Advanced grammar in use second edition - Martin musicmarkup.info - Ebook Documents Similar To Cambridge - English Grammar in Use (Advanced) (). PDF advanced english grammar by martin hewings pdf free download android pdf android pdf,android pdf apk,android pdf application,android pdf a word. Grammar in Use. A self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of English. Third Edition with answers and CD-ROM. Martin Hewings.
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Author: Martin Hewings Views 54MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF English Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises with Answers. Read more. Author: Martin Hewings . Who the book is for The book is intended for more advanced students of English. Advanced Grammar in Use was written as a self -study grammar book but I had some free time yesterday, so I write a few letters. Grammar in Use. sº eference. ºld book for. ºwanced. Students. English English with answers. SECOND. ED |T|ON. Martin Hewings.# CAMBRIDGE.
Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 6th printing Printed in Italy by Legoprint S. For this new edition, I have been equally lucky in the support I have received from a number of knowledgeable, professional, and generous people. Alison Sharpe had guided the project to completion with constant encouragement and great diplomacy. Their comments were invaluable in helping me to revise and clarify this part of the book. Thank you for using the book and taking the trouble to write to me. Finally, my gratitude, as always, to Ann, David and Suzanne.
With Answers. With answers. English Grammar in Use. Advanced grammar in use: English grammar in use. Grammar reference. Cambridge English Grammar In Use. English Vocabulary in Use Upper-intermediate With answers. Grammar in Use Intermediate with Answers: Self-study Reference and Practice for Students of English. English Grammar in Use With Answers: Reference and Practice for Intermediate Students. English Vocabulary in Use Advanced. English Vocabulary in Use.
English idioms in use advanced. It does not allow the copying of entire books or the making of multiple copies of extracts. Written permission for any such copying must always be obtained from the publisher in advance. Modals 17 Should and ought to 18 Will and would: Be, 26 27 28 have, do, make, etc.
Linking verbs: Determiners and quantifiers 63 Some and any; something, somebody, etc. Relative clauses and other types of clause 70 Relative clauses 1 The girl who I was talking about. Adjectives 82 Adjectives: Adverbs and conjunctions 90 Position of adverbs 91 Adverbs of place, indefinite frequency, and time 92 Degree adverbs: At Cambridge University Press I would like to thank Alison Sharpe, Barbara Thomas and Geraldine Mark, all of whom have brought their professionalism and expertise to guiding and shaping the book in its various stages.
My special thanks are due to Jeanne McCarten, not only for comments on early drafts, but for her constant support and encouragement. For providing a stimulating working environment, I would like to thank former colleagues at the Learning Assistance Centre, University of Sydney, where the writing began in earnest, and present colleagues at the English for International Students Unit, the University of Birmingham, where the project was completed.
Many of my students at the University of Birmingham have worked on versions of the material and I wish to thank in particular students on the Japanese Secondary School Teachers' course between and who carefully and constructively evaluated sections of the work.
I would also like to thank the students and staff at the institutions all over the world where the material was piloted. I hope I have been able to reflect their many valuable suggestions in the finished book. At home, Ann, Suzanne and David have all had a part to play in giving me time to write the book, motivation, and examples.
It is written mainly as a self-study book, but might also be used in class with a teacher. How the book is organised There are units in the book. Each one looks at a particular area of grammar. Others explore grammatical contrasts, such as whether to use would or used to to report past events, or when we use because or because of. The units are grouped under a number of headings such as Tenses and Modals. You can find details of this in the Contents on pp.
Each unit consists of two pages. On the left-hand page are explanations and examples; on the right are practice exercises. The letters next to each exercise show you which sections of the lefthand page you need to understand to do that exercise.
You can check your answers in the Key on page The Key also comments on some of the answers. Four Appendices tell you about passive verb form, quotation, irregular verbs and Typical Errors see below. To help you find the information you need there is an Index at the back of the book. Although terms to describe grammar have been kept to a minimum some have been included, and you can find explanations of these terms in the Glossary on page These are included to show the kinds of mistakes that students often make concerning the grammar point being explained.
