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Background Canine vector-borne diseases CVBDs constitute an important group of illnesses affecting dogs around the world. These diseases are caused by a diverse range of pathogens, which are transmitted to dogs by different arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. CVBDs are historically endemic in tropical and subtropical regions and have increasingly been recognized, not only in traditionally endemic areas, but also in temperate regions [ 1 ]. This may be attributed to several factors, including the availability of improved diagnostic tools, higher public awareness about CVBDs, dog population dynamics, and environmental and climate changes [ 2 ], which directly influences the distribution of arthropod vectors and the diseases they transmit. CVBDs have long been recognized in Brazil [ 3 ].
This is the reason why the principle of identication of the events to which a being can be exposed depends on the nature of the being affected by the transformation. In this theory, every single event is individuable, as the actualization of the ability of a specic being the substratum of the movement to obtain a specic quality at a specic carlo natali moment. This is the famous theory of movement as a passage from potency to act.
Aristotle states this position: Two principles are not enough to account for the movement, a principle not-A indicating the initial state of the process, and a principle A indicating the nal state of the process.
A third principle is required for achieving the passage from not-A to A, and it must last during the change. This is the formula aforementioned: not-A,H x becomes A,H x. An event like learning to play music cannot be analyzed as ignorance of music is replaced by knowledge of music, but as a certain individual Socrates , who does not know music, but who is a man and not a stone then he is able to become a musician , does it.
This implies that all descriptions of a process are not equivalent: Socrates learns to play and the white of hair moves one of its extremities on the keyboard are not the same.
Only the rst statement can give a precise idea of the process in act, regarding all the essential qualities and capacities that qualify the beings that are not accidentally implied in the process of this becoming. Only the rst description tells us that what is moving one of its extremity is a man; that his movements are intentional, follow a standard and are not randomly achieved, are not constrained by outside forces, and are the actualization of a specic ability of becoming being, one typical tendency of which is actualizing.
For to exercise to produce melodic sounds by music is a typical quality only of human beings. It is also possible that this event Socrates learning to play does not take place within a causal chain: It might be the cause of nothing and derive from nothing other than itself. Contrary to Stoic and contemporary theories of events, this does not prevent Aristotle from holding that the event can be identied. It can be identied as an actualization of a particular capacity of a specic being because understanding what kind of thing playing is depends on understanding what kind of thing a human being is and doe not depend on establishing the causes on which playing relies and its implications.
Let us have a closer examination of this point. According to Aristotle, to establish what kind of thing a process is one has to determine the nature and the characteristic dispositions of the being subjected to specic determinations, and this determination, to avoid circularity, must be independent of the whole set of transformations that can affect the agent.
The determination of the capacity of a specic being or natural species does not coincide with the set of activities that individuals of that species can achieve or have, at least event and POIESIS once, achieved. According to Aristotles conception of the circularity of time, which acknowledges the eternity of the world and the cyclical return of the same events,19 one can imagine that any being of a given species can undergo all the possible events at least once.
It would therefore be impossible to distinguish between two species only by referring to the events that they endure, because in each case the complete set of the events that have occurred is potentially unlimited, and an extensional description of the capacity of a species to be subjected to an event would have poor informative value for identifying that species.
On the contrary, the determination of the capacity of transformation or potency of a being x depends on the determination of the nature of the being itself, that is on the answer to the Aristotelian question what kind of being belongs to a being x , toi x einai.
One then has to determine the sense of its being. According to Aristotle, to determine the sense of being that belongs to a being x, that is, to dene its essence, does not derive from a mysterious and extra-empirical intuition; rather, it is a rational process directly linked to the necessity that words must signify something.
Any word in ordinary language, such as dog, can mean either 1 one thing or 2 many things but in a nite number, for instance a barking animal or a constellation. If a term signies an innite number of meanings, it does not signify anything.
