Get this from a library! Nutritive value of Indian foods. [C Gopalan; B V Rama Sastri; S C Balasubramanian; National Institute of Nutrition (India)]. Nutritive Value of Indian Foods - Ebook download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. 𝗗𝗼𝘄𝗻𝗹𝗼𝗮𝗱 𝗖𝗶𝘁𝗮𝘁𝗶𝗼𝗻 on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , C. Gopalan and others published Nutritive value of Indian Foods. National Institute of Nutrition.
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NUTRITIVE VALUE. OF. INDIAN FOODS. By. C. Gopalan, B. V. Rama Sastri &. S. C. Balasubramanian. Revised & Updated by. B. S. Narasinga Rao, Y. G. recognized the importance and the need for new Indian Food Composition Database and provided the . nutritive value of Indian foods funded by the IRFA. Nutritive Value of Indian Foods (NVIF) By C. Gopalan, B. v. application/pdf Oxalic Acid Phytin Phosphorous and Dietary Fibre in foods.
Vitamin B6 Oxford University closed down its nutrition department after World War II because the subject seemed to have been completed between and The vitamins were studied in the first half of the 20th century. In , Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis discovered the first vitamin, fat-soluble vitamin A , then water-soluble vitamin B in ; now known to be a complex of several water-soluble vitamins and named vitamin C as the then-unknown substance preventing scurvy. In , Sir Edward Mellanby incorrectly identified rickets as a vitamin A deficiency because he could cure it in dogs with cod liver oil. Evans and L. Bishop discover vitamin E as essential for rat pregnancy, originally calling it "food factor X" until In , Hart discovered that trace amounts of copper are necessary for iron absorption.
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Healthy Cooking Practices Foods, in their natural state, contain different nutrients in varying amounts. Cooking improves the digestibility of most foods. Raw food get softened on cooking and become easily chewable. Proper methods of cooking render food healthy. Positive food concepts and cooking practices are foundation for good health by improving the appearance, taste, flavour and texture, thereby enhancing acceptability.
Cooking process also helps to eliminate disease causing organisms and destroy natural inhibitors of digestion. Cooking food is a common thing in our homes, but it is good if we follow healthy cooking practices.
We can classify the food cooking process in three stages such as: Precooking Preparation Washing and cutting of raw food Cooking Methods Precooking Preparation: According to the food preparation, the cooking process of any food may include washing, grinding, cutting, fermentation, germination and cooking. In Indian cuisine, fermentation process used in making idli, dosa, dhokla and germination sprouting are common practices.
These methods improve digestibility and increase nutrients such as B-complex vitamins and Vitamin C.
Washing and Cutting of raw food: Raw food may contain pesticide residues, parasites and other extraneous material. In order to clean the same, foods should be washed well before cooking and consumption to remove these contaminants.
Cutting of vegetables in to small pieces exposes a greater surface area of the foodstuff to the atmosphere, resulting in loss of vitamins due to oxidation. Therefore, vegetables should be cut in to large pieces.
Cut vegetables should not be soaked at all in water as water-soluble minerals and vitamins get washed away. However, certain precautions should be taken while washing and cutting to minimize the loss of nutrients. Avoid repeated washing of food grains like rice and pulses as it might lead to loss of certain minerals and vitamins. Cooking Methods: There are many methods of cooking like boiling, steaming, pressure cooking, frying, roasting and baking.
Boiling is the most common method of cooking, but because of this process some heat-labile and water-soluble vitamins like vitamin B-complex and C is lost. Cooking rice with excess of water may lead to the loss of nutrient value so just use sufficient water to be fully absorbed.
To avoid loss of vitamins, use of baking soda for hastening cooking of pulses should not be practiced. Repeated heating of oils particularly Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid PUFA -rich oils results in formation of peroxides and free radicals hence, should be avoided by using just enough oil. Similarly, oils which have been repeatedly heated should not be mixed with fresh oil but should be used for process such as seasoning.
Some common Indian food beliefs, fads and taboos: Food habits are formed early in childhood, passed on from the elders in the family and perpetuated to adulthood. Food beliefs either encourage or discourage the consumption of particular type of foods. There can be neutral, harmless or harmful practices. Unfortunately, most of the food fads and prejudices taboos are associated with women and children, who are also the most vulnerable to malnutrition.
Exaggerated beneficial or harmful claims in respect of some foods, without scientific basis constitute food fads.