These Typical Errors are given in Appendix 4 on page , together with a correction of the error, and an explanation where it is helpful. On the explanation pages it is placed next to lists of words that follow a particular grammatical pattern, and on the exercise pages it is used, for example, to show where it necessary to understand what particular words mean in order to do the exercise.
How to use the book It is not necessary to work through the units in order. If you know what grammar points you have difficulty with, go straight to the units that deal with them. You can use the Index to help you find the relevant unit or units. If you are unsure which units to study, use the Study Guide on page You can use the units in a number of ways.
You might study the explanation and examples first, do the exercises on the opposite page, check your answers in the key, and then look again at the explanations if you made any mistakes.
If you just want to revise a grammar point you think you already know, you could do the exercises first and then study the explanations for any you got wrong. You might of course simply use the book as a reference book without doing the exercises.
A number of Additional Exercises are included for further practice of particular areas of grammar. The book will probably be most useful for more advanced level students for reference and practice.
Students at these levels will have covered many of the grammar points before, and some of the explanations and practice exercises will provide revision material.
However, all units are likely to contain information that is new for students even at advanced level, and many of the uses of particular grammatical patterns and contrasts between different forms will not have been studied before.
No attempt has been made to grade the units according to level of difficulty. Instead you should select units as they are relevant to the syllabus that you are following with your students, or as particular difficulties arise. There are many ways in which you might use the book with a class.
You might, for example, use explanations and exercises on the left-hand pages as sources of ideas on which you can base the presentation of grammar patterns and contrasts, and use the exercises for classroom practice or set them as consolidation material for self-study. The left-hand pages can then be a resource for future reference and revision by students. You might alternatively want to begin with the exercises and refer to the left-hand page only when students are having problems.
You could also set particular units or groups of units such as those on Articles or The future for self-study if individual students are having difficulties.
For example, before studying a particular unit you could write the typical error s for that unit on the board and ask students: A 'classroom edition' of Advanced Grammar in Use is also available. It has no key and some teachers might prefer to use it with their students.
To talk about particular actions or events that have begun but have not ended at the time of speaking, we use the present continuous: We often use time expressions such as at the moment, at present, currently, just, and still to emphasise that the action or event is happening now: We use the present simple to talk about habits or things that happen on a regular basis: However, when we describe repeated actions or events that are happening at or around the time of speaking, we use the present continuous: We can use the present continuous or the present simple to describe something that we regularly do at a particular time.
We can use modals with performative verbs to make what we say more tentative or polite:. Use the present srmple or present continuous. It s his hobby. To place an order for the book you eauire"i that you telephone Mrs Jones in our sales department. I you however, that delivery time is likely to be about six weeks. People going to spend the money, phone 3 Alice her mother in London most weekends, see ] r?
Couldn't you come an hour later? However, we can use the present continuous with some state verbs when we want to emphasise that a situation is temporary, for a period of time around the present. Jean is staying with us now With some verbs used to describe a temporary state e.
When have has a non-state meaning - for example when it means 'eat', 'undergo', 'take' or 'hold' - we can use the present continuous: When we tell a story or joke we often describe the main events using the present or past simple and longer, background events using the present or past continuous: She's carrying or was carrying a bag full of shopping We can also use the present simple and present continuous like this in commentaries for example, on sports events and in giving instructions: She's playing magnificent tennis in this match Right, you're holding it in one hand; now you take off the lid with the other.
When we want to emphasise that something is done repeatedly, we can use the present continuous with words like always, constantly, continually, or forever. Often we do this when we want to show that we are unhappy about it, including our own behaviour: We use the past continuous see Unit 6 in the same way: The present simple is used to report what we have heard or what we have read: We also use the present simple in spoken English in phrases such as I gather, I hear, I see, and I understand to introduce news that we have heard, read or seen e.
Use the same verb for each sentence in the pair. Choose the present continuous if possible; if not, use the present simple. It a fortune to fly first class to Japan. I sitting down at the end of a long day and reading a good book. It's a wonderful book. I every moment of it. We've always wanted a house in the country, but we on where it should be. When they agree with each other on so many important issues, I can't understand why they now on this relatively minor matter.
