Horticulture PDF Books ware material is prepared as per ICAR approved syllabus for the List of ICAR eCourse for Horticulture . Dears, please upload “ Handbook of Horticulture” by ICAR, which is highly informative and. If you like variety, you should love horticulture. In hor ti cul ture, we grow some plants for beauty, such as flowers, houseplants, ornamental shrubs, and trees. We. musicmarkup.info: Handbook of Horticulture: Contents: Foreword. Preface. 1. General horticulture. 2. Fruit crops. 3. Vegetable crops. 4. Potato. 5. Tropical tuber .
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crop's true potential and help you make the best decision. The horticulture handbook is a valuable guide, which includes a checklist and sections on regulations. K L Chadha; Indian Council of Agricultural Research. New Delhi: Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Add tags for "Handbook of horticulture". Documents Similar To Handbook of Horticulture. General Agriculture for ICAR's JRF Exam IARI PhD Entrance Question Paper - Horticulture (Floriculture).
Ratna Rai DOI : The powder was prepared by two methods of drying, i. The maximum yield Highest ascorbic acid content Pant Sudarshan. Phosphorus 0. Pant Suvarna.
West Bengal, Orissa, Uttar. Crop- wise area, production and productivity of major vegetable crops Area lakh ha. Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra are major vegetable-growing states, contributing Adoption of high-yielding cultivars, hybrids and disease and pest resistant varieties with suitable production technologies have largely contributed to higher production and productivity. Tomato Tomato as the most important crop is grown across the length and breadth of the country.
The area under its cultivation is 4. Brinjal Brinjal is second major vegetable crop. It is grown almost throughout the country, covering an area of 4.
It contributes 8. Cabbage Cabbage is the third major vegetable crop primarily grown in the winter season. The total area under cabbage cultivation in India is 2. The major onion-producing states are Gujarat pad Karnataka. Onion is grown in kharif, late kharif Aon. ABMhwmiiiiiinmiimtH1 niwmitinii-t. It contributes 5. Productivity of okra has increased from 4.
It is grown over an area of 2. Flesh vegetable exports have been on the rise. During —98 total vegetable amounted to 3,65, During 3,33, These exports accounted 10, Garlic and tomato are other exporting vegetables Table 8. Gangetic plains of north India during short winter days from October to March. In Nilgiris and Palney hills of Tamil Nadu, potato crop is grown round the year both as an irrigated and rainfed crop covering an area of about 4, ha. The crop is grown in vast endemic area of Darjeeling hills also.
With increase in production of potato and near self-sufficiency in potato seed, exports of potatoes for different purposes have picked up. During , total exports of potato as seed, fresh and frozen amounted to 22, Tuber crops are most important food crops after cereals and grain legumes. There are 15 different tuber-producing crop species grown in our country. These include 2 major crops cassava and sweet potato ; aroid species Colocasia, Amorphophallus, Xanthosomas, Alocacia and Cyrtosherma sp.
Cassava has been an important crop in south India as a staple food. But change in dietary habit has been noticed. However, Industrial uses are increasing.
The area under cassava has been more or less stable since The world production of sweet potato is estimated at The area and production of sweet potato has been dwindling because of competition from cereals. Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. In the context of food security, the role of tuber crops may seem to be triW However, being concentrated sources of energy, they can definitely turn out to be saviour of hunger in times of food crisis and famines.
I fyouwi s ht opur c ha s eaha r dc opy oft hi sbook,pl e a s ec ont a c tt hepubl i s he r. Ra me s hwa rSi ngh Di r e c t or a t eofKnowl e dgeMgt. Pr i c e-Rs. Almond 2. Annonaceous fruits 3. Aonla 4. Apple 5. Apricot 6. Litchi Loquat Plum Pomegranate Rambutan Sapota Stone fruits for subtropical regions Strawberry Sweet orange Walnut Cowpea Cucumber 1.
Agathi 2. Amaranthus 3. Ash gourd 4. Beet root 5. Bitter gourd 6. Bottle gourd 7. Brinjal 8. Broccoli 9. Brussels sprout Cabbage Capsicum Carrot Cauliflower Celery Curry leaf Drumstick French bean 21, Garlic Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item?
You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Preview this item Preview this item. Handbook of horticulture Author: Directorate of Information and Publications on Agriculture.
New Delhi: English View all editions and formats Summary: With reference to India. Allow this favorite library to be seen by others Keep this favorite library private.
Find a copy in the library Finding libraries that hold this item Handbooks and manuals Handbooks, manuals, etc Additional Physical Format: Print version: Chadha, K. Handbook of horticulture. Document, Internet resource Document Type: Find more information about: K L Chadha. Reviews User-contributed reviews Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. Be the first. Plants can also be classified according to their temperature relations, i.
