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So I thought it would be useful to compile my various responses into a single post here. The encouraging reality is that you can get into astrobiology from pretty much any scientific background you like. I did a first degree in biology, but I have astrobiology friends who have come from physics, astronomy, chemistry, or geology. So the best route would be to work hard at A-levels, and then choose a degree in whichever subject you find most interesting — you really need to be passionate about something to study hard at it for three to four years. But, building on this base of knowledge, it really blossoms into an incredibly fascinating subject at undergraduate level — learning about the molecular machinery that makes life work, for example. So if you want to become an astrobiologist, you could study pretty much any STEM subject at university. Other online courses include the series of lectures recorded and made available on AstroBioVideo.
For example, Streptococcus pneumoniae S. There are three basic bacterial shapes: Round bacteria called cocci singular: coccus , cylindrical, capsule-shaped ones known as bacilli singular: bacillus ; and spiral bacteria, aptly called spirilla singular: spirillum. The shapes and configurations of bacteria are often reflected in their names.
For example, the milk-curdling Lactobacillus acidophilus are bacilli, and pneumonia-causing S. Some bacteria take other shapes, such as stalked, square or star. This artist's image shows spherical bacteria.
Both Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are spherical. In this process, a single bacterial cell, called the "parent," makes a copy of its DNA and grows larger by doubling its cellular content.
The cell then splits apart, pushing the duplicated material out and creating two identical "daughter" cells. Some bacterial species, such as cyanobacteria and firmicutes, reproduce via budding. In this case, the daughter cell grows as an offshoot of the parent. It starts off as a small nub, grows until it is the same size as its parent, and splits off. The DNA found in parents and offspring after binary fission or budding is exactly the same. Therefore, bacterial cells introduce variation into their genetic material by integrating additional DNA, often from their surroundings, into their genome.
This is known as horizontal gene transfer ; the resulting genetic variation ensures that bacteria can adapt and survive as their environment changes.
Transformation is the most common process of horizontal gene transfer and occurs when short DNA fragments are exchanged between donors and recipients. Transduction, which typically only occurs between closely related bacteria, requires the donor and recipient to transfer DNA by sharing cell surface receptors. Conjugation requires physical contact between the cell walls of bacteria; the DNA transfers from the donor cell to the recipient. Through conjugation, a bacterial cell can transfer DNA to eukaryotic cells multi-celled organisms.
Conjugation aids in the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes.
Bacteria in human health and disease Bacteria can be beneficial as well as detrimental to human health. Commensal, or "friendly" bacteria, share space and resources within our bodies and tend to be helpful.
There are about 10 times more microbial cells than human cells in our bodies; the highest numbers of microbial species are found in the gut, according to microbiologist David A. Relman's article in Nature. The human gut is a comfortable setting for bacteria, with plenty of nutrients available for their sustenance.
In a review article published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology , the authors mention that gut bacteria and other microorganisms, such as helpful strains of E.
Moreover, the disruption of gut bacteria has been linked to certain disease conditions. For instance, patients with Crohn's disease have an increased immune response against gut bacteria, according to a review published in the journal The Lancet.
Other bacteria can cause infections. Several bacteria — ranging from so-called group A Streptococcus, Clostridium perfringens C.
In , Casasnovas moved to VW headquarters in Germany, where he headed worldwide launch management operations from to and global product marketing for the compact segment from to In his current role, Casasnovas is helping the Spanish automaker redefine its product portfolio to adapt to mobility trends. One example: the eXS KickScooter powered by Segway, designed for urban residents who want to move around the city in a sustainable and efficient way.
In , Mr. His previous motor industry experience includes 10 years with Ford Motor Company, working in sales and marketing in its UK, European and global operations. Most recently, he was vice president of overall product strategy.
Before joining Opel in September , Lohscheller was executive vice president and CFO of Volkswagen Group of America, where he led a turnaround that resulted in significant growth and higher profits. During more than 20 years of working for companies such as Daimler AG, Mitsubishi Motors Europe and Volkswagen AG, Lohscheller had broad business responsibilities in finance, information technology, marketing and sales, downloading and logistics.
The German native received a degree in business administration in after studying at the University of Applied Sciences in Osnabrueck, Germany, and the University of Barcelona in Spain. From to , Lohscheller studied European marketing management at Brunel University London while still working, eventually earning a master of arts degree. Popham has led businesses all over the world in a career spanning more than 30 years.
Highly respected in the global automotive industry, as well as in the luxury sector and closely associated with premium British brands, Popham has made a career turning major businesses around.
Sengpiehl came to the German automaker from Hyundai Motor Europe, where he was vice president of marketing and chief marketing officer starting in During his 20 years in the automotive industry, Mr. Sengpiehl has developed expertise in strategic brand management, advanced product planning and product strategy, marketing communications and digital transformation.
His years in management gave him access to an international network of top executives, opinion leaders and key stakeholders in the automotive sector.