With growing concerns about the environment, people to use recycled paper products, He doesn't like publicity, and to stay firmly in the background. Can I take a message? Although he three cars, all of them are extremely old. In the north of the country, fewer and fewer people the houses they live in.
Choose the present simple or present continuous for the verbs in these texts. B 1 Fletcher pass to Coles who shoot just over the bar. United attack much more in this half His wife wait for him, and she say to him I can't read this. You're always complaining about roy handwriting. That was a dangerous thing to do! I think I'll stay here after all.
I had a bad day at the office again. I see that tlie Queen's going to visit India, next spring. I see I understand. I gather It says here When we use the present perfect, it suggests some kind of connection between what happened in the past, and the present time. Often we are interested in the way that something that happened in the past affects the situation that exists now: The connection with the present may also be that something happened recently, with a consequence for the present: Here it is.
Come quickly! When we talk about how long an existing situation has lasted, even if we don't give a precise length of time, we use the present perfect but see F below: We often use the present perfect to say that an action or event has been repeated a number of times up to now see also Unit 4B: Past simple When we want to indicate that something happened at a specific time in the past, we use the past simple.
We can either say when it happened, using a time adverb, or assume that the hearer already knows when it happened or can understand this from the context: We use the past simple for situations that existed for a period of time in the past, but not now: If we are interested in when a present situation began rather than how long it has been going on for, we use the past simple.
The rabbit just in my garden one day last week. With this promotion, I feel that I a turning point in my career. Oh, no! My car! Quite early in the negotiations, they to lower the prices.
In he his last great work in Vienna. There's not much more to do, now that we the main problem.
Throughout the summer of Malcolm to divide his time between London and New York. Use either the present perfect or the past simple. Use L to add any words outside the space. Unemployment every year until and then started to fall. At his wedding he a green suit and red tie. These are the glasses I ever since I was The company many setbacks in its year history, but it is now flourishing. Few of the trees in our village the storms during the winter of This his home for over 20 years and he doesn't want to leave it.
When I picked up the coffee I surprised to find it that it was cold. So far it's been so cold that we in the house all day. We with Mike and Sue last weekend. I last you in Beijing three years ago. I never anyone play so well in my whole life. Find the following: II Do you know how many people have walked on the moon? Phone for an ambulance. I think Keith's broken his arm. In his twenties, Lawrence has spent many years travelling around Spain. The Vikings have established a settlement at what is now York, in the north of England.
The house looks so much bigger now that we've painted the walls in brighter colours. My brother has gone into town to download some new shoes.
The Earth has been formed about 4, million years ago. I've worked in Malaysia for three years. We use the past simple to talk about something that happened at a particular, finished time in the past. When we report that someone has recently invented, produced, discovered or written something we use the present perfect.
When we talk about something that was invented, etc. Sometimes it makes very little difference to the main sense of the sentence if we think of something happening in a period of time up to the present or at a particular, finished time in the past: We can use either the present perfect or the past simple to talk about repeated actions or events.
If we use the present perfect, we often suggest that the action or event might happen again. Sometimes we emphasise this with phrases such as so far and up to now see Unit 5.
If we use the past simple, it suggests that it is finished and won't happen again. We can use both the present perfect and the past simple to talk about states. We use the present perfect to talk about a state that existed in the past and still exists now, and we use the past simple if the state no longer exists.
We still belong to it. In news reports, you will often read or hear events introduced with the present perfect, and then the past simple is used to give the details: The film star Jim Cooper has died of cancer.
He was 68 and lived in Texas It took her 42 days to make the crossing with her dog team It landed in Florida this morning Choose the present perfect or past simple. A 1 According to yesterday's newspapers, astronomers in Australia a planet in a galaxy close to our own. The police me several questions about my car before they let me go. Until she retired last month, she in the customer complaints department. Sullivan hard to change the rules and says that the campaign will go on.
I skiing ever since I lived in Switzerland. She once the support of the majority of the Democratic Party. His father so many complaints about the noise that he told Chris to sell his drums, We over 50 letters of support in the last 10 days.
The Bible more copies than any other book.
When it became clear that we would be moving to Austria, we the house to my brother. I moving to London from the day I arrived. I'd love to go back to Rome. At first I inviting them to stay, but we soon became great friends. Study the underlined verbs. Correct them if necessary, or put a S. The scheme 3 was now in operation for a year and 4 has been hailed as a great success. Since the new speed limits 5 were introduced, the number of accidents in the area 6 fell dramatically It 7 has taken only six months to draw up the plans and mark the routes.
Jane Wills, a keen cyclist who works in the city centre, told us: I 12 cycled to work ever since. The success of the scheme 14 has led to proposals for similar schemes in other cities. She's just gone to sleep, not Other time adverbs like this include already, since last week , so far, still, up to now, yet. When we use time adverbs that talk about finished periods of time we use the past simple rather than the present perfect: We often use before, for, and recently with the present perfect and also the past simple.
For example: We've had the dishwasher for three years. If we see today etc. This is why we often use since with the present perfect: In a sentence which includes a smce-clause, the usual pattern is for the smce-clause to contain a past simple, and the main clause to contain a present perfect: We use the present perfect with ever and never to emphasise that we are talking about the whole of a period of time up until the present: Present perfect and past simple 1 and 2: I have known a woman once who had sixteen cats.
Ann Baker already did four radio interviews about her new book. Julia felt hungry. Then she has remembered the salad in the fridge. I'll introduce you to Dr Davies - or have you met her before? We've had enormous problems recently with ants in the kitchen. We just can't get rid of them. I have talked to her yesterday about doing the work. They still live in the small house they have bought 30 years ago.
You have not yet explained clearly what you want me to do. We lived in Newcastle for three years now and like it a lot. Complete these sentences with an appropriate verb. Use either the present perfect or past simple. Another two shelves to put up and then I think I'll have lunch. D be eat have hear learn meet talk think 1.
Compare the use of the past continuous and the past simple in these sentences: We often use the past simple to talk about a completed past event and the past continuous to describe the situation that existed at the time. The completed event might have interrupted the situation, or just occurred while the situation or event was in progress.
We don't normally use the past continuous with certain verbs describing states see Unit 2A: D When we talk about two past actions or events that went on over the same period of time, we can often use the past continuous for both: However, we can often use the past simple to express a similar meaning: When we talk about two or more past completed events that follow each other, we use the past simple for both.
The first may have caused the second: When we talk about a permanent or long-term situation that existed in the past, we use the past simple rather than the past continuous: I was playing However, if the situation was temporary, we can also use the past continuous. We use the past simple rather than the past continuous when we are talking about repeated actions or events in the past: However, the past continuous can also be used when we want to emphasise that the repeated actions only went on for a limited and temporary period of past time See also Unit 2C: I went We use the past continuous when the repeated actions or events provide a longer background to something else that happened see A: Use the past simple in one space and the past continuous in the other.
We when I in a music shop. When his mother in the other direction Steve I a drink while I for Pam to arrive. Our guests were early. They as I changed. This time, use the same tense in both spaces.
I the windows as soon as it to rain.
I'm sorry, I I about Jim. It was an amazing coincidence. Just as I to Anne, she to my house to come and see me. Which of these could also be in the past simple? What difference in meaning, if any, would there be? In one, you can use only the past simple; in the other you can use either the past simple or the past continuous. C 1 a It was now getting late, and my eyes trouble focusing on the birds in the disappearing light, b I trouble with that car the whole of the time I owned it.
D 1 2 3 4 5 Whenever I called in on Sam, he talked on the phone. When I lived in Paris, I was spending three hours a day travelling to and from work. Peterson was winning the tournament four times before he retired.
We were having to play netball twice a week when I went to school. The weather was so good last summer that we went to the beach most weekends. Sometimes we use the present perfect continuous with expressions that indicate the time period e. Without such an expression, the present perfect continuous refers to a recent situation or activity and focuses on its present results: It's been snowing. We can use the present perfect continuous or a present tense the present simple or the present continuous when we talk about a situation or activity that started in the past and is still happening now or has just stopped.