But according to Aristotle, case 2 easily amounts to case 1 in a standardized language, where a perfect bi-univocal correspondence between a name and it signied would be reached through appropriate operations of purication and elimination on unclear cases. On the basis of the determination of the kind of being that belongs to x, it is possible to undertake the individuation of the set of events that can affect x.
In this respect, the determination of the potency of a specic being is a principle of selection of the events that can affect this being, as well of the distinction between natural and constrained events. By this new distinction, Aristotle means that anything that happens to a being does not express its capacity or its constitutive potency, but that some events are, as it were, unnatural.
These events are those where external circumstances determine not-natural accidents: Monkeys do not y, but they can be moved by airplane. Let us say again that there is no general movement but only the peculiar movement of x from A to B.
We can then understand becoming in two ways: On the one hand, as the appearance of state B, the coming into being of the chair, and in this sense, the change exists only when B is present, at the end of becoming; on the other hand, as the process leading to B, and in this sense, the change is the whole set of factors leading to B, while B is the terminal point of the process.
The interpretation of this denition has made some progress in the recent years. The Aristotelian denition considers the movement as an actualization of the capacity of a being.
According to the traditional interpretation, this actuality would be a passage, a becoming, so that the denition would be circular, since it includes the deniendum in the denition itself. But the traditional interpretation has been questioned by several contemporary scholars who claim that, for Aristotle, the actuality in which becoming consists is not a passage but a peculiar mode of being, purely transitive. According to Aristotle, the event, the becoming of a peculiar being, is a being sui generis, that is, a transient state.
This transient state does not correspond to a moment of passivity of the being in question: On the contrary it is the beingin-act of a potency which is typical of the natural event. Several commentators, among the most recent ones, have claimed that Aristotle in this passage intentionally used the word entelecheia, which means to be in a certain state, rather than the word energeia, which means the achievement of a process. Other commentators have claimed that despite the slight etymological difference between energeia and entelecheia, in Aristotles use of these words, the distinction of their meanings is not so rigid, and the two words are closely linked, and then can be used to mean le fait dtre en oeuvre.
This question has been best claried by Sarah Waterlow: Aristotle calls it the event aptly an entelecheia, a word which says that becoming, when it takes place, does so not because it itself is becoming, but because it successfully manages to be. Every peculiar becoming has a quasiessence that belongs to it or, as Aristotle says, it is an imperfect act28 or an imperfect actuality. But this implies again the possibility of individuating every single event, even apart from a given causal chain, because an event emerges according to the kind of event it is, but does not become a different event: Nothing becomes passing from a state A to be in Venice to a state Z to be red , because a local movement cannot transform itself in an alteration of color.
The alteration of color can at the most be a consequence. There is in the Aristotelian theory a principle of individuation of events that refers to their own nature or to their meaning. An event can be identied by its nature, and the capacity it develops.
Heidegger and commentators inuenced by him have underlined the fact that Aristotle, in his Metaphysics, gives to the notion of act the dynamic meaning of activity, actualization energeia. They have understood the essential being of Aristotle as a way of happening, as an event. This can be obviously understood in different ways according to different philosophical traditions. In a certain tradition, this theory can be imputed to Aristotle as essentialism; in another philosophical context, it can be an interesting alternative to the criterion of identity of events according to their localization in a given causal chain.
Such a criterion was been proposed recently by Donald Davidson, but according to David Charles, it is not perfect: it is not committed to any view of essential properties of events, and hence does not give an account of identity across possible worlds. From an Aristotelian perspective, change can be truly understood only if one keeps in mind that every event: 1 expresses the potency of the changing event: A being transforms into something in so far as it is this something in potency; 2 has a self-terminating character It is its nature to reach the nal state, the telos, at which it stops; 3 is a peculiar actuality that is different from carlo natali the being of its nal state, the telos, which is the act in the full meaning of the term; and 4 is not an auto-generating process, but always implies the presence of a motive cause.
