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Neuron e. Axon e. Synapse e. Neurotransmitters e. The Neuron see Figure 2. The Structure of the Brain a. Brain stem e. Medulla, pons, and cerebellum e.
Midbrain e. Thalamus e. Hypothalamus e. Forebrain e. Amygdala, the cingulated gyrus, and the hippocampus e. Hippocampus e. Basal ganglia e. Limbic system is the amygdala, the cingulated gyrus, and the hippocampus which is involved in emotions and impulses 4. Cerebral cortex e. Left hemisphere i. Responsible for language and cognitive functioning.
Tends to process information in a more linear and logical manner. Processes information in parts sequentially. Uses both language and symbols including numbers.
Right hemisphere i. Processes the world in a holistic manner.
Includes spatial context, creativity, imagery, and intuition. Each hemisphere consists of four lobes e. Lobes of the brain i. Temporal Lobe e. Parietal Lobe e. Occipital Lobe e. Frontal Lobe e. Corpus Callosum e. Sensory-somatic nervous system e. Includes the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The Endocrine System e. Pituitary gland e. Thyroids e. Hormones e. Adrenals e. Islets of Langerhans e.
Neurohormones and Neurotransmitters i. Communication in the nervous system is both electrical and chemical. The field of psychiatry uses this information to study the use of drug treatments on specific neurotransmitters.
Neuroimaging e. MRI e. Other technology used e. Neuroanatomy e. Genetics i. Deoxyribonucleic acid e. The collection of DNA is the human genome. Gene e. Sex chromosomes one chromosome from the mother and one from the father XX equals female and XY equals male v.
Gregor Mendel e. Influence of genes on characteristics e. Behavioral Genetics e. Family studies e. Adoption studies e. Twin studies e. Molecular Genetics e. Genomewide linkage analysis e. Candidate gene association study e. Genomewide Association study e. Definition of Case Study a. A comprehensive description of an individual or group of individuals that focuses on assessment or description of abnormal behavior or its treatment.
Benefits of a Case study: Can focus on the assessment and description of abnormal behavior or its treatment. Examination of rare phenomenon. Generate hypothesis for group studies. Allow practitioners to be involved in research. Illustrates important clinical issues. Limitations of a Case Study: Amount and type of data may vary.
Impossible to replicate. Limited in ability to understand abnormal behavior.
Inability to make any firm conclusions. Do not include control groups. Experimental variable e. Control group e. Single-Case Designs a. Experimental studies conducted with a single individual, most common ABAB. Limitations of Single-case designs: Do not allow researchers to generalize the results to heterogeneous groups of people.
They do not address the impact of individual differences such as age, sex, and ethnicity. Benefits of conducting this type of research: The most common types of research which allow researchers to draw conclusions.
Allows researchers to evaluate the impact of different treatments. Correlations e. Correlational coefficient e. Positive correlation ii. Negative correlation iii. Ranges from Correlation is not causation, only explains the degree to which a change in one variable is associated with a change in the other. See Lecture Idea 6 and 7 2. Controlled Group Designs a. Experiments in which groups of participants are exposed to different conditions at least one of which is experimental and one of which is a control.
Independent variable e. Dependent variable e.
Random assignment e. Internal validity e. External validity e. Reliability e. Validity e. Placebo control e. Clinical significance is the practical or clinical value of the findings.
Statistical significance is the mathematical probability that after treatment changes in the treatment group did not occur by chance.
Racial, Ethnic, and Cultural Groups a. One major limitation of group-based research is that diverse populations are not represented.
Exclusion of women i. Medication trials e. Hormonal changes as a result of the menstrual cycle. Exclusion of older adults i.
Abundance of research conducted with white samples, particularly college students. Need for diverse populations and groups of individuals. It is important to be culture sensitive when conducting research with diverse populations. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohorts a.
Cross-sectional design e. Cohort e. Longitudinal Design e. Research in Abnormal Psychology at the Population Level 1.
Population Level: The goal is to understand abnormal psychology at the broadest possible level. Epidemiology e. Prevalence e. Incidence e. Comorbidity e. Epidemiological Research Designs a. How often do certain disorders occur in the population? What are the prevalence rates in the general population? Observational epidemiology e. Experimental epidemiology e. Before you start conducting any research, you must have approval from the Institutional Review Board to make sure that participants will not be harmed and that the study is needed, which will benefit the field.
Once your study has been approved, it is important to conduct a randomized assignment, meaning that every participant has an equal chance to being assigned to the experimental group or control group.
Next, before actually conducting the study you must obtain informed consent from every patient as well as the HIPPA form if medical history or other information is necessary. Remember that a research participant has the right to stop participating in the study at any point in time during the research.
It is always important to make sure you are following ethical codes related to conducting research with participants. For psychological research, it may necessary to conduct an initial screening or evaluation session to gather some information from the participant before the research study begins. Assess the correlation e.
Evaluate the reliability and validity e. List some recommendations for future studies. What were some limitations of your study? Conduct a follow-up with your research participants.
