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PDF | In response to the growing research interest in game localization within and also outside Translation Studies, this book aims to inform readers about this . field, all members of the IGDA Game Localization SIG. The aim .. [Note: Contributed by Kate Edwards; these points are excerpted from her handbook on game. The game localization handbook / Heather Maxwell Chandler, Stephanie Charles River Media, - Game development series (Charles River Media (Firm).
New business and game challenges In , we've dealt with huge volumes of text, both for the software and hardware industry and the gaming industry. On the business side, we worked on the latest Dutch versions of leading scanning solutions for document management, document imaging, and PDF creation. We also crossed new borders and are now localizing phone instructions into eight European languages. We've been equally busy with challenging game localization. We completed work on major titles for AAA publishers sorry, confidential , including a few that required full voice localization.
Munday, J. Translation-mediated communication in a digital world: Facing the challanges of globalization and localization. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
O'Hagan, M. Game Localization. Tarih Okulu School of History pp. The effects of technology on translation students in academic translation teaching. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences pp.
Oxford University Press. Access: He also commented on why the UK and Ireland which are English speaking countries, also experience the same delays as those in continental Europe with many different languages despite little or no modification.
But then what are the Germans and the French going to say to me? That I'm Anglo-centric" indicating that the reason that these countries also must wait is to avoid criticism from other large European gaming countries such as Germany and France.
However, games are still sometimes released with controversial or insensitive material, which can lead to controversy or recall of the product.
Additionally, Taiwan was shown to be a territory of Japan, as was accurate for the time period.
However, these inclusions were considered harmful to China's territorial integrity, so the game was forbidden from being legally imported. The localization of Football Manager was similarly banned because Tibet, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and China were all treated as separate teams, putting them on equal footing. All these programs have one thing in common: information and commands are readily available at the click of a button. The interactive element of computer programs has serious consequences for translators because it means that access to texts and information is random , i.
An arbitrary sequence of events does not allow for linear texts and contextual information, therefore, translators lose two of the most important sources needed in the decision making process: co-text and context. When the program is still unfinished or no localization kit has been prepared, some information is still available, although difficult to obtain, from similar manuals, the localization manager, or the actual technical team responsible for the software.
Esselink is probably one of the best references for the localization of utility software and web pages. Unfortunately, the localization software industry has not been able to create a GUI graphical user interface localization tool for translators to use with video games, like the ones used in the translation of utility software and web pages. These programs like Catalyst and Passolo allow users to work directly but safely with the game code , generating a visual representation of the final product, which means that translators can see exactly what the end result will look like and adjust the text or the interface to suit the space available as well as the general look.
Linguistic assets will be utilised in a variety of ways at different times throughout the creation, development, and launch of the game, mainly: the game itself, which has a variety of texts in multiple formats, the official web site of the game, promotional articles, game patches and updates. Textual types and file formats[ edit ] Within these products there are different textual types, each of which has its own characteristics and purpose.
Because we are dealing with a multimedia product, the challenges translators have to face are also multimedia. Within the same project they have to deal with a wide variety of issues like reproducing the oral quality of dialogue in writing, lip-synching for dubbing , space and time constraints for subtitling , number of characters for subtitle, UI, etc.
The following paragraphs are an attempt to classify the several textual types that accompany the standard PC video game: Manual [ edit ] Written form. May be a Pagemaker or a Word format Although it always has some attractive and engaging creative writing, partly promotional partly literary , most of the manual would normally be filled with didactic texts when telling players the instructions to be followed to fully enjoy the game.
Manuals would also include technical texts with the appropriate hardware and software specifications to be able to run the game application. In addition players will always find corporative and legal texts, informing users of their rights and responsibilities attached to the acquisition of an entertainment software product.
Packaging [ edit ] Written form. Pagemaker or Word format Like manuals, game boxes and packaging present a mixture of textual types, the difference being the space provided, limited not only by the size of it but also by images of the game, logos of the companies involved and legal labelling requirements. It mixes an alluring promotional text, together with concise technical information and legal notices.
Readme file[ edit ] Written form. It is used to inform users of all the last-minute adjustments and how to make sure that the product runs smoothly, as well as to correct mistakes and typos in the printed material, such as manual and packaging.
It is mainly a technical text. Official website[ edit ] Written form.