However, we use the present perfect continuous when we are talking about how long the action or event has been going on. For the difference between the present perfect and present perfect continuous in sentences like this, see Unit 8. When we talk about situations or actions that went on over a past period of time but finished at a particular point in time before now, we don't use the present perfect continuous: We generally avoid the present perfect continuous with verbs that describe states see Unjt 2A.
A 1 The situation continues to be serious, and troops their lives to rescue people from the floods. She her husband get over a serious illness. I hope I do well. This year the focus is on Sweden. If necessary, look at the verbs below to help you. A 1 Henry moved to California three years ago.
I always find I have always been finding it difficult to get up on winter mornings. I have been wanting I want to meet you since I saw your concert. Over the last six months I've been learning I I'm learning how to play the flute.
The phone's been ringing I phone's ringing. Can you answer it. How long have you learned I have you been learning Swahili? During the last few years the company has been working I works hard to modernise its image.
If the underlined verbs are correct, put a S. If they are wrong, correct them using either the past continuous or the present perfect continuous as appropriate. C 1 I was expecting the book to end happily, but in fact it was really sad.
He can already take two or three steps unaided. We use both the present perfect continuous and the present perfect to talk about something that started in the past and which affects the situation that exists now. The difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the activity or event which may or may not be finished. The present perfect, however, focuses on the effect of the activity or event, or the fact that something has been achieved.
Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis see also Unit 10B: However, if we mention the number of times the activity or event was repeated, we use the present perfect rather than the present perfect continuous: We use the present perfect rather than the present perfect continuous when we talk about longlasting or permanent situations, or when we want to emphasise that we are talking about the whole of a period of time until the present see also Unit 5D: When we talk about more temporary situations we can often use either the present perfect continuous or the present perfect: However, if we talk about a specific change over a period of time which ends now, particularly to focus on the result of this change see A , we use the present perfect: Use the present perfect in one sentence and the present perfect continuous in the other.
Plants and vegetables from my garden since we had new neighbours. Dr Fletcher the same lecture to students for the last ten years.
Mr Goldman nearly a million pounds to the charity this year. With their win yesterday, Italy into second place in the table. As house prices in the cities have risen, people into the countryside. For years he that he is related to the royal family. The earthquake over lives.
All day, the police motorists to question them about the accident. Good, the noise I can start concentrating on my work again. Choose the most appropriate sentence ending. B 1 I've swum Complete these sentences using the verb given. If possible, use the present perfect continuous; if not, use the present perfect. C 1 2 3 4 5 6 disappear Since they were very young, the children enjoy travelling by plane. It snow heavily since this morning. I'm pleased to say that the team play well all season.
I never understand why we have to pay so much tax. I not read any of Dickens' novels. In recent years, Brazilian companies put a lot of money into developing advanced technology. Complete the sentences to describe the information in the graph. Use the verb given. D 2 Industrial output 1 Inflation since fall from.
Notice the difference in meaning of these sentences with the past perfect and past simple: If we want to refer to an event out of order - that is, it happened before the last event we have talked about - we use the present perfect.
Study the use of the past perfect and past simple in this text: Don Jose was a wealthy Cuban landowner who emigrated to Mexico in The agricultural reforms had begun a few months earlier.
He moved again in and made his home in the United States. He had made his fortune in growing sugar cane, and he brought his expertise to his new home. When we use a time expression e. But to emphasise that the second event is the result of the first, we prefer the past simple for both: She had found I found what she was looking for.
By the time I got back to the bathroom, the bath had overflowed I overflowed. She walked into the station only to find that the train had left I left.
I was just about to leave when I had remembered I remembered my briefcase. My sister told me that Joe had died I died. He had looked I looked at his watch again and began to walk even faster. In a surprise move, the Prime Minister had resigned I resigned last night. These things happened in the order given in brackets e. Write sentences using this information beginning with the words given. Use either the past simple or the past perfect. Expand one of these sets of notes using the past perfect to begin each sentence.
Use these pairs of verbs to complete the sentences. Choose the past perfect where possible; otherwise, use the past simple. Here is an extract from a newspaper article about a missing boy Roy and his father Neil. Decide why the past perfect was used in each case. Neil said that Roy, who used to enjoy riding with him on his bike, followed him as he set off. He told the child to go back to his mother, and rode away.
