WorldShare Books is an online offering of books in PDF format for Chapter 1 What is Group Dynamics? Chapter 2 Basic Ideas of Group Dynamics. Group Dynamics. ▫ Groups and Social. Exchanges. ▫ The Group Development. Process. ▫ Roles and Norm: Social. Building Blocks for Group. & Organizational . Group Dynamics: it's characteristics, stages, types, factors,team building and other Details! People may underestimate the importance of society and group.
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Group dynamics involves the influence of personality, power, and behaviour on the Is the structure and size of the group an asset in pursuing both the task and . PDF | This chapter focuses on group dynamics. We review group dynamics in five domains and examine group dynamics within the context of. Introduction. This monograph was developed as a companion to a workshop on group dynamics and team building, presented at the WFH Global NMO. Training .
Board of director performance: a group dynamics perspective Board of director performance: a group dynamics perspective Author s : Steven A. Michael L. Show all authors Purpose — This paper proposes mainly that boards of directors BOD are teams that share characteristics with many other kinds of teams. As a consequence, some of the factors that lead to board effectiveness are the same factors that lead to team effectiveness in general. By integrating the organizational behaviour literature on teams with the governance literature, a comprehensive model of BOD performance is proposed. Findings — This paper outlines the dynamic interplay between board characteristics, functionality and performance and proposes a comprehensive model, based largely on the group dynamics literature.
The maintenance roles are harmonizer, gatekeeper, consensus tester, encourager, and compromiser. Blocking roles are activities that disrupt the group.
They may take the form of dominating discussions, verbally attacking other group members, and distracting the group with trivial information or unnecessary humour. Often times the blocking behaviour may not be intended as negative. Sometimes a member may share a joke in order to break the tension, or may question a decision in order to force group members to rethink the issue.
The blocking roles are aggressor, blocker, dominator, comedian, and avoidance behaviour. Role conflicts arise when there is ambiguity confusion about delegation and no specific job descriptions between the sent role and the received role which leads to frustration and dissatisfaction, ultimately leading to turnover; inconsistency between the perceived role and role behaviour conflict between work roles and family roles ; and conflicting demands from different sources while performing the task.
Norms define the acceptable standard or boundaries of acceptable and unacceptable behaviour, shared by group members. They are typically created in order to facilitate group survival, make behaviour more predictable, avoid embarrassing situations, and express the values of the group. Each group will create its own norms that might determine from the work performance to dress to making comments in a meeting.
The norms often reflect the level of commitment, motivation, and performance of the group. The majority of the group must agree that the norms are appropriate in order for the behaviour to be accepted. There must also be a shared understanding that the group supports the norms. It should be noted, however, that members might violate group norms from time to time. If the majority of members do not adhere to the norms, then they will eventually change and will no longer serve as a standard for evaluating behaviour.
Group members who do not conform to the norms will be punished by being excluded, ignored, or asked to leave the group. Cohesiveness refers to the bonding of group members or unity, feelings of attraction for each other and desire to remain part of the group.
Many factors influence the amount of group cohesiveness — agreement on group goals, frequency of interaction, personal attractiveness, inter-group competition, favourable evaluation, etc. The more difficult it is to obtain group membership the more cohesive the group will be. Groups also tend to become cohesive when they are in intense competition with other groups or face a serious external threat to survival. Smaller groups and those who spend considerable time together also tend to be more cohesive.
Cohesiveness in work groups has many positive effects, including worker satisfaction, low turnover and absenteeism, and higher productivity.
However, highly cohesive groups may be detrimental to organizational performance if their goals are misaligned with organizational goals. Highly cohesive groups may also be more vulnerable to groupthink. Groupthink occurs when members of a group exert pressure on each other to come to a consensus in decision making. Groupthink results in careless judgments, unrealistic appraisals of alternative courses of action, and a lack of reality testing.
Evidence suggests that groups typically outperform individuals when the tasks involved require a variety of skills, experience, and decision making. Groups are often more flexible and can quickly assemble, achieve goals, and disband or move on to another set of objectives. Many organizations have found that groups have many motivational aspects as well. Group members are more likely to participate in decision-making and problem-solving activities leading to empowerment and increased productivity.
Groups complete most of the work in an organization; thus, the effectiveness of the organization is limited by the effectiveness of its groups. Decision-making by a group is superior, because group generates more information and knowledge, generates diverse alternatives, increases acceptance of a solution, and increases legitimacy.
Decisions take longer time, minority is dominated, pressure is applied to conform to group decisions, and none is responsible for the decisions. Group processes also include communication, conflict management, and leadership that we shall discuss in details in the chapters to follow hereafter. All teams are groups but not all groups are teams.
