal. The pawn that is least advanced is referred to as the base. Both White and Black have pawn chains in Diagram 2.
In Diagram 2. Meanwhile, you can form an attack while your opponent is trying to break through the wall. Pawn Islands All the pawns you begin a game with are part of a society. Once a pawn or group of pawns breaks off from this society, it is considered a pawn island. There may be multiple islands or societies formed when the pawns break off from the initial society.
More specifically, a pawn island is a single pawn or group of pawns of the same color. Moreover, to be considered a pawn island, there cannot be any pawns of the same color on the adjacent files. Black has only two pawn islands: a7, b7, and c6 and f7, g7, and h7.
Avoid creating too many pawn islands! Your pawns work as a cohesive unit. If multiple pawn islands are created, they can be attacked much easier. Just as in most scary movies, one group will break up into many pairs, but eventually these pairs are picked off one by one. Isolated Pawn This is a more specific type of pawn island.
This refers to a single pawn with no pawns of the same color on the files next to it. The reason is that it is impossible for a teammate to protect an isolated pawn. Take a look at the difference if this White pawn on d4 were not isolated. Backward Pawn Can you picture soldiers marching, each one standing behind the other and ready to protect his comrades?
There is one lingering problem— who is supposed to protect the last man? No one is standing behind the Chapter 2: Basic Elements of Chess Openings 25 last man, leaving him most vulnerable. When a pawn has no compatriot for support, it is considered backward. Additionally, the pawn cannot move forward without being exposed to a capture. This means the square in front of the pawn can be used by the opponent as a post at his or her leisure. The pawn on e3 in Diagram 2. It cannot be protected by another pawn, and if it moves forward, it will be wiped out from existence.
Two Many One idea is to shy away from having two pawns of the same color on the same file. These are called doubled pawns. Too many pawns on the same file can be redundant and a waste of manpower. You must never forget about king safety. So far, we have discussed the significance of material, time, space, and pawn structure in the opening and the lasting effects they may have in the game. In spite of the importance of these principles, king safety trumps them all. The best way to provide a safe home for your king is to castle.
Another key reason for using this maneuver is to bring a rook into the game. The rook is worth approximately 5 points, so it is important to use this piece for open files and preparing for an attack in the middlegame.
When few pieces remain, rooks are also useful in the endgame. The game starting with Diagram 2. Duke Karl and his assistant Count Isouard. However, because of the poor king position of Black, White has a winning position. Morphy played the perfectly timed 12 Diagram 2. He also brings the rook on a1 into the game, allowing it to control space on the d-file.
What can Black do? So Black is essentially forced to play 12 …Rd8 to defend Diagram 2.
The White side has a large space advantage, but it will only prove beneficial if White can find the breakthrough in the position. I have shown this position to students, and they have most frequently recommended 13 Rd2. The idea is to play Rhd1 to double the rooks on the d-file. This is still a good move, but it will give Black a small chance to save the game.
This position leaves White up two pawns, but White will still have to demonstrate a little technique to win. White should strive for more, which is exactly what Morphy did. Let us refer back to Diagram 2. Morphy played the stunning 13 Rxd7 seen in Diagram 2. Black is forced to play 13 …Rxd7 to avoid material loss Diagram 2.
Before Black can escape the vice grip, White must add more pressure with 14 Rd1 Diagram 2. The White queen controls a lot of space, and this can only be dangerous for the Black king. This is the right idea, but Black has taken too much time, and some pieces have yet to be developed. For this reason, Black is losing the game despite being ahead in material.
So in Diagram 2. Now Black is relatively forced to play 15 …Nxd7 Diagram 2. It is time to assess the resulting position in Diagram 2. White is still down a piece for two pawns, leaving Morphy down one point. Even though Black is up a point, the king is extremely exposed. The rook on h8 is especially useless as it controls no real squares.
If you do not castle in the game, it can sometimes be a challenge to give the rook meaning. Black never had time to castle in the game and, as a result, will have a losing game.