Lecture Starters or Discussion Points 1. This can be done by utilizing a variety of different teaching formats, activities, lecture material, the use of multimedia, and even pop culture. Potkay described the use of popular song lyrics as a way to a highlight the importance of a concept, b provide a concrete illustration of the concept, c demonstrate the relevance of an idea in contemporary context, d increase general awareness of psychological aspects of everyday media, e stimulate classroom discussion, f encourage personal involvement by students, who may also may find new songs on their own, g add an alternative to film, television, and print media for use in the classroom, and, h offer a novel, entertaining stimulus with which to break fatigue or monotony during lengthy class sessions p.
A list of popular songs is provided. The Medical News Today discussed a recent research study conducted by Richard Harris, a professor of psychology at Kansas State University, and Elizabeth Cady, a doctoral student. They conducted a research study on the influence of music as powerful memory cues for the journal of Psychology of Music. These may be some songs to use as well to conduct some in-class research on the influence of music and memories.
Play a couple minutes of each one of the songs listed and ask students to record their initial thoughts, feelings, emotions, or memories associated with them. After the music clips have been played, ask for the students to share their reactions with the class. Albers, B. Rockin soc: Popular music to introduce sociological concepts. Teaching Sociology, 31, — Potkay, C. Teaching abnormal psychology concepts using popular song lyrics. Teaching of Psychology, 9 4 , — The Medical News Today , January K-State psychology research shows that popular songs can cue specific memories.
Retrieved on October 3, , from http: Movies and Mental Illness Films provide great opportunities to introduce and expand on the key concepts outlined throughout each chapter. Given classroom time restraints, it is best to show movie clips ranging from five to ten minutes.
Livingston, K. Viewing popular films about mental illness through a sociological lens. Teaching Sociology, 32, — Zimmerman, J. People like ourselves: Portrayals of mental illness in the movies. Laham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc. Why do some undergraduate students find psychological research interesting while others are less interested in psychological research? Abnormal psychology tends to be one of the most popular psychology courses offered on campuses across the nation. An integral part of creating an effective learning community in the classroom is to be able to hold and peak student interest.
Vittengl, Bosley, Brescia, Eckardt, Neidig, Shelver, and Sapenoff reported that students frequently show the most interest in the topics of mental illness and criminal behavior. Vittengl et al. You can start by writing the following terms on the chalkboard, white board, or on large pieces of paper taped to the walls around the room: Then ask students to come up and write their first thoughts when they read each of these terms.
Next, discuss the findings that Vittengl et al found to be indicators of undergraduate interest in psychological research: Vittengl, J. Brescia, S. Why are some undergraduates more and others less interested in psychological research? Teaching of Psychology, 31 2 , 91— Alphabet Brainstorming: What do psychologists study in the field of abnormal psychology? First, start by breaking the class into small groups of 5—6 students or, depending on the size of your class, you could have students work individually.
This provides an opportunity to clarify what areas will be covered in the course as well as address areas that will not be covered. You may also add other letters of the alphabet. Eggleston, T. Office of teaching resources in psychology OTRP online: Building community in the classroom through ice-breakers and parting ways.
When Measurements Come to Life: The Living Likert Scale see Handout This activity is modified from Eggleston and Smith as a way to let students migrate around the room to express attitudes and opinions, while providing an opportunity to interact with peers. Then before class starts hang the sheets of paper across one side of the room in order. Once class has started, tell students that a series of statements see Handout will be read aloud and after each one move to the number that represents their attitudes and opinions.
Ask the students to not talk during the activity and simply observe their peers attitudes and opinions. It may be helpful to start with some simple questions and progress to more controversial statements. You can add your own statements, use the ones provided, or you may modify the statements to meet your lecture needs. Retrieved from http: Use of Technology as a Class Opener e. If you come across an interesting research study in a scholarly journal article or if you find a research study that was conducted in a popular magazine, post a copy of the article or the major findings.
Then have students post and share their opinions and thoughts online regarding the findings that were reported by the study journal or popular magazine. Allow students to provide feedback to each other. In the beginning of the class, pull up the discussion and review the responses in class. Questions to ask: Do you agree with the findings, why or why not? How do you think this study could have been improved? Did you notice any limitations, if so, what?
Could this study be replicated in the future? If so, what recommendations would you make for future researchers? This activity can also be modified as an in-class demonstration by asking the students to bring in popular magazines or newspapers with research studies included. If you decide to go with this option, break the class into small groups of 4—6 and allow the students to share their research with the group members still touching on the same questions mentioned above.
After all of the student volunteers have been chosen, ask for two more volunteers to be the researchers. While the student-led focus group is being conducted, have the remainder of the class take notes on their observations from the focus group. For example, noting the similarities or differences in opinions of group members, capture essential information, information related to consensus, surprises or contradictory statements, how the process could be improved, document nonverbal behavior etc.
Allow for 15—20 minutes for the focus group to be conducted with an additional five minutes for discussion. The sample focus group can be conducted in the following order after the student volunteers are selected: Introductions of facilitators 2.
Explain how you plan to record the responses 3. After each question is read, reflect back a summary of what you heard 5. This policy has been established to stop fraudulent returns along with non-refundable licensing fees and charges that are incurred from each sale. Please see our terms and conditions page for complete details thanks. Click to enlarge. Next product. Rated 5. Add to Wishlist. Product added! Browse Wishlist. The product is already in the wishlist! Rated 5 out of 5.
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