REVOLUTION? Armed Struggle and Political Struggle. In Latin America. Regis Debray. Translated from the author's. French and Spanish by Bobbye Ortiz. raRss . Regis Debray and Revolution. Salvatore J. Ferrera. Loyola University Chicago. This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses and. Armed Struggle and Political Struggle in Latin America [Regis Debray, Bobbye Ortiz] on musicmarkup.info *FREE* Revolution in the RevolutionPaperback.
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by Régis Debray Translated by Gregory Elliott and Bobbye Ortiz “An explosive, unfamiliar combination of an utterly intransigent revolutionary ethics and an. Armed struggle and political struggle in Latin America. by Régis Debray; 1 edition ; First published in ; Subjects: Accessible book, Protected DAISY, Guerrilla. by: Debray, Régis urn:acs6:revolutioninrevo00debrrich:epubcae3a-0a2c- b1a3- Borrow this book to access EPUB and PDF files.
Author: Andrew Joscelyne Andrew Joscelyne Today, his obsession isn't ideology- it's "mediology. He had been captured with the guerrilla band led by Ernesto "Che" Guevara, Fidel Castro's legendary lieutenant. His Revolution in the Revolution is considered a primer for guerrilla insurrection. Creating a discipline he calls "mediology," Debray has investigated how it is that abstract ideas can end up as world-changing ideologies. Today, he is developing a new theory of the transmission of ideas through history, to grasp how words become flesh, ideas ideologies. Wired tracked him down in Paris to find out more about the brave new science of mediology.
His recent work investigates the religious paradigm as a social nexus able to assist collective orientation on a wide, centuries-long scale.
Mediology is characterized by its multi-disciplinary approach. In Vie et mort de l'image Life and Death of Image, , an attempted history of the gaze, he distinguished three regimes of the images icon , idol and vision.
He also strove explicitly to prevent misunderstandings by differentiating mediology from a simple sociology of mass media. He also criticized the basic assumptions of the history of art which present art as an atemporal and universal phenomenon.
According to Debray, art is a product of the Renaissance with the invention of the artist as producer of images, in contrast with previous acheiropoieta icons or other types of so-called "art," which did not primarily fulfil an artistic function but rather a religious one.
Current political views[ edit ] In a February opinion-editorial in the newspaper Le Monde , Debray criticized the tendency of the whole French political class to become more conservative. He also deplored the influence of the "videosphere" on modern politics, which he claimed has a tendency to individualize everything, forgetting both past and future although he praised the loss of s " messianism " , and rejecting any common national project.
He asked voters to endorse the "left of the left," in an attempt to end a modern "anti-politics" which has become political marketing. They had a daughter together, Laurence , who was born in The worst is that this is a conspiracy without a conspirator. Such outbursts would be of little effect. We understand that this ball and chain has often been judged reactionary or fatalistic. Yet those who would make a clean sweep of civilization regularly break their teeth on this thing that is not a thing—elusive, tough and stubborn.
Robespierre and Lenin could have redoubled their efforts, without their activism changing either language or climate, national diet or modal family—indeed, all that the passage from the horse to the high-speed train, from the abacus to the computer, from capitalism to socialism and back again, has left fundamentally unaltered.
The Soviet Russian never bade farewell to St Sergius or borscht, any more than a priest-hating Frenchman to the division of the lunar month into four weeks, a biblical inheritance, or the hour into sixty minutes, a legacy from Babylon.
And we are not going to see a Sixth Republic in France abolishing the Gregorian calendar the First got nowhere with its republican calendar. It is also the way time is divided, and space demarcated; a main course, a favourite colour, a head-gear.
Kemal banned the headscarf and the veil, but while the fez disappeared, the hijab resurfaced. The mark of a civilization is a culinary base that no act of will, good or bad, can prevent from rising to the surface of the sauce. Colour prints of Stalin were not presented as icons, nor statues of Mao as a new version of ancestor worship—nor indeed our own Mariannes as so many Virgin Marys without their halos.
It would kill the effect to reveal its source, but without the paleo, there is no neo. As for those who have fabricated a Europe united on paper, pink or blue, ignoring the faultline that runs from Riga to Split, a fracture inherited from the Filioque quarrel that has separated West from East since the eighth century, they have not achieved and will not achieve anything for their pains.
No peace conference will dissipate an underlying mistrust and animosity between Arabs and Persians, Hindus and Muslims, even Lutherans and Papists, not to mention South and North Americans.
Since every new religion is a heretical version of an older one—Buddhism of Hinduism, Christianity of Judaism, Protestantism of Catholicism, and so on—there is no civilization which has posed its claim somewhere in Babel without opposing another one; the dead lie heavy on the neck of the amnesiac. This affectio societatis offers no comfort to beaming notions of world improvement, global governance or any of the other United Colours of Benetton—or for that matter, talk of collective security or cosmopolitan homilies.
Everything that unites us also divides us, and it is about as likely that a human civilization will come into being—anywhere other than the podiums of the United Nations or unesco—as that an extra-terrestrial with two heads and four legs should deign to land on our planet. Tomorrow is not that Sunday. Plurality is the law of the Earth, Hannah Arendt maintained. We would do well to remember it promises as many slammed doors as open windows, as many knives pulled as hands shaken. They are often confused Hegel took the one for the other.
Germany, a short while later, would oppose Kultur, a living particularity rooted in a people and a soil, to Zivilization, inert and deracinate, its procedures applicable anywhere. So there is a good deal of interference on the line and fog on the road. Let us try a clarification. First, spatially—by the range of their diffusion: Islam in lower case extends from Dakar to Jakarta. Here foundations are wider than the structures that are built on them.
Then, temporally—by their longevity: Rome lasted a thousand years, China is nearing its third millennium.
