Read "Architecture Form, Space, and Order" by Francis D. K. Ching available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. The revered . Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Ching, Frank, Architecture--form, space, & order / Francis D.K. Ching. -- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes . Compre Architecture: Form, Space, and Order (English Edition) de Francis D. K. Ching na musicmarkup.info Confira também os eBooks mais vendidos, lançamentos e livros digitais exclusivos.
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Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! The revered architectural reference, updated with contemporary examples and interactive 3D models An access card with redemption code for the online Interactive Resource Center is included with all new, print copies or can be downloadd separately. The Interactive Resource Center includes an expanded library of images that provide ample visual confirmation of the interplay between theory and practice, and readers are encouraged throughout the book to look critically at the built environment to promote a more evocative understanding of architecture. The online Interactive Resource Center, also contains animations, flashcards, and other learning resources tied to the book. Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, Fourth Edition is the classic introduction to the basic vocabulary of architectural design, updated with new information on emerging trends and recent developments. This bestselling visual reference helps both students and professionals understand the vocabulary of architectural design by examining how space and form are ordered in the environment. Essential and timeless, the fundamental elements of space and form still present a challenge to those who crave a deeper understanding.
The analogy may be made that one must know and understand the alphabet before words can be formed and a vocabulary developed; one must understand the rules of grammar and syntax before sentences can be constructed; one must understand the principles of composition before essays, novels, and the like can be written.
Once these elements are understood, one can write poignantly or with force, call for peace or incite to riot, comment on trivia or speak with insight and meaning. In a similar way, it might be appropriate to be able to recognize the basic elements of form and space and understand how they can be manipulated and organized in the development of a design concept, before addressing the more vital issue of meaning in architecture.
All of these constituents can be perceived and experienced. Some Architectural order is created when the organization of parts makes visible may be readily apparent while others are more obscure to our intellect and their relationships to each other and the structure as a whole.
When these senses. Some may convey images and meaning while others serve as singular nature of the whole, then a conceptual order exists—an order that qualifiers or modifiers of these messages. Villa Savoye, Poissy, east of Paris, —31, Le Corbusier This graphic analysis illustrates the way architecture embodies the harmonious integration of interacting and interrelated parts into a complex and unified whole. Its inside order accommodates the multiple functions of a house, domestic scale, and partial mystery inherent in a sense of privacy.
Its outside order expresses the unity of the idea of house at an easy scale appropriate to the green field it dominated and possibly to the city it will one day be part of. If the line shifts to form a plane, we obtain a two-dimensional element. In the movement from plane to spaces, the clash of planes gives rise to body three-dimensional.
A summary of the kinetic energies which move the point into a line, the line into a plane, and the plane into a spatial dimension.
Each element is first considered as a conceptual element, then as a visual element in the vocabulary of architectural design.
While they do not actually exist, we nevertheless feel their presence. We can sense a point at the meeting of two lines, a line marking the contour of a plane, a plane enclosing a volume, and the volume of an object that occupies space. When made visible to the eye on paper or in three-dimensional space, these elements become form with characteristics of substance, shape, size, color, and texture.
As we experience these forms in our environment, we should be able to perceive in their structure the existence of the primary elements of point, line, plane, and volume. At the center of its environment, a point is stable and at rest, organizing surrounding elements about itself and dominating its field. When the point is moved off-center, however, its field becomes more aggressive and begins to compete for visual supremacy. Visual tension is created between the point and its field.
To visibly mark a position in space or on the ground plane, a point must be projected vertically into a linear form, as a column, obelisk, or tower. Any such columnar element is seen in plan as a point and therefore retains the visual characteristics of a point. Other point-generated forms that share these same visual attributes are the: Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, c.
The equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius marks the center of this urban space. Michel, France, 13th century and later. The pyramidal composition culminates in a spire that serves to establish this fortified monastery as a specific place in the landscape. Although the points give this line finite length, the line can also be considered a segment of an infinitely longer path. Two points further suggest an axis perpendicular to the line they describe and about which they are symmetrical.
Because this axis may be infinite in length, it can be at times more dominant than the described line. In both cases, however, the described line and the perpendicular axis are optically more dominant than the infinite number of lines that may pass through each of the individual points.
Extended vertically, the two points define both a plane of entry and an approach perpendicular to it. The Mall, Washington, D. Conceptually, a line has length, but no width or depth. Whereas a point is by nature static, a line, in describing the path of a point in motion, is capable of visually expressing direction, movement, and growth. A line is a critical element in the formation of any visual construction. It is seen as a line simply because its length dominates its width.
The character of a line, whether taut or limp, bold or tentative, graceful or ragged, is determined by our perception of its length—width ratio, its contour, and its degree of continuity. Even the simple repetition of like or similar elements, if continuous enough, can be regarded as a line.
This type of line has significant textural qualities. The orientation of a line affects its role in a visual construction. While a vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity, symbolize the human condition, or mark a position in space, a horizontal line can represent stability, the ground plane, the horizon, or a body at rest. An oblique line is a deviation from the vertical or horizontal.
It may be seen as a vertical line falling or a horizontal line rising. In either case, whether it is falling toward a point on the ground plane or rising to a place in the sky, it is dynamic and visually active in its unbalanced state. Place de la Concorde, Paris. The obelisk, which upright megalith, usually standing alone This cylindrical shaft commemorates marked the entrance to the Amon temple at Luxor, but sometimes aligned with others.
