GREEN BUILDING Principles and Practices in Residential Construction CHE- KRUGER musicmarkup.info 1 03/11/11 PM CHE-KRUGER Save this PDF as. Green Building: Principles and Practices in Residential Construction (Go Green with Renewable Energy Resources) [Abe Kruger, Carl Seville] on musicmarkup.info Residential Green Building Principles and Practices. To schedule The Green Building Tripod guides every design decision and construction detail. The Tripod .
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Specialty Trades Buildings constructed today are very different from those built years ago. As interest in protecting the environment grows, "green," or sustainable, buildings have become more commonplace. At first glance, these buildings might not appear very different from their predecessors, but they feature specialized designs and materials to limit their environmental impact. Creating these new buildings requires skilled workers—such as architects, construction managers, and carpenters—with knowledge of new design and construction techniques. Green construction is the practice of erecting buildings and using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource efficient. Green buildings limit their environmental impact by conserving as much energy and water as possible and are constructed of recycled or renewable materials in order to achieve maximum resource efficiency.
When no binder is used, fabric mesh is installed on the walls, and then the insulation is sprayed into the cavity through the holes of the mesh see Figure 4. Historically, fiberglass batt insulation was manufactured with phenol formaldehyde PF binders to hold the fibers together, but some products now use acrylic or bio-based binders without any PF. Although most of the PF dissipates during manufacture, some continues to release into the wall cavity, which could be a problem for extremely chemically sensitive people.
Off-gassing is the process by which many chemicals volatilize, or let off molecules in a gas form into the air. Many manufacturers now offer product lines that use non-pf binders or no binders at all. Loose-fill fiberglass insulation uses no binders in manufacture, but this feature is not without its drawbacks. Fiberglass fibers can become airborne during installation, and inhalation of these particles poses the risk for potential lung problems. Mineral Wool Insulation In-Text Glossary: Definitions of key concepts are provided on the page where the concept is first mentioned and defined.
A paginated list of the key concepts also appears at the end of each chapter. The glossary at the end of the book contains a complete list of the key concepts together with their definitions. Fiberglass batt insulation is available in two forms: as unfaced batts or as faced batts, with foil or kraft paper facing. Faced batts are installed in walls by stapling the facing to the sides, or preferably, to the face of the studs.
Faced batts are available in widths designed for friction fit between standard wall stud dimensions. Unfaced batts fit in wall cavities by friction Figure 4. Floor installations use metal clips, or tiger teeth, to hold the batts in place Figure 4. On ceilings, batts are stapled in place before the drywall is installed, or loose-laid between joists afterwards. Mineral wool insulation refers to either slag wool or rock wool.
Slag wool is made from an iron ore blast furnace waste product. Rock wool is produced from natural basalt rock. The majority of the phenol formaldehyde is a potentially harmful chemical binder commonly used in fiberglass insulation and engineered wood products.
Summary In choosing a foundation, making the right decisions help make a building greener. Building smaller footings and walls that take advantage of the existing strength of the soil, using piers instead of walls, or installing prefabricated foundations can provide opportunities to reduce Review Questions 1. What foundation type has no radon risk? Conditioned crawl space b. Unconditioned basement c.
Slab-on-grade d. Piers 2. What building materials may contain CCA? CMUs b. Pressure-treated wood c. ICFs d. Steel studs 3. What foundation type is best suited to a floodprone site? Slab-on-grade b. Basement c. Crawl space d. Pier 4. Which item below does not reduce the amount of concrete used in a foundation? Frost-protected shallow foundation b.
The homeowners were able to add living space while using materials efficiently and improving the overall performance of the home. Effective management of soil gases, water vapor, and bulk moisture help keep the house healthy and durable. When you understand how these choices fit into the whole-house system, you are well on your way to creating a green and sustainable building.
Prefabricated foundation d. Using thin brick or stone veneer 5. Which foundation type does not include integrated insulation? AAC b. ICFs c. Precast concrete d.
Poured-in-place concrete 6. Which is not a benefit of prefabricated foundations? Reduces job-site waste b. Reduces material required c. Provides improved earthquake resistance d. Shortens construction schedule 7. Which of the following techniques helps to eliminate moisture movement between the ground and concrete foundation walls? Exterior insulation b.
Interior insulation c. Capillary break on top of footing d. ICFs autoclaved aerated concrete AAC , capillary break, chromated copper arsenate CCA , coal fly ash, concrete, concrete masonry unit CMU , conditioned crawl space, damp-proofing, drainage mat, footing, foundation drainage, foundation walls, frost-protected shallow foundations, grade beam, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Additional Resources End-of-Chapter Features: Included at the end of each chapter are the following components: Summary, Review Questions, Critical Thinking Questions, Key Terms with corresponding page numbers, and a list of Additional Resources that pertain to the chapter topics.
Which foundation is the best choice when there are large trees close to the house?
Pier 9. When should crawl spaces be vented? Only when they cannot be kept dry b. In all dry climates Critical Thinking Questions 1. For a home located in Atlanta, Georgia, that is not within a high-risk flood zone, what foundation type is best and why? What is the greenest foundation type? Key Terms American Coal Ash Association: Autoclaved Aerated Concrete Products Association: hydrostatic pressure, insulated concrete form ICF , permanent wood foundations PWF , pier foundation, Portland cement, pozzolan, precast concrete, prefabricated foundations, radon, radon ventilation, retaining wall, c.
In all wet climates d. In all warm climates When should crawl spaces not be conditioned? In earthquake-prone areas b. In humid climates c. In dry climates d. In flood-prone areas 3. Describe the process of constructing a conditioned crawl space. What is fly ash, and why is it considered green? Courtesy of PureWood Products Figure Thermally treated wood begins as standard lumber and then undergoes a heat-based, chemicalfree process that changes compounds in the wood.
The result is a wood product that is resilient to rot, decay, and the elements. Composites may require closer joist spacing than is needed for wood decking because of their lower tensile strength. Composite waste cannot be recycled, so careful planning is needed to reduce the amount of waste generated. Cengage Learning Naturally Decay-Resistant Lumber Naturally decay-resistant woods, such as redwood, western cedar, cypress, black locust, Pacific yew, and Ipe, are not prone to moisture damage.
Naturally decayresistant wood is less common than in years past. Only the old-growth heartwood of cedar and redwood is resistant to rot; new-growth sapwood does not have the same properties. Use of these woods, particularly the naturally decay-resistant wood wood species, such as redwood, western cedar, cypress, black locust, Pacific yew, and Ipe, that are not prone to moisture damage.
An Extensive Art Program: A comprehensive collection of vivid illustrations and photos helps bring key concepts to life, enabling the reader to understand complex concepts more easily.
This invaluable instructor CD-ROM is intended to assist you, as the instructor, in classroom preparation and management. Included within this electronic resource are tools that help reinforce the important building techniques introduced in the book as well as provide the necessary materials for evaluation of student comprehension of critical concepts: An Instructor s Manual including Lecture Outlines with corresponding PowerPoint slides, Chapter Summaries, answers to the end-of-chapter Review Questions and Critical Thinking Questions, and Additional Resources help prepare you for class.
PowerPoint Presentations highlight critical concepts in each chapter to enhance classroom lectures. PowerPoint presentations also correlate to the Lesson Outlines in the Instructor s Manual, allowing for a seamless presentation of the content of the book. A Testbank in ExamView format includes hundreds of questions and enables you to edit, delete, or add your own questions as well as create your own tests using the questions provided.
This flexible format makes this feature a handy tool for evaluating your students on the concepts presented in each chapter. An Image Library containing illustrations from the book enables you to supplement and enhance your classroom presentations. Link to delmarlearning. The use of these tools, along with Green Building: Principles and Practices in Residential Contraction will assist you as you guide your students down the path to success!
Course Mate includes Engagement Tracker, a first-of-its-kind tool that monitors student engagement in the course. Instructors also have access to the student resources on CourseMate, including: an interactive ebook interactive teaching and learning tools including: quizzes flashcards videos and more For the Student CourseMate A CourseMate is available to accompany Green Building: Principles and Practices in Residential Construction.
To access additional course materials including CourseMate, please visit www. At the CengageBrain. This will take you to the product page where these resources can be found. He has conducted energy efficiency and conservation training for builders, renovators, home inspectors, contractors, and homeowners around the country.
Kruger also assists with designing, implementing, and evaluating utility-run energy efficiency programs. In , Mr. Kruger founded Kruger Sustainability Group to provide green building training, consulting, and curriculum development for colleges, companies, utilities, and nonprofit organizations. Carl Seville Carl Seville has honed his expertise in sustainable construction through over 30 years as a contractor, educator, and consultant in the residential construction industry.
He trains construction industry and allied professionals throughout the country on sustainable construction practices and certifies single and multifamily buildings under the LEED for Homes, EarthCraft House, and National Green Building Programs. Logan College Eric A. Ashley B. Richards, Jr. Lingguang Song, Ph.
Robert A. In very different ways, we discovered the green gospel through Southface. Abe started his professional career at Southface and used it as a launching pad for future endeavors. Carl both taught and attended classes there over many years and helped build Southface s Resource Center. He was also intimately involved in the development of the EarthCraft House Renovation program.
Throughout the whole process, Erin has been an incredible resource, and we cannot thank her enough for her patience and constant optimism. Additional thanks go to the production and art teams. Abe Kruger This book would not be possible without the support and assistance from friends, family, and numerous industry professionals. I am incredibly thankful and constantly humbled by the passionate people who make up the green building industry.
I am forever grateful for the encouragement and amazing patience of Anne Rogers.
How she managed to live through 3 years of near non-stop discussions of the book I will never know! I am thankful for this and the support of his colleague, Rodney H.
Carl Seville In addition to the help and support I have received from countless friends and industry associates over the years, I wish to send special thanks to my children, Paula Seville and Alex Cullen, for the many hours they spent listening to me talk about green building. I am grateful for their feedback from their years spent living in some of my green remodeling experiments. Decisions made while planning, building, renovating, and maintaining homes have long-term direct impacts on many different aspects of our environment air quality, health, natural resources, land use, water quality, and energy use.
At the same time, our building decisions have major economic implications, from the cost of land and materials to the labor and financing required to build. Buildings are a primary point of consumption of energy, water, and raw materials. The Eight Principles of Green Building Although there is no universal definition of green building, we have identified eight green building principles that should always be considered when designing, building, or maintaining a home.
Energy Efficiency: Reducing the energy required to live in a house by designing it from the beginning with reduced consumption and increased efficiency in mind through appropriate equipment selection and highquality construction methods 1 U. The beginning of each chapter will list the icons that correspond to the principles covered in that chapter. These icons serve as a reminder of what the principles are and present an efficient way to note the green practices covered in a particular chapter.
Approach to Green Building in This Book In this book, we cover green building in a best practices approach to low-rise residential construction. We examine the considerations that must be taken into account during the design, site development, and construction phases of the project, and we present the options available in material use all with an eye toward building a truly green house. Many green building techniques are simply those that consciously include and enforce good quality.
Throughout the text, we describe how to simply build better homes that provide comfortable, safe, durable, and efficient living environments. Readers may be surprised to see that the term green is used sparingly throughout the text. The book is broken into five sections that roughly follow the construction schedule. Section One defines green building, establishing why green building is desirable, and explaining the science behind green. At the foundation of green building is applied building science.
For a home to operate efficiently and effectively, moisture, heat and air flow must be controlled see Chapter 2. Section Two covers the structural systems of a home. Here we explore foundations, floors, walls, ceilings, and roofs. Section Three delves into exterior finishes, including windows and doors, cladding, outdoor spaces, and landscaping.
Section Four examines interior finishes, and Section Five explores mechanical systems, including heating, ventilation, and air conditioning as well as electrical, plumbing, and renewable energy. A Final Note Regardless of your professional path, we hope you take away from this book an appreciation for the complexity of the issues and a firmer understanding of what it means to be truly green recognizing that it is not just a buzzword.
Now is an exciting time to be in the construction industry because of the rapidly changing products and techniques that are being developed to build better, greener homes. Upon completion of this chapter, the student should be able to: Define green building Explain the environmental impacts of the residential construction industry as a whole Describe the benefits of green building for builders, homeowners, and contractors Describe the relationship between green building programs and building codes Define the ENERGY STAR for Homes program Describe the Home Energy Rating System HERS and its relationship to green building programs Explain blower door and duct leakage testing Calculate simple payback and cash flow analysis for green building improvements Green Building Principles Energy Efficiency Resource Efficiency Durability Water Efficiency Indoor Environmental Quality Reduced Community Impact Homeowner Education and Maintenance Sustainable Site Development Defining Green Building We define green building as a set of design, construction, and maintenance techniques and practices that minimize a building s total environmental impact.
Electrical power generation carries significant environmental consequences, including air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, not to mention the consumption of natural resources in the construction of new power generating facilities. Direct air pollutants include volatile organic compounds VOC and small dust particles aerosols that may contribute immediately to health and environmental degradation.
Greenhouse gases GHG are atmospheric gases, such as carbon dioxide CO 2 , sulfur oxides SO x , and nitrous oxides NO x , that are also emitted directly but lead to increasing global temperatures that is, the greenhouse effect. As projects successfully. The paper begins with the background described by Lapinski et al.
This understanding will provide Finally directions for further research and the implications of important and enduring capabilities currently underdeveloped research outcomes for the delivery of green building projects or missing in the delivery of green building projects 2.
The next in South Africa are suggested. It is The first stage in the delivery of green building projects is the the practice of creating structures that are environmentally preconstruction activities, where the consideration, analysis, responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's and implementation of sustainable alternatives, life cycle cost life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation, analysis in addition to the construction cost calculations, and, maintenance, renovation and deconstruction In other early building commissioning planning and analysis are words, green building is based on the principle of sustainable carried out 29, Lee et al.
According to Ojo, Mbowa and Akinlabi 22, follows, criteria design, where initial system schemes are sustainable construction involves creating constructed items developed, while principles and possible solutions are using best-practice clean and resource-efficient techniques qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed and coordinated. The from the extraction of the raw materials to the demolition and detailed design follows, where components designs are disposal of its components.
On the basis of this principle, analysed, simulated, calculated, integrated and delivered to green building contributes to sustainable development, or the the owner in form of preliminary drawings, specifications and meeting of growing human needs for natural resources, schedules. The next is implementation document stage, industrial products, energy, food, transportation and effective where the project team for each component design develops waste management while conserving and protecting post-design drawings and specifications; reviews the environmental quality and the natural resource base essential documents; delivers the documents to the owner for final for future life and development In essence, green building design approval.
After the documentation phase, construction, projects simultaneously provides social, economic and occupancy and maintenance follow 32 Because green building environmental benefits of the present and the future 7,8, The difficulties and complexities in green economic and social issues, there is an increasing demand for building projects stem from unique practices such design green building projects from government, commercial iterations, advanced simulation and analysis, additional site precautions, energy modelling, new 31 construction techniques and methods etc.
Another 68 journal publications were downloaded into the EndNote. In essence, the activities involved in Still, given the possibility of irrelevant inclusion, a further the delivery of green building projects are not sequential, but filtering activity was carried out in line with 44,45, The 68 integrated and holistic 2, According to Swarup et al.
Thus the quantitative perspective. Thus 36 managers, owners, occupants, and government agencies publications where qualitative methods were employed in performing various processes 2, Seemingly, the multiplicity examining and analysis of the delivery of green building of disciplines and requirements in the project delivery of green projects were selected.
Also by focusing on a specific type of publication construction 4, Thus this traditional roles are expanded For instance, an architecture research systematically reviews relevant journal articles on the firm may work mostly independently on the schematic design delivery of green building projects.
Initially, a comprehensive for a traditional project, a green building project seeking to search, represented in Figure 1, was undertaken in the maximize energy performance requires a schematic design Google Scholar database.
According to Xiong, Skitmore and effort with coordination among a variety of groups such as Xia 42, known academic databases such as Scopus, Elsevier construction professionals, mechanical engineers, facilities etc. In fact the managers, building occupants, and utility companies In the selection of the articles of buildings 13,33, as such employing traditional approaches in interest in the Google Scholar search, the inclusion criteria green building will create inefficiencies in design and include studies that examined and analysed the delivery of construction 4.
Given the complexities, it is difficult deliver green building projects. Also, the complexities in the delivery of green building projects caused the many projects to be delivered behind Eight articles that employed mixed method of research were schedule in Singapore In fact, most green building projects selected. An example is 37 who performed quantitative are delivered at a higher first costs 2.
Evidently, the delivery analysis on data from 40 completed green building projects, green building projects remains challenging. In exception to the inclusion criteria, keywords connected with Boolean operators are usually four articles that employed survey research method for employed as search strategy e.
In this paper, the examining and analysing the delivery of green building keywords connected with Boolean operators, and used projects were selected 36,48,49, These combinations were also connected publications, with additional details are presented in Table 1.
Also in places like Australia, where green building moment had started before , it was not until that the first green building was constructed.
Arguably the studies selected cover the period when green building practices started till the present. It could be seen that selected on green building delivery process is limited to all the studies on green building project delivery process had been activities between design and construction stages. In the on steady increase since , except for the period of selected articles, the unit of analysis is all the activities and , when there was a sharp decrease.
According to Ahmed 53, SJR is a major journal rating were content analysed in arriving at the emerging themes, 1 system that exists in the world. Some articles though with SJR of 0. The 11 articles selected from this journal is a considered a boost to this research. On these Table 2 presents the distribution of publications by period and bases, the quality, quantity and relevance of articles selected identified research themes. It could be seen that the practices contribute to the validity of the study.
In the delivery of green building projects, the design and construction stages of development are the most important 54; Table 2: Distribution of publications by period and identified research themes Research theme Period year Total Percentage The practices for ensuring the successful delivery of green building projects 1 0 7 14 14 36 75 Lean technique for understanding the requirements of green building projects 4 1 3 2 2 12 25 Total 5 1 10 16 16 48 17 Adapted from Mok et al.
In order to overcome early involvement of project stakeholders 67,68, sustainability these, there are unique practices that must be implemented programming 28, and systems design approach Overarch- by project stakeholders during the delivery of green building ingly, these practices leading to successful delivery are projects.
According to Klotz et al. The practice building projects. This is termed integration, and it delivers practices that must be implemented to ensure successful increased value to owners, as well as ensuring the maximiza- delivery of green building projects.
According to Li et al. In other to achieve integration, project team building projects, thus, these organisations should seek to members and stakeholders are collocated in charrettes, establish good and long term relationships This fosters meetings or pre-workshops at the early stage of green seamless communication and collaboration, which is building projects so as to agree upon strategies, commit- beneficial to the success of green building projects .
As an ments, differences, and programmes are agreed upon 56, This describes ensured not only successful outcome, but also the capacity the affective efforts and dedication of project owners towards building of participants, as well as innovation and knowledge ensuring that the goal for green building projects is achieved transfer Furthermore, organisations should seek to 62,63, An instance of operational strategies Of note is the delineation in the owner commitment is when project owner facilitates the practices that ensures the successful delivery of green integration of project team members, or work packages, this building projects across project and organisational levels.
This foster cooperative working relationship and information can be linked to the complexities in the delivery of green 34 building projects, whereby project and organisational level These may include a built structure, space creation, practices must be taken into consideration distinctly to economic, social and environmental needs etc.
A sustainability level 50,58,60,63,72, It is argued that the practices process performance analysis is then carried out to determine for ensuring the successful delivery form the guidelines the wasteful and value adding processes, which is the most towards successful execution of green building projects In essence, the implementation of the practices for reduction of downstream process waste 2.
However there is It could be seen that value is an important consideration in the currently no empirical support for this claim. An empirical delivery of green building projects. However, value in green support in this regard will avail the knowledge of specific building projects could be differently defined, wherefore value practices that lead to different performance outcomes in engineering could be applied to arrive at an optimum value.
Other techniques for understanding the requirements of green Table 3 Practices for successful delivery of green building projects building projects include value engineering, which provides a Project level success factors Sources structured approach to identifying project solutions that Integrated team [12,76,77] improve project performance and increase levels of sustain- Owners' sustainability commitment [67,78] ability 4, and visualisation tools e.
In doing the review, two Organisational level success factors Sources areas have emerged in need of further research, which is Inter-organisational collaboration and communication  illustrated in Figure 3, and explained in the following section. It was emphasised that delivery of green building projects are due to the added these practices could influence the performance-at-comple- requirements, which are beyond standard practice in the tion of green building projects.
It is important to verify this construction industry. Thus there are techniques employed by claim in empirical terms. According to Gultekin et al. In this, all the activities to be carried out in the delivery of green building projects are characterised, and the Further, project stakeholders will be able to predict the different requirements made explicit to project team members performance-at-completion, and take necessary corrective 1,5,13, The lean technique also ensures the minimization of actions.
Of note is the practice of owner commitment because wastes in resources used in the delivery of green building of the implication for project owners. According to Robichaud projects In future research, the construction industry. The framework indicated that both lean empirical evidence that the practice of owner commitment and green concepts ensure minimization of wastes differently.
The knowledge will further motivate waste, emissions and environmental impact, the lean concept owners to adopt and successfully implement green building targets the value stream of projects by focusing on projects 6.