Vegetables are grouped as summer warm season and winter cool season vegetables on the basis of their growing season temperatures. A winter vegetable in the plains of Punjab can be successfully grown during the summer at higher attitudes.
Most summer vegetables are grown all year round in the frost-free areas of lower Sindh. Fruits are categorized as temperate, subtropical, and tropical.
Temperate fruits are mostly deciduous and require a certain amount of chilling to flower. Apples, pears, Peaches, plums, almonds, an?
Subtropical plants like citrus, guava, and grapes can tolerate frost. Tropical plants like banana, papaya, and mango are much more sensitive to low temperature exposures. Horticulturists speak of tender and hardy plants according to their ability to withstand low winter temperatures.
Hardy plants are resistant to frost and tender ones are not. Fruits borne on low-growing plants like shrubs and vines, e.
Nuts are edible seeds like almonds, walnuts, pecans, etc. Fleshy fruits are those whose edible part is the soft flesh as opposed to the seed.
Systematic pomology is a branch of pomology which describes fruits according to their structural development. Pomes apple, pear, quince are false fruits in which the edible part is the thalamus. Berries grape, banana, citrus are true fruits developed from the ovary walls. Stone fruits, also known as drupes, are also true fruits peach, apricot, plum, cherry.
An aggregate fruit is derived from a flower having many pistils on a common receptacle. The individual fruits of the aggregate may be drupes, as in blackberries, or achenes, as in strawberries.
Multiple fruit is a name for fruits derived from many separate but closely clustered flowers. Common examples are pineapple, fig, and mUlberry.
Vegetables may be grouped according to their edible portions and cultural requirements. Root crops are vegetables with underground edible parts like carrots, radishes, turnips, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. In a strict botanical sense, the potato is not a root, but all the above require similar methods of sowing and other cultural practices.
Leafy vegetables like lettuce, cabbage, and spinach have edible leaves. Vine crops include most of the cucurbits. Other important groups are solanaceous fruits tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and flower crops like cauliflower and broccoli.
Plants used as ornamen. Flowering plants include seasonal annuals, perennials, and bulbs with underground storage organs. Landscape plants are usually foliage plants varying from ground covers or lawn grasses to hedges, and trees and shrubs. Indoor plants are ornamental plants with persistent evergreen foliage characters. Other horticultural plant categories which do not fit into the popular horticultural classification of fruits, vegetables, and ornamentals are beverage plants which are used for their flavours, and plants which produce aromatic or fragrant products.
There are industrial crops like jojoba an oilseed , rubber, resin crops, and many drug and medicinal plants. All forms of life are related, with lower organisms the progenitors of higher organisms.
The similarities and differences among the organisms form the basis for classification. In the midth century Linnaeus recognized the value of using the morphology of the sexual or reproductive parts as a basis for taxonomy. These plant organs are less influenced by environmental conditions, and similarities and differences in floral organs have become basic to the classification of higher plants.
The plant kingdom consists of about a dozen major phyla or divisions. The most highly evolved or advanced division is known as Tracheophyta. A vascular or tracheary system is the common feature of all higher plants, hence the name Tracheophyta. Almost all horticultural plants excepting mushrooms belong to this division; The division Tracheophyta is divided into several classes. Horticulturally important ones are Filicinae ferns , Gymnospermae cycads, conifers , and Angiospermae flowering plants.
Each class is subdivided into orders, and the orders are further divided into families.
Each family comprises a number of genera pI. Within each genus, there are various species. All categories need not be used, but the sequence is important.
Sometimes intermediate subdivisions are named with the prefix sub-. The categories from kingdom to family are called the major taxa, and those below the level of family are called the minor taxa. The magnitude of genetic diversity decreases in order from genus to variety and to individual Janick The gymnosperms are a small group of about living species. Most of them are evergreen trees with needle-shaped leaves, belonging to the temperate zones.
The name is derived from the characteristic of their seeds, which are borne 'naked', as opposed to angiosperms which bear enclosed seeds. Gymnosperms are sources of timber, wood pulp, turpentine, resin, edible seeds, and many highly valued ornamental plants Janick The angiosperms are the largest group of higher plants, with more than 2S0, Characteristically, their seeds are enclosed in the fruit, and the leaves are broad not needles.
They are the primary sources of food, fiber, and shelter. The class Angiospermae is divided into two subclasses, the Dicotyledonae dicots and the Monocotyledonae monocots. The dicots have two cotyledons seed leaves , flower parts in fours or fives or multiples of these numbers, reticulate leaf venation, and the presence of vascular cambium. The monocots have a single cotyledon, flower parts in threes or mUltiples thereof, parallel leaf venation, and lack of vascular cambium. There are about , dicotyledonous plant species, and approximately 50, monocots.