HTML or Java format It mixes a promotional text with a journalistic one, but it will also have technical details like minimum requirements, etc. A lot of the information offered through the official web will be similar to the one that was shipped with the game.
But websites tend to include previews and reviews of the product, notice boards , customer support and downloadable files to fix specific problems, or patches with new language versions, as well as screenshots , concept art , thematic screen savers , merchandising , and fan blogs. Dialogue for dubbing [ edit ] Spoken form. There will be a separate sound file per utterance. Written scripts will normally be in spreadsheets or Word tables.
Speech delivered by game characters where registers , accents , and idiosyncrasies have to be conveyed into other languages. Sometimes an extra column is included to add inflection comments for the dubbing director. A part of the dubbing script may include atmospheric utterances also in a spoken form. These characters may have little or no relevance to the plot, but their inclusion and to the immersion of the player in the virtual world. No synchronisation is normally required, but orality has to be maintained.
Rather than providing a comprehensive analysis, we have presented this from the per- spective of our Translation Studies interests in game localization.
This provides a starting point for our attempt to locate game localization in Translation Studies in theoretical terms, drawing chiefly on the conceptualizations of localization presented by Pym , and Cronin Drawing on Chandler and Chandler and Deming , this chapter describes the current localization practice, highlighting pertinent issues which characterize localization of games as opposed to other productivity software applications.
Treating games as narrative as well as ludic objects, we analyze game texts according to the different text types present, with different functions assigned to them, in a single game. These allow us to make some observations on translation norms, albeit on the basis of limited examples. In reference to the cultural turn in Trans- lation Studies, we direct our attention to the role of influential game companies in their provision of a modern form of patronage, both embracing and dictating the rewriting of games in the process of localization.
As part of the discussion of rewriting we refer to a perspective of video games as transmedia, bringing games and films closer together with implications for translation.
We discuss game localizer competence with ref- erence to the needs of the industry and also touch on professional issues of work- ing as game translators and localizers. Focusing on users of localized games, we highlight new research av- enues such as game accessibility, fan translation and user co-creation.
The chapter further considers the growing impact of game technology in conjunction with de- velopments in Natural Language Processing, with implications for the translation of games. We briefly address the question of research methodologies, focusing on biometrics-based user studies which are beginning to attract the attention of scholars and those in the industry as a new direction for reception research.
Target readers Our core target readership is the translation research community, among whom we wish to raise awareness of this new sub-domain and also to test our conceptu- alization and applications of translation theories, with a view to introducing game localization into the mainstream discourse in the discipline.
Our overwhelming impression has been that even the least game-literate translation students or scholars can find something intriguing about the subject, while practitioners who have actually been involved in localizing games, as well as those who are enthusiastic gamers, are keen to find out more about the theories behind translation and localization that have a special relevance to their work or pastime activities.
Furthermore, we have sensed a strong interest in the topic from trainers of translators and localizers, who wish to integrate it into their teaching. More recently, an increasing number of institutions have introduced this topic as part of their translator or localizer training, though such courses are still few and far between and are delivered to varying degrees of coverage and in different for- mats.
We hope to provide a coherent guide for trainers to help determine what their courses could usefully cover, depending on the level or the interest of the learners and the overall objectives and learning outcomes of the programmes in which game localization would be taught.
Finally, it is also our hope that the Translation Studies perspectives on video games expressed in this book will reach and benefit readers from the dynamic field of Game Studies, whose insights we have found to be essential to explaining some key dimensions in video game localization.
In tackling a video game as a relatively new object of translation, we aim to promote increased cross-fertili- zation between Translation Studies and Game Studies, while also adding to the growing discussion taking place within the Translation Studies community on non-Western perspectives on translation, with regard to STs in a language other than English, particularly involving Asian languages and their cultural contexts.
Conventions used in this book Introducing this relatively new and specialized subject of game localization in Translation Studies, we have endeavoured to make the content accessible to read- ers with little knowledge of video games.
To this end, terms that are specific to video games and the game industry are marked in bold on their first appearance in each chapter and included in the glossary in the following pages. In addition to a fuller explanation in the glossary, we have made an effort to include a brief explanation in the main text to make specialized concepts more reader-friendly. Regarding the games we mention in the text, we italicize the titles and indicate the year of first release.
We also provide a gameography, at the end of the book, listing each game cited in our work with its first year of release and the name of the publisher. Any use of Japanese words is followed by their English translations in square brackets. Related Papers.