Actions, Productions, and Events In Aristotle, we cannot nd a discussion on the criteria required to make a strict distinction between natural events and human actions.
This is probably because for Aristotle such a distinction is so clear and certain that there is no need to discuss it. He states that the distinction between what derives from human actions and what derives from natural events is obvious in itself and does not need to be justied. This distinction between natural beings and articial beings is considered to be a primitive concept.
Aristotle says it would be ridiculous for some things to intend to prove that there is an independent principle of change and permanence, called nature. The distinction between the two elds is clear, and to prove what is obvious by what is not is the mark of a man who is unable to distinguish what is self-evident from what is not.
In one of the most notable passages of the Nichomachean Ethics, Aristotle claims: The class of things that admit of variation includes both things made and actions done.
But making is different from acting, a distinction we may accept from our discourses directed to the general public. Hence the rational quality concerned with doing is different from the rational quality concerned with making; nor is one of them a part of the other, for doing is not a form of making, nor making a form of doing.
In the case of production, the end either consists in an external individual being, like a house, or consists in a peculiar state of an external individual being, natural or articial, such as health or being painted yellow. But the end of production consists not only in the process that must lead to the achievement, such as recovery, but also in the achievement being reached.
It is like the joke about the incapable physicians who says, The operation was a success, but the patient died. In productions, the end consists in achieving an external being and not only in achieving the movement that leads to the production of an external being, without considering if the being has emerged or not. Conversely, for praxis, the end coincides with the actualization of the capacity of the subject, and there is no work other than the actualization, or act. This actualization achieves itself in the acting being e.
This distinction, which can be found in several passages of Aristotle, is expressed in the Eudemian Ethics: [F]or some things have a work that is something different from their coming into act, for instance the work of architecture is a house, not the act of building, that of medicine health, not the process of healing or curing, whereas with other things their work is the process of their coming into act, for instance the work of sight is the act of seeing, that of mathematical science the contemplation of mathematical truths.
In Aristotles view, what a man does is not always an action, but a lot of his movements happen in a way similar to physical events. In this sense, the distinction between action and event is relevant for Aristotelian philosophy.
In the eld of what humans do, the word action strictly speaking holding good only for a limited range of activities. Even if Aristotle does not give a clear distinction between actions and events, similar to the modern distinction, and proposes rather a theory of physical events, which can also apply to many of the events we call human actions, his account of natural becoming is not the archaic result of an ingenuous essentialism.
The Aristotelian doctrine of events provides a way to individuate natural events. It goes beyond the language we use concerning events, and does not involve locating events in a specic causal chain.
But this criterion, in so far as it refers to the kind of being that belongs to a specic being, does not work totally apart from the semantics of the words used in language. According to Aristotle, a connection exists between the meaning of the word man and the kind of being that belongs to a man. Determining the nature of the subject and the nature of the event plays a central part in this theory. Aristotle is carlo natali perfectly aware that this makes his theory very different from any other ontological or physical account of becoming.
Etienne Helmer Paris who kindly translated my paper into English from the original French version and also Dr. Nicholas Bunnin and Professor Chung-ying Cheng for the invaluable editorial help in preparing this volume.
An earlier version of this paper was published in French as venment et poiesis. La thorie aristotlicienne des venements naturels, in Raisons Pratiques 2: Lvnement en perspective, publi sous la direction de J.
The Revised Oxford Translation, 6th ed. Princeton: Princeton University Press, , a Canine visceral leishmaniasis by L. Canine cutaneous leishmaniasis by L.
The only two cases of L. The prevalence of Leishmania spp. Risk factors associated with canine leishmaniasis have extensively been studied in Brazil. There appears to be no sex predilection [ 35 , 60 ]. Although the prevalence of infection is often higher among males [ 47 ], this seems to be a matter of exposition rather than sex-related susceptibility.
The prevalence is also higher in young dogs [ 47 ].