In addition, the belief of heat producing and cold inducing foods is widely prevalent. Here are some examples: Jaggery, sugar, groundnuts, fried foods, mango, bajra, jowar, maize, eggs and meat are considered as hot.
Buttermilk, curd, milk, green gram dhal, green leafy vegetables, ragi, barley flour and apples are considered as cold inducing foods. Papaya fruit is strongly suspected to lead to abortion, though there is no scientific basis. Vegetarianism is often practiced in India on religious grounds.
Since vitamin B12 is present only in foods of animal origin, vegetarians should ensure an adequate consumption of milk. During certain illnesses like measles and diarrhoea, dietary restriction is practiced. Diet and Weight Management A healthy eating plan gives your body the nutrients it needs every day. It shall have enough calories for good health, but not so much that it makes you overweight. A healthy eating plan is the one with low in saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium salt , and added sugar.
Healthy foods include: Fat-free and low-fat dairy products, such as low-fat yoghurt, cheese, and milk. Protein foods, such as lean meat, fish, poultry without skin, beans, and peas. Whole-grain foods, such as whole-wheat bread, oatmeal, and brown rice. Other grain foods include pasta, cereal, bagels, bread, tortillas, couscous, and crackers. Fresh fruits, canned, frozen, or dried. Fresh vegetables, canned without salt , frozen or dried. Canola and olive oils, and soft margarines made from these oils, are heart healthy.
You also can include unsalted nuts, like walnuts and almonds, in your diet as long as you limit the amount you eat nuts also are high in calories. Foods that are high in saturated and trans fats and cholesterol, raise your risk for heart disease, so they should be limited.
Saturated fat is found mainly in fatty cuts of meat, such as ground beef, sausage, and processed meats for example, bologna, hot dogs, and deli meats , Poultry with the skin, high-fat dairy products like whole-milk cheeses, whole milk, cream, butter, and ice cream, lard, coconut, and palm oils, which are found in many processed foods.
Trans fat is found mainly in foods with partially hydrogenated oils, such as many hard margarines and shortening, baked products and snack foods, foods fried in hydrogenated shortening. Cholesterol mainly is found in egg yolks, organ meats, such as liver, shrimp, whole milk or whole-milk products, such as butter, cream, and cheese.
Reducing foods and drinks with added sugars, like high fructose corn syrup, is important. Added sugars will give you extra calories without nutrients like vitamins and minerals. Added sugar is found in many desserts, canned fruit packed in syrup, fruit drinks, and non diet drinks. Check the list of ingredients on food packages for added sugars like high-fructose corn syrup. Food habits have changed not only amongst the urban elites, but even in the rural population.
With mechanization of the labour, most of the rural populations who were physically very active, have now become less laborious. The quantity of food consumption remained the same or increased. More energy intense food consumption habits with less physical activities is the main cause of lifestyle disorders like diabetes, hypertension even among the rural population. This can be seen when anyone who has eaten out lately.
In fact, over the past 40 years, portion sizes have grown significantly. Cutting back on portion size is a good way to eat fewer calories and balance your energy intake.
Studies have shown that we all tend to consume a certain quantity of food. Knowing this, you can lose weight if you eat foods that are lower in calories and fat for a given amount of food.
For example, replacing a full-fat food product with a low-fat product that weighs the same helps you cut back on calories. Another helpful practice is to eat foods that contain lot of water, such as vegetables, fruits, and soups. Being physically active and eating fewer calories will help you lose weight and keep weight off over time.
Weight should be reduced gradually. Include physical activity in your daily routine like aerobics, walk, yoga etc. Health Tips Prefer homemade foods against fast food. Avoid junk foods as they are a major cause of obesity. Eat raw fruits and vegetables whenever possible. It is even preferable to have fruits and raw vegetables instead of munching on snacks. Limit consumption of sugar and unhealthy processed foods. Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively.
Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units.
Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates. This, however, is not accurate. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram. However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility.
Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer which is indigestible as humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it. There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber. Whole grains, fruits especially plums , prunes , and figs , and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber.
There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet. Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it. Insoluble fiber, found in whole wheat flour , nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis — the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digest along the digestive tract.
Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the intestines. This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain.
Main article: Fat A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms , bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved.
Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded , so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length. Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated one double-bond or polyunsaturated many double-bonds.
Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids. Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called partial hydrogenation.