“The European powers also caused the deposition of Ismail as Khedive by August , musicmarkup.info Ismāʿīl, the son of Ibrāhīm Pasha, who succeeded on the death of Saʿīd, In he obtained from the Ottoman sultan the hereditary title of khedive. Isma'il Pasha known as Ismail the Magnificent (31 December – 2 March ), was the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan from .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|ePub File Size:||26.61 MB|
|PDF File Size:||9.77 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Sign up for free]|
A grandson of the legendary Mohammed Ali, Ismail. Pasha (Fig. 1), came to power in as the first officially sanctioned khedive of Egypt and the Sudan. EXTRAORDINARY VISION OF KHEDIVE ISMAIL PASHA. Few would doubt that Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt (and Sudan, in fact) from to , pulled. KHEDIVE ISMAIL of Egypt was fall of unexpected ideas. Pemaps because of them only about 10 per cent of bis fabulousexpenditurewas spent on useful projects.
Let me begin by congratulating Vittoria Capresi and Barbara Pampe on their well- researched and elegantly written book! I would also like to thank George Vassiadis for organizing this event and all of you for being here this evening. Although it is often presented as a triangle, Khedivial Cairo is akin to a trapezoid, stretching from Ramses Square in the Northeast to Abdeen Square in the southeast and Tahrir Square in the southwest to the Marriot Hotel in Zamalek in the northwest. Each of its sides is roughly 2 miles 3 km long, except the distance between Tahrir Square and the Marriot Hotel, which is just over 1 mile or nearly 2 km. However, Verdi changed his mind possibly because the Egyptian Viceroy offered him the hefty sum of , golden franks and composed opera Aida, which premiered at the Cairo Opera on 24 December , see Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism, London, Vintage, , pp. For this reason, I prefer to speak about the cultural space of Khedivial Cairo indirectly, mainly through the work of four writers who have influenced me profoundly and who also happen to have spent important parts of their lives in the Egyptian capital.
Traditional primary and secondary schools were expanded and specialized technical and vocational schools were created.
Students were once again sent to Europe to study on educational missions, encouraging the formation of a Western-trained elite. A national library was founded in Though this was supposed to be a purely advisory body, its members eventually came to have an important influence on governmental affairs.
Village headmen dominated the assembly and came to exert increasing political and economic influence over the countryside and the central government. This was shown in , when the assembly persuaded Ismail to reinstate the law enacted by him in to raise money and later repealed that allowed landownership and tax privileges to persons paying six years' land tax in advance.
Ismail tried to reduce slave trading and with the advice and financial backing of Yacoub Cattaui extended Egypt's rule in Africa. In he annexed Darfur , but was prevented from expanding into Ethiopia after his army was repeatedly defeated by Emperor Yohannes IV , first at Gundat on 16 November , and again at Gura in March of the following year.
War with Ethiopia[ edit ] See also: Egyptian-Ethiopian War Ismail dreamt of expanding his realm across the entire Nile including its diverse sources, and over the whole African coast of the Red Sea.
This province, which neighboured Ethiopia, first consisted of a coastal strip only, but expanded subsequently inland into territory controlled by the Ethiopian ruler. Here Ismail occupied regions originally claimed by the Ottomans when they had established the province eyaleti of Habesh in the 16th century. New economically promising projects, like huge cotton plantations in the Barka delta, were started. In October Ismail's army occupied the adjacent highlands of Hamasien , which were then tributary to the Ethiopian Emperor.
In March Ismail's army suffered a dramatic defeat after an attack by Yohannes's army at Gura'.
Ismail's son Hassan was captured by the Ethiopians and only released after a large ransom. This was followed by a long cold war, only finishing in with the Anglo-Egyptian-Ethiopian Hewett Treaty , when Bogos was given back to Ethiopia. No abrupt changes.
This was where his house was. He climbed up the three floors […] From the narrow bathroom 12 Ibid. A lamplighter came up Bustani Street on the way to the upper quarter. The whole atmosphere was so different, as if I were no longer in the same neighbourhood […].
On each landing there were large pots of begonia […]. The frosted window planes facing on the ventilation shaft were colored red, green, orange, and blue.
But it is still less than Mazuel's sixteen.
And other authors count even more: The prominent Egyptian historian Abd al-Rahman Rafi'i — who usually had an excellent command of primary sources — counted 17 factories built for Ismail.
One other reason for confusion is that some counts, like Charles-Roux's above-quoted list, include sugar factories already built in the s, reportedly with the participation of Cail. A recent list of locations based on the archives of the Daira Saniyya comes up with 18 factories not counting two or three more that were planned, but not built and coincides largely with my own preliminary evaluation of sources, as represented in the overview map fig.
Further inquiries as to the possible whereabouts of such documentation have not yet yielded any results. But they are from Fives-Lille only, and date only from onwards. Also, the drawings for Egyptian sugar factories in this collection do not allow for conclusions about those built for the Daira Saniyya, because they pertain to factories, or parts of factories, of a later date of construction.
The fact Cail et Cie [est.
May ]; the last ones are equipped with four mills each and can crush 1,, [kg] in 24 hours. Both the production capacity and the numbers of factories built for a single client, stand out in comparison to the other countries mentioned.
This overall number, thirteen, is corroborated by similar documents produced for other occasions during the late 19th century, yet always without specifying the locations. In any case, since by the time of the Paris exhibition in Ismail's Daira Saniyya project had been terminated, this count can be taken as final.
This leaves us with the question about possible other factories and the role of Fives-Lille. Evidently, this is a factory built for Ismail's Daira Saniyya, and in this case, it is Fives-Lille that claims to have built it, without mentioning any participation by Cail. The claim is corroborated by lists of metal works completed worldwide by Fives-Lille which were compiled in company booklets produced for various World Fairs.
No other Daira Saniyya factory is mentioned in these lists, either for buildings built or for machinery delivered. Thus, the scant documents available in the company archives of Cail and Fives-Lille allow an initial conclusion: Both companies did indeed build and equip sugar factories for the Daira Saniyya project of Khedive Ismail, but unlike other earlier projects which both companies had completed together as part of their mutual participation agreement, in this case they worked separately.
Cail provided thirteen factories, and Fives-Lille one. This still does not match with Mazuel's count of sixteen factories built by Cail and Fives-Lille, let alone higher counts by other authors.
Neither does it match with Charles-Roux's list of fifteen factories reportedly built by Cail. And since the available archival documents regarding Cail in the ANMT do not identify the locations of the thirteen factories claimed by Cail, the company archives do not yet help us solve these contradictions. James C.
McCoan, in his book Egypt as it is, provides a brief description of Ismail's Daira Saniyya estates and sugar factories. In addition, he mentions two more factories and a treacle factory for which the machinery was delivered to the site, but which had not been erected.
Of the whole, fourteen were put up by French and the remainder by English engineers, who also supplied the machinery for those not yet built. Equally important, however, is McCoan's mentioning of English engineers having played a part in the Khedive's sugar factory project — something that most francophone authors fail to mention.