It was only some hours later, when Neil returned, that they realised Roy had vanished We use the past perfect continuous when we talk about a situation or activity that happened over a period up to a particular past time, or until shortly before it.
D Compare how the past perfect continuous and the past perfect are used: She had been suffering from flu when she was interviewed. Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis see also Unit 8A: If we talk about how many times something happened in a period up to a particular past time, we use the past perfect: However, some verbs that describe states see Unit 2A are not often used with continuous tenses, and we use the past perfect with these even when we are talking about how long something went on up to a particular past time: Compare the use of the past perfect continuous and past continuous: Use the past perfect continuous.
You will need to use a negative verb form in some cases. Sue until she reached the hill. By the smell in the room and his guilty expression I could tell that Alex The principal called Carmen into his office because she I had to give Peter some money when I found out that he He told the police that he He said he thought it belonged to his brother.
Complete the sentences with appropriate verbs, using the same one for each sentence in the pair. Use the past perfect continuous if it is possible; if not, use the past perfect. B 1 a She took a bottle from the bag she all the way from home. Look again at the sentences where you have used the past perfect continuous. In which is the past perfect also possible? Also, study Unit 9 and decide when you could use the past simple instead of the past perfect in these sentences. If not, use the past perfect.
C 1 2 3 4 5 Andrew died last week.
He from cancer for some time, suffer I the view many times before, but it never failed to impress me. This was the third time it since I got it.
Sometimes the difference between them is very small: For other uses of will see Units 18 and In B-D below we focus on where there is a meaning difference. It may be that we predict an event that is just about to happen on the basis of something that we feel, see etc.
However, if we make a prediction based on our opinion or our past experience we use will: The children will enjoy seeing you again. Coffee will be available from 9. When we state a decision made at the moment of speaking, we prefer will: I'll get it. I think I'll go to bed now. We can use will or going to with little difference in meaning in the main clause of an if-sentence when we say that something often something negative is conditional on something else - it will happen if something else happens first: However, we use will or another auxiliary , not going to, when we describe a future event that follows another.
Often 'if' has a meaning similar to 'when' in this kind of sentence: Shall For other uses of shall, see Unit It sounds like the generator.
He mentioned it at the meeting recently. I you there. I'm not feeling well. In fact, I think I! This office on 2nd January. We with Tim tonight. He's asked us to be there at 7. I wouldn't walk across that old bridge if I were you.
It looks like it 1 read in the paper that they the price of gas again. Do you like my new solar watch? Here, I you how it works. If both will and going to are possible, write them both. I warn you that if I see you here again, I your parents. If we don't leave now, we the train. If you decide to contact Jane, I you her address. If you stand in the rain much longer, you cold. He's seriously hurt. If we don't get help immediately, he If you want to leave this afternoon, Joe you to the station.
If you visit Bernard in Vienna, I'm sure you very welcome. Make any necessary corrections or improvements to the underlined parts of this extract from a telephone conversation. Have you got a holiday planned? Ruth has asked me to visit her in Kenya. Sound brilliant. You're going to 1 have a great time. How about you? Well, I expect I shall 2 go away if I can spare the time, but my boss shan't 3 be very happy if I take off more than a few days.
I imagine that my parents shall 4 probably go to Mexico again, to see their friends there, but I don't think I shall 5 be able to go with them.
They've told me theyll 6 learn Spanish before they go this time Look, I'm sorry, Jo, but someone's at the door. I'm going t o 7 call you back tomorrow morning.
I'm not going to work any more tonight. We don't use will to talk about arrangements and intentions but see Unit 11C: Study these sentences: I'm learning some Cantonese. I think I'm seeing the doctor Can you come? We don't use the present continuous for the future: Complete them with either going to or the present continuous, whichever is correct or more likely, using any appropriate verb. I on that bench for a while. The game at two o'clock tomorrow. I hope you can be there.
The service here is very slow. I to the manager if we're not served soon.
I have a right to be heard, and no-one me from putting my side of the argument. The two leaders for talks later this afternoon. The bank has announced that it its interest rates by one per cent from tomorrow.
Are you my questions or not? I have to get up early tomorrow. I a physics class at 8. Before I apply for the job, I more information about it. Brazil Colombia in today's final. These sentences refer to the future. There are going to be more of us at the picnic than we'd thought. I'm tired. I'm going to go to bed. Dave's being very disappointed.
The bomb's exploding. In future, the company is going to be known as 'Communications International'. I've redecorated the bedroom. Do you think Jane is liking it when she gets home? Whether we like it or not, within a few years biotechnology is transforming every aspect of human life. What is the difference in meaning between the other two? Remember you've got to go to school tomorrow. Can we meet the week after? Instead we use will, going to, or the present continuous see Units 11 and I'm just staying in to watch TV tonight, not I just stay in I think it affects the rest However, we prefer the present simple if we can make a definite, specific prediction because an activity or event is part of an official arrangement such as a timetable or programme see A: We use the present simple to refer to the future, not will, in adverbial clauses introduced by time conjunctions such as after, before, when, and until: However, if we are talking about a fixed arrangement we can use either will or the present simple.
With more practice she an excellent violinist. National No-Smoking week on October 24th. On tonight's programme we to the deputy president about the latest unemployment figures. In a few moments, I over there and give the signal to start running. The eclipse at three minutes past midday. Dr Brown available again at 9. The door in front of us automatically in a few moments. We Amsterdam on Tuesday morning, but we Sydney until Thursday evening.
You will need to decide the order in which to place them. Use the present simple in the first clause and will or won't in the second. Underline one or both.
D 1 Tonight I'm going to check that Susan does I will do her homework correctly. He says that he is I will be with us tonight. With the future continuous we normally mention the future time Next Friday etc. We also use the future continuous when the future activity or event is the result of a previous decision or arrangement: That's when we usually meet. Future continuous and present continuous for the future We can often use either the future continuous or the present continuous when we talk about planned activities or events in the future see also Unit But we prefer the present continuous to talk about surprising or unexpected activities or events: Dr Radford is leaving!
Future continuous and will Compare the use of will and the future continuous in these sentences: However, we use will, not the future continuous, to talk about such things as decisions that people have made, willingness to do things, inviting, promising, etc.
You can use the future continuous rather than will or the present continuous for the future to sound particularly polite when you ask about people's plans. For example, if you are asking about their plans because you want to ask them to do something unexpected or difficult. You see, I hope to use it for a meeting tomorrow. We have to be at the theatre by 7 o'clock. In which sentences are both possible? Where only one form is possible, consider why the other is not. Dave and Sarah married.
Now that I've got a new pair I them again. Here, give me the bottle. I it for you. Keno to win his third gold medal in the next Olympics. I to get over to see you, but I've got a very busy weekend coming up. Sam to the dentist. He simply refuses to make an appointment.
I to the party, I'm afraid; I have to be in Spain that weekend. It's odd to think that this time tomorrow we to Madrid. He anywhere without first looking at a road map. I won't have time to meet you next weekend, I'm afraid. I the school timetable for next year.
I'll ask him. He's good at that sort of thing. Use Will you be -ing? D 1 You want to use the computer. David is using it now. Ann is just leaving the house. A lift would be nicer than the bus. Use either the future continuous or the present continuous. A-C Example: I'll be gowg to university In September. I'm leaving -for Prague on tlie 2.
It is particularly common in news reports to talk about future events. Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. You are not to leave the school without my permission. The medicine is to be taken after meals. Future perfect We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended, completed, or achieved by a particular point in the future see also Unit 18B: Notice that we can use other modal verbs instead of will to talk about the future in a less certain way: Future perfect continuous We can use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long something has been going on by a particular point in the future: In sentences with the future perfect continuous we usually mention both the particular point in the future 'On Saturday Notice that we don't usually use the future perfect continuous with verbs describing states see Unit 2: A appear arrive become begin feel fit move resign 1 A man in court today after a car he was driving killed two pedestrians.
Choose front the following verbs. B bring collapse compare elect fail flourish improve operate rise We recognise the urgent need to improve international economic performance if we, sustainable benefits to millions faced with poverty. He is still learning Spanish. Before He gets Home -from school tonlgHt Peter