How did Morphy hammer in the last nail in the coffin? The Chess Sage We have reached the most critical position in the entire game Diagram 2. I know you can feel it, too, but the exact moves are not so obvious. I will attempt to simplify the thinking process. In any position in chess, imagine your pieces on the best squares possible. Once you have done that, you can figure out the steps to achieve the best position for your pieces. Consider the best squares for the White pieces.
Better yet, if you could place one piece anywhere on the board for White, where would you put it? This includes illegal moves. Once you correctly imagine this, the position afterward should be a checkmate.
Okay, there are two right answers: you could place a queen on c8 or a rook on d8 to checkmate 30 Part 1: Chess Opening Fundamentals the king. Now, how do we actually get the queen to those squares? Refer to Diagram 2. The best way to get the queen to c8 is via b7. What can Black do after 16 Qb7? Black has a way to escape the madness by 16 …f6. This position is materially equal, but White still has a large positional advantage. Also, in some variations, White will win the piece back and be up three clear passed pawns.
White is clearly better, but there are chances for White to misplay the current position. To be objective, 16 Qb7 is not the best move for White to play.
What is the best move in the posiA passed pawn is a tion then? You would like the pawns on the same or adjaWhite rook to be on d8 because cent files. How does the White rook get to the d8 square if the knight on d7 is blocking the passage? The first option to always ponder is the forcing variations. Is it possible to force the knight from d7?
I know you can find the devastating blow that Morphy handed the two minds. Take your time. Chapter 2: Basic Elements of Chess Openings 31 White gives up the queen to force Chess Language the knight from d7 so that 17 Rd8 A sacrifice means to give checkmate can be played. Morphy up material or points sacrifices a queen for checkmate.
The aim of our thinking was to remove the knight by force so that we can place the rook on d8. Black must play 16 …Nxb8 to escape the check Diagram 2. Without further ado, Paul Morphy played 17 Rd8 checkmate Diagram 2. In the final position, shown in Diagram 2. Black is up a queen and knight for two pawns but has been checkmated despite the advantage in material.
White gained more space because Black fell behind in the development of his pieces because of defending attacks. As a result, Black was never able to move the bishop on f8 to clear the space for castling. Black ran out of time. Even though White was on the prowl for the Black king, he still found time to castle. Each element has its unique qualities, but when playing a game, they must not be viewed as separate entities.
Having the benefit in one element many times can assist with the others. The five principles of material, time, space, pawn structure, and king safety should be considered one. Neglecting any of these elements can be fatal! When one has a lead in time, it means that more pieces are active, and as a result more space is usually controlled.
Since one side has more soldiers in place and more territory is gained, an attack on the enemy fort or king is very logical. Now what if, during the confrontation, part of your army is lost and scattered? The analogy to chess is that your material and pawn structure have been negotiated. The concept: if the enemy survives the initial onslaught, your endgame may very well be compromised.
Of course, if the attack is successful, you win the game. You will see how following the elements is used in the opening to gain a great position. From this model game, you will learn how the elements can be applied and evaluated in your own chess games. Hopefully you have read Chapter 2 and have already seen the results of the opening play starting from move Now we will look at the game from move one.
Morphy launches off with 1 e4 Diagram 3. Diagram 3. Statistically speaking, 1 e4 is by far the most popular first move in the history of chess. This is no random occurrence, as this move agrees with the elements. Meanwhile, it opens up the diagonals for the bishop on f1 and the queen on d1. The Duke and the Count play 1 …e5 Diagram 3. Chapter 3: The Elements in Motion 35 Historically, 1 …e5 is the most common move in response to 1 e4, although 1 …c5 is becoming more popular today.
Like 1 e4, 1 …e5 is also very conscientious of the elements, and it is a useful move for identical reasons as 1 e4.
However, the main disadvantage is that they may take too much space as well as time for searching since an item may take from 50 bytes for FEN strings to hundreds of bytes for PGN text. If we store openings "continuously" all possible opening positions both data size and searching time become too huge and become unacceptable for playing. In practice, those opening books are usually very small with some lines or positions only, they cannot be used for real game playing but for testing.
The third has some important advantages, especially for computer chess engines. Opening databases built on all positions are usually more space efficient and overcome the problem of transpositions. Often these positions are stored as hash value to allow fast access. Some opening database formats store with each position as well some information about it.