Some breeds e. Short-furred dogs are at a higher risk of infection [ 60 ] and this has been attributed to the fact that their short-hair makes them more exposed to phlebotomine sand fly bites.
The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis is based on the presence of suggestive clinical signs e. Detailed information on several aspects of canine leishmaniasis, including diagnosis and treatment, can be found elsewhere [ 31 , 63 , 64 ]. Figure 5 Canine visceral leishmaniasis. A dog displaying a typical clinical picture of visceral leishmaniasis. The treatment of canine leishmaniasis is not routinely practiced in Brazil.
Until the middle of the s, most attempts to treat Brazilian dogs affected by leishmaniasis were unsuccessful [ 65 ]. Nowadays, there is scientific evidence supporting the treatment of canine leishmaniasis in Brazil [ 66 — 69 ]. However, although the available protocols are effective in promoting clinical improvement, a parasitological cure is seldom achieved [ 66 — 71 ]. Hence, considering the importance of dogs in the epidemiology of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply have recently prohibited the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil [see Addendum].
Canine hepatozoonosis Canine hepatozoonosis was firstly diagnosed in Brazil during the s [ 72 ]. This disease is caused by Hepatozoon canis Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae Fig. Dogs become infected by ingestion of a tick containing mature H.
Ticks involved in the transmission of H. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which is a known vector of H. Figure 6 Hepatozoon canis. A gamont of Hepatozoon canis in a blood smear from a naturally infected dog. Figure 7 Amblyomma ovale. A female of Amblyomma ovale firmly attached to and feeding on a dog.
Canine hepatozoonosis is prevalent in Center-West, Northeast, South, Southeast [ 72 — 82 ], and much probably in the North region. Little is known about the risk factors associated with H.
The infection is more prevalent in rural areas [ 76 ], where dogs are more exposed to Amblyomma ticks. However, this association is not fully understood, because dogs from urban areas are highly exposed to Rh. The diagnosis of canine hepatozoonosis is based on the presence of suggestive clinical signs e. More information on diagnosis and treatment of canine hepatozoonosis can be found elsewhere [ 84 , 86 ].
Canine trypanosomiasis Canine trypanosomiasis has been studied in Brazil since the beginning of the 20th century [ 88 ]. This disease is caused by protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae and has sporadically been recognized in Brazil. Trypanosoma species known to infect dogs in Brazil are Trypanosoma evansi [ 89 — 96 ], Trypanosoma cruzi [ 97 — ], and possibly Trypanosoma rangeli [ ], the latter species is normally nonpathogenic.
The vectors of T. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks feed on dogs infected by T. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in dogs is prevalent in all regions, except in South [ ]. Clinically, the infection is of minor significance; that is, infected dogs are often asymptomatic carriers. In an experimental model, only sporadic febrile episodes were noted during the first weeks post inoculation [ ]. Some dogs developed chronic focal and discrete myocarditis, which was only noticed during necropsy [ ].
Trypanosoma evansi infection in dogs is found predominately in Center-West and South regions [ 89 — 96 , , ]. Dogs are regarded as efficient reservoirs of T. The infection in dogs is also severe and potentially fatal [ 93 ]. Clinical signs include edema of the hind limbs, anorexia, apathy, dehydration, pale mucous membranes, fever, and weight loss [ 93 , — ].
Figure 8 Stomoxys calcitrans. Several stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans feeding on a dog.
Vectors of T. While T. Trypanosoma rangeli is widely spread in Brazil and has been found on a large number of hosts, including marsupials, rodents, and humans [ , — ]. While nonpathogenic neither to dogs nor to humans, T. The distinction between T. The characteristic biological behavior in the invertebrate host is considered the best method for their differentiation [ ]. This little known disease is caused by Rangelia vitalli Piroplasmorida , a protozoan whose current taxonomic position is uncertain.
The infection is thought to be transmitted by ticks [ ].