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Get the latest BSc IT Notes & Resources for FY, SY and TY BSc IT from Vidyalankar. Log on to, the resource hub for BSc IT students . IT- Sem I · IT- Sem II · IT- Sem III · IT- Sem IV · IT- Sem V · IT- Sem VI · Colleges · IT Important Dates IT (Sem II). TYBSC IT SEM 6 PROJECT MANAGEMENT NOTES. 1. .. 6. It prepares user manual which includes all the steps which give guidance to user. TYBSC(IT) SEM 6 layer 7, D6 data means the data unit at layer 6, and so on. Write a short notes on ProxyARP A static table is one with manual entries.

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It is time consuming to extract from the raw materials. Availability of the natural dyes are limited. As the natural dyes are extracted from plants mostly, they are dependent on the growing seasons, which is unlike the synthetic dyes that are produced in the laboratories. Even though natural dyes produce bright colors and variety of shades but tend to fade faster than the synthetic dyes. Consistency is an issue as no two dye lots are identical due to the impurities in them.

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Some mordant used along with natural dyes may to toxic to an extend. Alum is safer to use though entirely not nontoxic. Some fibers such as silk and wool can be dyed by simply dipping them in the dye but cotton requires a mordant. Mauveine In , Griess discovered diazotisation and coupling on in the fibre In , Martius developed Bismarkbrown.

Clavel introduced disperse dyes which is solved the problem of dyeing hydrophobic fibres. Procian dyes and Remozal dyes. Dye molecule are attracted by forces at the molecular level of textile. The amount of this attraction is known as substantivity, the higher the substantivity the gerater the attaction of dye for the fibre. It should have a chromophore and auxochrome Chromophore color bearing color of the organic compound is associated with the certain group of atoms which are called chromophores.

They are unsaturated groups, responsible for giving color to the organiccompounds, e. Nitro, nitroso, azo, carbonyl.

Compounds bearing chromophores are called chromogen. Auxochromes: auxochromes are saturated group of atoms, which increses the colour yielding power of chromhore. These groups do no themselves cause colour but they help to intensify the colour.

Linearity and coplanarity: The affinity of the molecule is connected with the linearity of the molecular structure of dye. It is not enough to have linear molecule, but aromatic rings present in the dye molecule, must be coplanar.

It must economically viable. In the Colour Index these are cross-referenced. The commercial names of dyes are usually made up of three parts.

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The first is a trademark used by the particular manufacturer to designate both the manufacturer and the class of dye, the second is the color, and the third is a series of letters and numbers used as a code by the manufacturer to define more precisely the hue and also to indicate important properties of the dye.

The code letters used by different manufacturers are not standardized. The most common letters used to designate hue are R for reddish, B for bluish, and G for greenish shades. Some of the more important letters used to denote the dyeings and fastness properties of dyes are W for washfastness and E for exhaust dyes. For solvent and disperse dyes,the heat fastness of the dye is denoted by letters A,B,C,or D, A being the lowest level of heat fastness, and D the highest.

These show actual dyed pieces of cloth or other substrate so the colors of the dyes in question can be compared directly in the actual application. Alternatively, colors can be specified in terms of color space coordinates. Each dye has a trade name that the manufacturers provide. Using this system the different types of dyes are identified. Each individual chemical used as a dye is assigned a CI number containing specific, identifying, five-digit number.

When specifying dyes for use in a staining method, the CI number is specified to avoid confusion in referring to a chemical. The name is based on the dye's or the textile's mode of action and the base color, followed by a number. This CI name is, as a result, a specific identification of each dye. The name given is totally based upon the dye's mode of behaviour, base colour and action. This is followed by a number. Thus the CI name therefore gives a specific way to identify a dye. Although the CI name is used less often than the CI number, the CI name is as useful in identifying a dye for a particular staining method.

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The following table ably illustrates the use of the Colour Index for yellow Organic pigment C. Generic C. The main manufacturing firms are Ciba, Sandoz, Geigy.

The US has now become the worlds largest producer and exporter of coal tar dyes. In India the first firms Arlabs, manufacturing dyestuff and allied products in India began in Small scale sectot played vital role in development of dyestuff industries.

Natural dyes are generally more eco-friendly than synthetic dyes. Synthetic dyeing procedures can be polluting and certain diazo dyes are carcinogenetic.

Almost all natural dyes are free of azo compounds which are carcinogenetic. Most natural dyes are known antioxidants. Clothes dyed with natural dyes have the potential to be sold at a higher price. Depending on the dyeing procedure and the type of mordant used, a variety of colors can be produced using one natural dye source. Each natural dye source provides an amazing diversity of shades.

From one dye you may obtain between varying colors and shades. Natural dyes are seen as more eco-friendly since, unlike their synthetic counterparts, they are all derived from natural sources. Inconsistencies in color could be marketed as unique or one of a kind.

And, although there is a trend toward eco-friendly processes, natural dyes have some disadvantages.

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