Within each class there are several orders and families Janick The genus is named first, followed by the species. The genus begins with a capital letter and the species name with a small letter. When printed, both names are italicized. The name of the person who first named and described the species or abbreviation of the name follows the binomial designation. Botanical and English or common names of important fruits and vegetables are listed in Tables 1.
The genus is a group of species which have many common morphological, genetic, and cytological features. The members of a genus can sometimes cross among themselves, but can never cross with the plants of any other genus.
Thus, a species is made up of plants having morphological similaritics and producing like progeny. A sub-classification of the traditional species is the variety. When a population of plants within a species differs in appearance from the original members of the species, it may be called a variety. A variety is named by adding a third name after the species name. It should not be confused with the cultivated variety, or cultivar.
The term cultivar refers to a named group of plants within a cultivated species which maintain their identity when propagated either sexuaJly or asexually. In horticulture, clonal cultivars which are propagated vegetatively asexuaJly are very important. Variants among clones are called strains or sports. Hybrids are dcveloped by crossing divergent parents, and do not breed true by sexual propagatioh Janick The horticulture industry provides many essential components of our daily diet Tables 1.
It is a business for merchants and a source of exercise and a small income for amateurs. Horticulture promotes the physical and mental health and economic prosperity of individuals and nations. Ahmad Khan 1. Horticultural foods are an excellent source of all the essential components of the human diet Tables 1.
Approximately 30 percent of the food Consumed in the world is produced in the horticulture sector. All fruits and vegetables have some quantity of digestible carbohydrates and other food components in varying proportions. A survey of the composition of important fruits and vegetables is given in Tables 1.
Potatoes and sweet potatoes are especially high in starch, containing 19 percent and 27 percent starch, respectively. These vegetables, and fruits like bananas, have the potential to supplement our future energy calorie requirements. On a per-acre basis, potatoes and bananas produce more calorjes than wheat.
Potatoes are the fourth ranking food crop in the world, and increased potato cultivation could reduce the pressure on grain production. Peaches, beans, sweet corn, and pecans are rich in protein. Avocados, olives, and most nuts contain a very high percentage of fat. Spices and beverages add pleasure to eating.
Importantly, fruits and vegetables provide the vitamins and minerals which are lacking in the staple foods. Varied colours, texture, and flavours aeate interest in eating. Fiber or roughage is deficient in our diets, despite heavy intake of cereals.
Meat and milk do not contribute fiber. Very high fiber content is found in vegetables and in some fruits. Leafy vegetables like celery, cabbage, lettuce, and others with high cellulose content add bulk to food. In the stomach, this roughage helps motility and neutralizes acidity created by the digestion of proteins. For a balanced diet, WHO recommends grams of vegetables and fruits every day.
In Pakistan, however, less than grains per day is available. Deficiencies of vitamins and minerals cause chronic diseases. Vitamin A deficiency causes skin diseases, night blindness, and kidney stones. It is synthesized in animals and humans from its precursors or provitamins called carotenoids, which are richly provided by orange-coloured and dark-green fruits and vegetables.
The red pigment in 'red-blood' oranges is an anthocyanin, while the red pigment in some grapefruit is carotene. Shortage of ascorbic acid or vitamin C is responsible for hemorrhaging and swollen gums, and lowered body resistance against infection. Citrus, ber, guavas, tomatoes, and melons are rich in ascorbic acid. Vitamin E-deficient adults show symptoms of sterility. Onions, lettuce, oranges, bananas, and avocados are rich in vitamin E. Low intake of these vitamins may lead to increased risk of coronary heart diseases and cancer of the lungs, breast, and prostate.
Deficiencies of B-vitamins can cause beriberi, loss of sensation, and heart enlargement. Children whose cient in vitamin D develop rickets, a softening and curvature of the bones. People whose diet contain form a insufficient folic acid are more likely in old age to develop cataracts, of impaired vision in which the lens of the eye becomes opaque. Minerals play an important role in the development of the human body s as constituent parts of tissue, and regulate metabolic activities as catalyst Ca, are and co-factors.
Deficiency of Ca affects the contractibiliis an ty of muscles, blood coagulation, the bones, and heartbeat. Phosphorus energy in role integral an plays and important component of nucleic acids transformation. Iron is the oxygen carrier, and its deficiency causes anemia. Iodine is needed for normal functioning of the thyroid gland. Fruit juices, seed pods, leafy vegetables, apples, apricots, plums, dates, olives, and peachand es are rich in minerals.
Large amounts of sugar, organic acids, enzymes, high its of e Becaus fruits. The nutritional value of fruits and vegetables varies with their culture harconditions, stage of consumption, and treatment in the field and after vegetaof content Ca the lowers vesting.
A high level of nitrogen in the soil the bles and affects the composition of proteins. Boron deficiency reduces and rainfall of s amount The s.