Louis Phillipe and installed in Vertical linear elements can also define a transparent volume of space. In the example illustrated to the left, four minaret towers outline a spatial field from which the dome of the Selim Mosque rises in splendor. Selim Mosque, Edirne, Turkey, A. Salginatobel Bridge, Switzerland, —30, Robert Maillart.
The sculptured female figures stand as columnar supports for the Beams and girders have the bending strength to span the space entablature. Katsura Imperial Villa, Kyoto, Japan, 17th century. Linear columns and beams together form a three-dimensional framework for architectural space.
An example is the axis, a regulating line established by two distant points in space and about which elements are symmetrically arranged. Villa Aldobrandini, Italy, —, Giacomo Della Porta House 10, , John Hejduk Although architectural space exists in three dimensions, it can be linear in form to accommodate the path of movement through a building and link its spaces to one another.
Buildings also can be linear in form, particularly when they consist of repetitive spaces organized along a circulation path. As illustrated here, linear building forms have the ability to enclose exterior spaces as well as adapt to the environmental conditions of a site. These lines can be expressed by joints within or between building materials, by frames around window or door openings, or by a structural grid of columns and beams. How these linear elements affect the texture of a surface will depend on their visual weight, spacing, and direction.
A transparent spatial membrane can be stretched between them to acknowledge their visual relationship. The closer these lines are to each other, the stronger will be the sense of plane they convey. A series of parallel lines, through their repetitiveness, reinforces our perception of the plane they describe. As these lines extend themselves along the plane they describe, the implied plane becomes real and the original voids between the lines revert to being mere interruptions of the planar surface.
The diagrams illustrate the transformation of a row of round columns, initially supporting a portion of a wall, then evolving into square piers which are an integral part of the wall plane, and finally becoming pilasters—remnants of the original columns occurring as a relief along the surface of the wall.
A colonnaded facade can be penetrated easily for entry, offers a degree of shelter from the elements, and forms a semi-transparent screen that unifies individual building forms behind it. The Basilica, Vicenza, Italy. Andrea Palladio designed this two-story loggia in to wrap around an existing medieval structure. This addition not only buttressed the existing structure but also acted as a screen that disguised the irregularity of the original core and presented a Stoa of Attalus fronting the Agora in Athens uniform but elegant face to the Piazza del Signori.
Temple of Athena Polias, Priene, c. Philibert, Tournus, France, — This view of the nave shows how rows of columns can provide a rhythmic measure of space. Vertical and horizontal linear elements together can define a volume of space such as the solarium illustrated to the right.
Note that the form of the volume is determined solely by the configuration of the linear elements. Conceptually, a plane has length and width, but no depth. Shape is the primary identifying characteristic of a plane. It is determined by the contour of the line forming the edges of a plane.
Because our perception of shape can be distorted by perspective foreshortening, we see the true shape of a plane only when we view it frontally. The supplementary properties of a plane—its surface color, pattern, and texture—affect its visual weight and stability. In the composition of a visual construction, a plane serves to define the limits or boundaries of a volume.
If architecture as a visual art deals specifically with the formation of three- dimensional volumes of mass and space, then the plane should be regarded as a key element in the vocabulary of architectural design. The properties of each plane—size, shape, color, texture —as well as their spatial relationship to one another ultimately determine the visual attributes of the form they define and the qualities of the space they enclose.
In architectural design, we manipulate three generic types of planes: Overhead Plane The overhead plane can be either the roof plane that spans and shelters the interior spaces of a building from the climatic elements, or the ceiling plane that forms the upper enclosing surface of a room. Wall Plane The wall plane, because of its vertical orientation, is active in our normal field of vision and vital to the shaping and enclosure of architectural space.
Base Plane The base plane can be either the ground plane that serves as the physical foundation and visual base for building forms, or the floor plane that forms the lower enclosing surface of a room upon which we walk. Along with climate and other environmental conditions of a site, the topographical character of the ground plane influences the form of the building that rises from it. The building can merge with the ground plane, rest firmly on it, or be elevated above it.
The ground plane itself can be manipulated as well to establish a podium for a building form.
It can be elevated to honor a sacred or significant place; bermed to define outdoor spaces or buffer against undesirable conditions; carved or terraced to provide a suitable platform on which to build; or stepped to allow changes in elevation to be easily traversed.
Scala de Spagna Spanish Steps , Rome, — Three terraces approached by ramps rise toward the base of the cliffs where the chief sanctuary is cut deep into the rock. Machu Picchu, an ancient Incan city established c. It may be a durable covering of the ground plane or a more artificial, elevated plane spanning the space between its supports.
In either case, the texture and density of the flooring material influences both the acoustical quality of a space and how we feel as we walk across its surface. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message.
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Francis D K Ching Publisher: For more than thirty years, the beautifully illustrated Architecture: Form, Space, and Order has been the classic introduction to the basic vocabulary of architectural design. The updated Third Edition features expanded sections on circulation, light, views, and site context, along with new considerations of environmental factors, building codes, and contemporary examples of form, space, and order.
This classic visual reference helps both students and practicing architects understand the basic vocabulary. Read more Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private. Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Electronic books Additional Physical Format: Print version: Ching, Francis D.
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Primary Entity http: CreativeWork , schema: MediaObject , schema: Primary Elements; Chapter 2: Form; Chapter 3: Organization; Chapter 5: Circulation; Chapter 6: