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Received Jul 2; Accepted Aug 8. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa e. This article focuses on several aspects etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies. Background Canine vector-borne diseases CVBDs constitute an important group of illnesses affecting dogs around the world.
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Filmagens do seriado JK Botafogo, p. Morar Bem, p. Rua enfeitada para festa junina Protesto durante epidemia de dengue Via Sacra Vila Pires de Almeida: Alunos de escola de teatro vizinha costumam estacionar seus carros na rua nas noites de aula. Jorge Zahar, UFRJ, Keynote Speech: LAW, J. Actor Network Theory and After.
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Vila Planalto. A Esplanada define-se pelo grande vazio central retangular em planta: Nada claro. Do Houaiss: Quatro exemplos de formalidade: Decerto, mas de outro tipo. Monumentalidade urbana. Os primeiros lugares exemplificam a monumentalidade formal; os segundos, a monumentalidade urbana. Mais vantagens: Todavia, faz sentido perguntar: Em linha reta, a NI inundada distava 70 km da barragem. Rompeu-se com a ortogonalidade an- tiga quase absoluta.
Nova Iorque Nova. A do mercado m x m 30m x 70m, a anterior. As quadras eram maiores: O projeto da nova cidade de Nova Iorque, acreditamos, encontra-se nessa categoria. Planta baixa. Mello, Livros Horizonte, A arte de viajar. Rocco, Vozes, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Editora Nova Fronteira, Meu quarto, meu mundo: ProEditores Associados Ltda, The class structure of the advanced societies. Hutchinson of London, Decoding Homes and Houses.
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Pau- lo. Dispondo de recursos para investir, o incor- porador compra lotes ou casas, ou simplesmente os adquire num sistema 20 Caldeira ; Waiselfisz Muros altos em estacionamento de um restaurante em Natal. Por exemplo, uma casa tem adaptabilidade: Esses processos agem em conjunto com os descritos anteriormente.
O porte de grandes empreendimentos como shopping centers contri- bui para outro ciclo vicioso: A city is not a tree. Ekistics, v. Editora Perspectiva, BALL, P. Critical mass: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Dutton, Cities and complexity: Cambridge, Mass.: Complexity in City Systems: Understanding, Evolution, and Design.
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A conversa produziu mais de Haveria outras? E uma vez feito isso, como identificamos as spatial affordances correspondentes? Alternativa 1: Isto seria mais ou menos como o que o K. Alternativa 2: Alternativa 3: Alternativa 4: Alternativa 5: O livro Responsive Environments do pessoal da Oxford Brookes vai nessa linha. Estendendo a J. O Alexander pode nos dizer.
Julio, muito oportuno nesse momento o trabalho sobre a vitalidade urbana; ele tem mesmo tudo a ver com aquilo no que me embrenhei tentando definir urbanidade. Seria isso? E logo adiante tu entras com os efeitos da for- ma: Propus que urbanidade fisicamente caracteriza: Gostaria de comentar algumas coisas. Naquele momento, havia ficado impressionado por- que o conceito parecia bastante amplo. E as piores quali- dades? Por quem?
Dos ha- bitantes e profissionais de um determinado lugar? Que dizer disso, Paulo? The fact that titles, forewords, and texts indicate the use of everyday and not literary language 5 Source: Colloquium Monacensia.
Retrieved on: June 18, You came? You gave what they were waiting for? Do you need something? You are right, if you can come with us. We will visit him.
If you want, you walk with me. We thank Dr. To build a hypothesis of how the Hermeneumata was used, we can observe the variety of exercises in it. Students are advised to read the texts aloud, to memorize them and recite passages, to translate texts and produce paraphrases, to participate in dictation, to conduct reading aimed at preparing their own texts, and to answer grammar and reading comprehension questions.
Young children could use the resources gathered in Colloquia, provided they were bilingual, and begin studies by learning letters and words associated with the reading of texts composed of familiar expressions, repeated aloud.
Older children deepened studies by memorizing and reciting dialogs and texts, individually or in pairs, on various topics. Works relating to language in different Colloquia indicate an organization in proficiency levels, i. Thus, based on the study by Kelly , entitled 25 Centuries of Language Teaching, we can understand the development of foreign language methods in the West throughout the centuries since the Roman Empire through two major purposes for the use of foreign language communication versus analysis , which shifted according to the major social needs that have characterized each era see Table 2.
In this light, Kelly argues that the regular changes of three broad aims — i the social, ii the artistic or literary, and iii the philosophical — demand language to be regarded in different ways: i as a form of social behavior and a type of communication; ii as a creative activity; iii as an object of analysis Ibid. Therefore, according to Kelly , p. It is the regular chancing of these aims that produced the cyclic progression which is such a noticeable feature of language-teaching development.
The classical, Renaissance, and modern periods have enough points of similarity to allow us to contrast them with the Rev. The basic aim of the first group was communication with the other aims subordinated , while the other periods aimed at analysis above all else. TABLE 2 — Timeline of development of the foreign language methods in the West Ages Social purposes and their consequences greek was taught for a range of purposes from social chitchat to the Classical Rome transmission of literary and philosophical thought Ibid.