However because of building projects must be implemented at the added requirements, it is difficult for owners and project project and organisational levels in order to teams to define value in green building projects.
For instance, overcome the complexities in the delivery of green it is difficult to be specific about value in terms of social, building projects economic or environmental considerations 5.
Value could also be the balancing of social, economic and environmental 3 The awareness of the stakeholders in the considerations. Due to the difficulty, there has been advocacy development of green building projects that lean for the implementation of value engineering in the delivery of techniques can be implemented in the delivery of green building projects 1, Value engineering is defined as an green building projects so as to understand and organised effort directed at analysing the functions of the balance the additional requirements system for the purpose of achieving the required function and value It is structured problem solving process based on 4 The availing of research opportunities that can function analysis to improve the value of a system However, there researchers.
These include subjects such as value has been no research aimed at implementing value engineer- engineering implementation, performance-at-com ing in the delivery of green building projects. It is difficult and complex to deliver green building projects.
This complicates the success of green building projects. However, understanding of a subject area, this paper undertook the the lean aspect ensures the minimization of wastes differently systematic review of articles on the delivery of green building from the green aspect. According to Koranda 81, while the projects, published in relevant academic journals between green aspect concentrates on eliminating material waste, and The mutual exclusivity of the examined.
It could be seen that steady increase in the lean and green concept can be related to lack of framework of research interest in this area has been growing since A framework of implementation will By content analysis of the articles, two topics were identified help project team participants to articulate the synergy as key research themes in the area of delivery of green between lean and green concept, thereby enabling the building projects, namely 1 the practices for ensuring the implementation of specific lean practices in achieving a successful delivery of green building projects, and 2 lean corresponding level of greenness, and vice versa.
The project are thriving in South Africa. Currently, South Africa SA is an level emphasises on the practices implemented during the Vestablished member of the World Green Building Council actual execution of green building projects. The organisational WGBC However, the delineation in the This means that industry leaders in SA are operationally practices for ensuring successful delivery of green building stable, nationally positioned and empowered to effect the projects between project and organisational levels is indicative transformation of the local building industry toward sustain- of the complexities in delivery of green building projects.
This ability. The evidence of this is the development of green means additional considerations must be taken during actual building projects between and in SA These include: Also the implementation of the practices for ensuring successful delivery of green building projects influences the 1 The awareness of the stakeholders in the performance-at-project completion, even though there is development of green building projects of the need currently no empirical support for this claim.
Therefore in for the implementation of practices such as owner future, researchers and practitioners should seek to establish commitment so as to ensure the successful empirical relationship for this claim.
An empirical support in delivery of green building projects this regard will avail the knowledge of specific practices that lead to different performance outcomes in delivery of green 2 The awareness of the stakeholders in the building projects.
The other theme is the lean technique for development of green building projects that the understanding the delivery of green building projects. The lean technique is a veritable means of understanding the additional requirements required in the delivery of green The aim of this research is to furnish the understanding of building projects.
It is notable that green buildings projects are owners and green building project stakeholders in the have additional requirements, beyond standard practice, construction industry on how to successfully deliver green which makes the delivery difficult and complex.
Lean building projects. However the systematic review undertaken technique is described as an exemplar of green practices in to achieve the aim only covered the design and construction the delivery of green building projects. Consequently, the development of a framework of However, the pre-construction and post-construction stages implementation is proposed.
The framework will enable the were not considered. Also to help The pre-construction stage encompasses activities such as owners and project team participants to define value consideration, analysis, and implementation of sustainable requirements, the implementation of value engineering in the alternatives, life cycle cost and construction cost calculations, delivery of green building projects has been suggested.
Value and early building commissioning planning and analysis. However post-construction stage includes activities such as adaptive due to the difficulties in defining value requirements, the reuse, retrofitting, maintenance, and operation strategies. In implementation of value engineering will help owners and essence, it could be considered inefficient to discard the project team members to define, and improve value preconstruction and post-construction stages in the delivery of requirements in the delivery of green building projects.
Current Status Research topics Future directions 1. Project Level practices for succesful delivery of green building projects. Establishing empirical support that Practices for ensuring sucessfull the practices for successful delivery 2. Organisational level practices for delivery of green building projects of green building projects leads to successful delivery of green high performance.
Theoretical support that the practices for successfulldelivery of green building projects leads to Implementation of value high performance. Figure 3 : Current status and furture directions of researches on project delivery of green building projects Adapted from .
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