Their depths are not easily broken. China has seen many a dynasty, many a massacre and many a great helmsman, and may see others.
But its pagodas will still be there. Storks pass; steeples remain. No culture without agriculture, no civilization without a city. The etymology distributes their vocations. Here a locus, there a topos—in each case, a mould capable of accommodating, and of shaping, several substances. Even if the most intensive cultivation is under the walls of a city, or close by one, it can always return to compost—it is rural. A civilization, on the other hand, is carved in stone—it is urban.
It needs centres of accumulation and redistribution, and urbanization cannot occur just anywhere. The shores of the sea and the banks of great rivers, which allow the cheap transportation of goods and commodities, attract it quite naturally. More propitious for cultures, stricto sensu, are mountainous zones difficult to access.
Steppes, massifs and high plateaux encourage a particularist resilience. Geography, for the one, is a home port, for the other, a springboard. A culture is celibate, while a civilization has children. The first is to the second what a kingdom is to the empire—or a retrenchment to a propagation. There is, for example, a Basque culture, bringing together seven provinces straddling the border of the Pyrenees, but it stops north of the Adour and south of the Ebro: it does not seek to encroach on Gascony or Aragon.
Basqueness adheres to Basques, and no one else. No need either to have an American passport, or even speak fluent English, to adopt us manners and customs. As a mother tongue irradiates into regional dialects, so a civilization decompartmentalizes the culture from which it originates—the Sinosphere includes China, Japan, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea, Vietnam, Singapore.
A civilization contracts when its forces begin to decline. This retraction or clenching, which signals a retreat, is called a culture. Hellenic civilization extended to the Indus, Christian from Patagonia in the west to Kerala in the east, the faith of Hejaz spread across Byzantium and Persia to North India.
Buddha, born in India, crossed the Himalayas into China, but the Mediterranean was forbidden him, Zoroastrian Persia blocking his missionaries to the west. A civilization is not made by spontaneous generation.
A culture constructs sites; a civilization builds roads. It presupposes and requires a foreign policy. A civilization acts; it is offensive, unlike a culture, which is defensive and reacts. The correct term would really be civilizaction. Let us take heed of this -ion, the suffix of action, the action of the great city on its hinterland, the urbs on the ager.
There is no civilization that is not rooted in a culture, but it does not become a civilization unless it also has a fleet and an ambition, a great dream and a mobile force. In that sense, Pericles represented the moment of culture and Alexander the moment of civilization in the Greek world. A little empire, that of Philip ii of Macedonia, father of the great Alexander, was necessary between them. English Puritanism, a local culture, planted the seeds of a civilization across the Atlantic, and American neo-Protestantism has now crossed the ocean in the opposite direction, to spread the American way of life in Africa.
When a root acquires wings, it can create premises extra muros. Such wings do not grow all by themselves. Imperium A language or a religion, or still better a mixture of the two, can create a lasting encampment: Hebrew and Judaism are a case in point. And whoever says empire also says armed force, as whoever says army says war and conquest.
Local cultures also sometimes have to take up arms, to survive or to be reborn, but these are wars of necessity, defence or liberation.
A civilization practises war by choice, wars of invasion or colonization. No Hellenism without hoplites, no Islam without cavalry.
No Christianity without Templars, no Ottomanism without Janissaries. Like every other, Christianity has an embarrassment of choice in matter of ethnocides: from the massacre of the Hierosolomites or of Albigensians during the Crusades, to the annihilation of Pre-Columbians in the middle of the sixteenth century and extermination of Amerindians three centuries later.
Civilizers with clean white hands do not exist: all have a black book in the drawer. But the inventors of cartography a mark of civilization would sooner or later need triremes, gunboats or aircraft not just to reach, but to camp on other shores. Taxes have to be levied, ports opened, forests planted, engineers recruited, along with blacksmiths for the cavalry.
The modulator can be modulated; to each partner their unit of measure. A nebula requires more than one star. The American model is a paradigm in this respect, in its capacity to project both forces and forms outwards.
For all that is globalized requires its local colour. If a civilization has its multiples, these are neither clones nor mere replicas. When a civilization is at full strength, it acts like an inflected language where every stranger can create their own hyphen and ending Italian-American, Chinese-American , without even putting their bags down. Of the current formula that globalizes a particular local profile, we have an Arabic version, abstemious and deluxe Abu Dhabi ; an Israeli version, high-tech and muscular Tel Aviv ; a Sino-Asiatic version, crowded but orderly Shanghai ; a Latino version that is borderline and disorderly Panama ; a crazy, congested African version Johannesburg.
This archipelago is united by business and commerce, but since an economy by itself has never made up a civilization, it must satisfy a certain number of other requirements: a film festival, a museum of contemporary art, an annual art fair, an economic forum, architectural feats the highest tower, the longest bridge , shopping malls and six-starred hotels.
The United Arab Emirates, in just thirty years, have fulfilled all their obligations, save one: no love parade. To return for a moment to the hard kernel of a civilization: military force, which is a necessary but not sufficient condition of one, always needs the enhancement of an imaginary to fire hearts, storehouses to fill stomachs, and a magisterium to occupy minds.
Imposition by force—military, financial or both—is ineffectual without the radiance of a symbolic code which alone has the power to make of dispersed pieces a whole. A form of thought, plus a force de frappe. If Attila had brought a philosopher along in his baggage-train, the grass would have grown after he passed over it. Because the Hun, the Mongol and the Tatar were better at mastering space than traversing time, which requires a lute as well as a spear and a horse.
The artist or architect, writer or musician or gardener may all be needed. The Soviet Union had a constellation of garrisons and missiles across Eastern Europe and Central Asia after , but no communist civilization capable of transcending and federating stand-offish locals emerged out of it.