Latin was taught as a highly sophisticated vehicle of argument and artistic Middle Ages creation. Theology and philosophy demanded close attention to the intricacies of grammar Ibid. Latin was an obligatory knowledge for the educated elite. Modern foreign languages became literary vehicles of some stature, but they were taken Renaissance as primarily social implements.
In scholarship, they merely had a curiosity value and were not considered to have the lasting power necessary for literature Ibid. Source: Kelly , p. Thus, in order to understand a particular tradition of foreign language teaching and learning, it is important to identify features of continuity and discontinuity disruption of this development of foreign language teaching methods and its historical legacy. From the point of view of our concept of tradition, we can understand these historical movements — while continuities and discontinuities pointed to different periods and regions of the world — as evidence of how the tradition of foreign language teaching and learning is constituted by opposing forces that mutually attract, a principle thus observed by Bornheim , p.
Attraction, therefore, but also mutual repulsion as each term is only affirmed Rev. Tradition just seems to be imperturbably itself to the extent that it avoids any possibility of disruption, it seeks to be perennial and eternal, without realizing that the lack of movement ultimately dooms it to the stagnation of death.
In this sense, we can affirm that — despite the incidence of interruptions, i. The textbook in the tradition of Brazilian Portuguese as a Foreign Language teaching and learning 3.
In this sense, in carrying out the analysis of two textbooks that are relatively distant from each other in time and in observing the relations between the heterogeneous elements discursive and non-discursive , we intend to emphasize three points. Our analysis of the tradition of BPFL teaching and learning emphasizes the textbook discourse in order to criticize language teaching practices, as well as to understand the web that entangles and, at times, paralyzes our teaching practices.
Thus, to analyze the conditions of the Rev. According to Foucault , the masters of suspicion — Marx, Nietzsche, and Freud — established a new way of interpreting the signs, not seeing them as signifiers that refer to a meaning, but reading them in a new way.
From this perspective, interpretation is an eternal game of mirrors and assumes an existential and ontological character for man. In other words, interpretation is always an act that implies a reflection of itself, that is, the interpretation endlessly confronts the constitutive obligation to interpret itself, that is, to continuously readdress itself. Therefore, considering that our analysis here is an interpretation of so many other interpretations, the analysis of the textbook discourses is based on the following methodological principles formulated by Foucault , p.
The selection of excerpts that are relatively far apart in time allows us to show the regularities and disruptions present in these discourses and the construction of knowledge about the conceptions of language and foreign language teaching. H: Qualquer lugar serve. Eu quero ver muitas lojas. H: Any place will do. I want to see many stores. As it assumes various functions, it allows for the emergence of concrete contents in time and space.
We undertand it is because of the orality intended in the textbook that the sentence structure is formal and does not correspond to the typical uses of oral language.
We also note that the topic discussed serves as a reference for the entire unit. In the first volume there are 22 units and in the second another 20, which deal with a variety of subjects Table 3. All topics in volume 1 are associated with everyday life situations, while in volume 2, the last four units address historical issues. They are circumstances that may interest American women and men who come to Rev. The dialogs are the central element in the Fala Brasil textbook, since it is the guiding axis of the units.
Vendedor: Sim, senhora. Cliente: Quanto custa esse azul? Vendedor: Esse aqui? Cliente: Puxa, que caro! Posso ajudar em alguma coisa? Vou ficar com ele. A senhora podia embrulhar para presente? Essa ficou um pouco curta. Customer: I need a stove. We have many models. Customer: How much for this blue one?
Salesman: This one? Customer: Yeah. Do you have any books about Amazonia? Its photographs are amazing! Could you gift-wrap it? The booth is right there.
That one was a little short. This excerpt from Fala Brasil indicates that the textbook aims to promote communication between people in a particular situation, constructed according to the authors in the Presentation to insert the language structure in verisimilar contexts. The dialogs also have usual language with some variations and a variety of subjects.
To the extent that the knowledge of Portuguese progresses, the number of direct dialogs decreases. From unit 10 on, they also begin to serve to practice language structures. Each communication situation deals with different topics and appears in different formats see Table 4.
Considering that we have had records of this type of didactic activity since the Hermeneumata, we observe that the teaching of oral expression in a foreign language through simulated dialogs is a practice that has been carried out regularly according to the principle of specificity for at least years, which contributes to the construction of the tradition of foreign language teaching and learning.
Along with the principle of specificity, we observe the principle of reversal, since we may not know the exact origin of the chosen subjects, but we perceive that they collaborate with the rarefaction of the discourses over time. We do not know if some day these dialogs would have happened exactly in the way that they were transcribed or what people were involved in them, because the important thing is to guarantee contact with situations that can happen with foreign language students, reinforcing a model of teaching and learning.
Having been let out, we go back home. I change, I take fresh bread, olives, cheese, dried figs, nuts. After lunch I go back to school. I find the teacher rereading lessons. And he said: Begin from the beginning. Eu como bem a qualquer hora.
Lunch is so late today. I can eat any time. Alceu: Yes, I do. And also some of these potatoes. They look good. Marta: Nossa! Quantos pratos diferentes! Nem sei o que escolher. Marta: Wow! Many different dishes! It looks good. Paulo: guys, what about trying a typical regional dish? All: Yeah, good idea!
As Bornheim explains, tradition does not persist through time only due to the mere repetition of practices because, paradoxically, the movements of disruption renew traditional practices, without necessarily having to forsake them.