Teams often are difficult to form because it takes time for members to learn how to work together. People in every workplace talk about building the team, working as a team, and my team, but few understand how to create the experience of team work or how to develop an effective team.
Belonging to a team, in the broadest sense, is a result of feeling part of something larger than oneself. It has a lot to do with your understanding of the mission or objectives of your organization. In a team-oriented environment, one contributes to the overall success of the organization. One works with fellow members of the organization to produce these results.
Even though you have a specific job function and you belong to a specific department, you are unified with other organization members to accomplish the overall objectives. The bigger picture drives your actions; your function exists to serve the bigger picture.
It is on record that teams are better than groups, because they are more flexible and responsive to dynamic environment. A work group has no opportunity to involve in collective works.
Thus, resolve problems and work together in a cooperative and collaborative mode. Teams can be of four types — problem-solving teams only making suggestion , self-managed, teams operate without a manager , cross-functional teams a group of experts from different specialities , and virtual team members collaborate online.
In terms of size, teams may be institutional comprising of hundreds of members and operational a small, cooperative group, in regular contact and contributes responsibly to achieve task at hand.
To show business results and profitability, ways are explored by the executives to improve their productivity. Successful team building, that creates effective, focused work teams, requires attention to each of the following: The managers must clearly tell the team members of the expected performance and the team members must understand the reason for its creation.
For it the organization must support the team with resources of people, time and money. Team members must participate in the team, feel that the team mission is important, and show commitment to accomplishing the team mission and expected outcomes. Commitment will come if team members perceive their service as valuable to the organization and to their own careers. Team members must have the knowledge, skill and capabilities, the resources, strategies and support needed to accomplish its mission to address the issues for which the team was formed.
The team must have not only enough freedom and empowerment to feel the ownership necessary to accomplish its charter, but also the accountability. There has to be a defined review process.
The team should understand group processes and work effectively and cooperatively with other members of the team. For it they have to understand the roles and responsibilities of team members, team leaders, and team recorders. To make team members clear about the priority of their tasks, and receive regular feedback, team members must clearly and honestly with each other.
Diverse opinions be welcome and conflicts be taken up positively. The team should value creative thinking, unique solutions, and new ideas; and reward members who take reasonable risks to make improvements. If necessary, it should provide the training, education, access to books and films, and field trips to stimulate new thinking.
The creative development of new products, new technologies, new services, or new organizational structures is possible because teams may have variety of skills needed for successful innovation.
Managers should empower the team and make it accountable for the innovation process. Teams should understand the concept of internal customer to whom they provide a product or a service.
Team efforts need to be coordinated by a central leadership team that assists the groups to obtain what they need for success. The cross- functional and multi-department teams must work together effectively. The organization should develop a customer-focused and process-focused orientation and move away from traditional departmental thinking.
Spend time and attention on each of these eight tips to ensure your work teams contribute most effectively to your business success. In every organisation along with formal groups there exists informal groups which emerge naturally due to the response and common interests of the members who can easily identify with the goals or independent activities of the informal groups.
Sometimes the efforts may be driven by a common goal that may compliment or work against the goals of the formal group. Whilst it is easy to differentiate between a formal group and a formal organisation, the differences between informal group and informal organisation tend to be difficult. The difference between informal organization and informal group is that informal organisation is a larger entity consisting of all informal groups in an organization.
An informal group is the nucleus of informal organization. When an informal group adopts a formally defined structure and group processes, it no longer remains an informal group.
The needs which cannot be satisfied within the framework of formal organisation, like social and psychological needs of people, such people create informal groups. A member of an informal group can be a member of more than one informal group to pursue different interests. Members of such groups follow their own norms, leadership, communication, etc. Grapevine i. Every informal group has a leader, selected by the group, and who is capable of helping to realize their goals.
The moment it is realized that the leader is incapable, s he is replaced with a new leader. People with similar values, beliefs, attitudes, and interests often feel attraction to come together. Removal of monotony of routine tasks — to get rid of monotony and psychological fatigue, job-related boredom and frustration provides an opportunity to behave in a natural and relaxed manner.
Promotion of other interests and pursuit of goals — People join Rotary or Lions Club to expand their contacts which may help them to satisfy their personal goals. Resistance to Change because they do not want to deviate from existing norms and learn new ways.
Informal group provides most fertile ground for Rumour Mongering because of maliciousness, lack of proper communication systems and processes and ambiguous circumstances. Since a member of an informal group is also a member of a formal group, at times it creates role conflict. Creativity of group member s is restricted because of strong pressure for conformity applied by the group.
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