$0吭ｧx ﾌ忍 W笙\»_ ﾌ忍 xi E 吭 _W}. %0\ 踊ｻ覧}ｺ兔ｳ 忍 hWF\P xix <ﾊ_ｻ覧\ｪ 忍 . 囘_觸 xﾝxｺ兔 &0吭ｧx ﾌ覧忍 W笙\»_ ﾌ忍. ;aｽ覧i仝D\j <ﾊ覧]£_³; ;aｽ覧i仝D. About the Translator: Talal Itani is an Electronics Engineer. He first read the. Quran , in order to discredit it. Since then, Talal has. QURAN ENGLISH TRANSLATION. Clear, Pure, Easy to Read. Modern English. Translated from Arabic by Talal Itani. Published by ClearQuran. Dallas, Beirut.
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According to hadith and Muslim history, after Muhammad immigrated to Medina and formed an independent Muslim community, he ordered many of his companions to recite the Quran and to learn and teach the laws, which were revealed daily. It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the Battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time.
Thus a group of Muslims gradually became literate. As it was initially spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets, bones, and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds. Most suras were in use amongst early Muslims since they are mentioned in numerous sayings by both Sunni and Shia sources, relating Muhammad's use of the Quran as a call to Islam, the making of prayer and the manner of recitation.
However, the Quran did not exist in book form at the time of Muhammad's death in The agent of revelation is mentioned as the "one mighty in power",  the one who "grew clear to view when he was on the uppermost horizon. Then he drew nigh and came down till he was distant two bows' length or even nearer. According to Welch, these seizures would have been seen by those around him as convincing evidence for the superhuman origin of Muhammad's inspirations.
However, Muhammad's critics accused him of being a possessed man, a soothsayer or a magician since his experiences were similar to those claimed by such figures well known in ancient Arabia.
Welch additionally states that it remains uncertain whether these experiences occurred before or after Muhammad's initial claim of prophethood. The Quran describes Muhammad as "ummi",  which is traditionally interpreted as "illiterate", but the meaning is rather more complex.
Medieval commentators such as Al-Tabari maintained that the term induced two meanings: first, the inability to read or write in general; second, the inexperience or ignorance of the previous books or scriptures but they gave priority to the first meaning.
Muhammad's illiteracy was taken as a sign of the genuineness of his prophethood. For example, according to Fakhr al-Din al-Razi , if Muhammad had mastered writing and reading he possibly would have been suspected of having studied the books of the ancestors.
Some scholars such as Watt prefer the second meaning of "ummi"—they take it to indicate unfamiliarity with earlier sacred texts. The verse was revealed after the Prophet finished delivering his sermon at Ghadir Khumm. The first caliph, Abu Bakr d.
Zayd ibn Thabit d. Thus, a group of scribes, most importantly Zayd, collected the verses and produced a hand-written manuscript of the complete book. The manuscript according to Zayd remained with Abu Bakr until he died. Zayd's reaction to the task and the difficulties in collecting the Quranic material from parchments, palm-leaf stalks, thin stones collectively known as suhuf  and from men who knew it by heart is recorded in earlier narratives.
In about , the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan d. In order to preserve the sanctity of the text, he ordered a committee headed by Zayd to use Abu Bakr's copy and prepare a standard copy of the Quran. That text became the model from which copies were made and promulgated throughout the urban centers of the Muslim world, and other versions are believed to have been destroyed.
The order of this text differed from that gathered later during Uthman's era in that this version had been collected in chronological order.
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