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Vanderbilt at a fancy dress ball. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, fancy dress events became more common, and costumes could be found at department stores. Large civic balls were reported in detail in the press, with lists of costumes worn.
Local dressmakers or even the ballgoer herself created these outfits. Imperial Pageants From the s onward, fancy dress opportunities multiplied. Young people turned the social world topsy-turvy with all-night parties, jazz, cocktails, and exhibitionist behavior. Masks were reintroduced, and the most admired outfits were outrageous or bizarre, with good taste outof-date.
Theme parties became popular: Greek parties, baby parties, Wild West parties, and circus parties were held in London during the s. Fancy dress balls became annual events at universities and colleges and a popular feature of holiday cruises. Print of La Saison, showing women in fancy dress. Civic balls became popular in the mids, and the press often reported on the costumes of attendees. As well as private dressmakers, the newly established department stores in London and provincial cities made fancy dresses for customers.
At Devonshire House, the guests dressed as famous people from history or fable; the hostess represented Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, and the countess of Warwick was Queen Marie Antoinette. Many of the costumes were couture creations, several by Jean-Philippe Worth son of Charles. In decline since the s, fancy dress returned to fashion from the s.
Favorite characters in the s include perennials such as monks, nuns, clowns, devils, joined by topical characters from films and TV. In the early twenty-first century, dressing up is part of everyday play for three- to six-year-olds. Outfits are on sale in all toyshops and chain stores, to turn children into princesses, knights, nurses, policemen, Disney characters, or the popular fiction hero Harry Potter.
Finkel, Alicia. Holt, Ardern. London, Debenham and Freebody, , 6th ed. Jarvis, Anthea. Jarvis, Anthea, and Patricia Raine. Fancy Dress. Aylesbury, U. Ribiero, Aileen. Stevenson, Sara, and Helen Bennet. Edinburgh: Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Westminster Duchess of , Loelia. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, Anthea Jarvis FANS Though already used for many centuries in other parts of the world, fans started becoming popular in Europe in the late sixteenth century, but experienced virtual demise in the early twentieth century.
Sixteenth-Century Rigid Fans There were two distinct types of rigid fan in the sixteenth century: those of exotic feathers set in a fancy handle and those of vellum or plaited palm leaf also attached to a decorative handle. A number of portraits from to show Queen Elizabeth I — holding feather fans. The identifiable feathers were ostrich.
Fan handles ranged from handsome silver-gilt or silver set with fabulous jewels to plain-turned wood. Rigid fans of vellum or plaited palm leaf were as a rule rectangular in shape and set into a handle in such a way as to look like small flags, and this is the term used to describe them.
A fashion accessory, it is easily held in the hand, whether open or closed. The folding fan has found a niche in the popular history of fashionable dress as a pretty object that used to be carried by ladies of fashion, coupled with its reputation as a useful device in the art of flirtation. While its presence as an accessory in Western fashion has been taken for granted for over three hundred years, this is not a Western invention. It is generally acknowledged that the folding fan originated in Japan as long ago as the ninth century C.
Its gradual dominance over the fashionable rigid feather fan of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries can probably be attributed to the convenience of being able to fold the fan away when not in use. Folding fans probably made their first appearance in Europe between and It is likely that isolated examples were originally brought back by travelers or merchants as personal gifts for female friends or family and were probably treated as exotic curiosities.
Proof of their existence in Japan prior to the s can be seen in early Japanese paintings and manuscripts. One of the best known is the aristocratic hand scroll that illustrates The Tale of Genji, a romance of Japanese court life written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu in the tenth century C. The earliest surviving illustrated text dates from to Not until the seventeenth century were significant quantities of folding fans imported into Europe from Japan and China.
However, at some point before the end of the sixteenth century, European craftsmen appear to have taken up the challenge of making folding fans for their own market. By the end of the seventeenth century, European fan makers had fully mastered the art of making folding fans. They used vellum or silk for the leaves and wood, ivory, tortoiseshell, mother-of-pearl, or bone for the sticks. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, leather fan leaves and leather gloves were perfumed with orange water or other scents.
In early European examples, the entire fan consists of very wide sticks.
Straw work of this quality may have been of Italian or south German origin. Folding feather fans do not appear until the second half of the nineteenth century. Seventeenth-Century European Fans During the seventeenth century, European folding fans improved in technique and style. The leaf would be painted in gouache.
The subject matter was usually taken from classical literature or allegories. The sticks became 6 finer and thinner; those that supported the leaf tapered to a point at the top. The two outer sticks, known as the guard sticks, were wider at the top and more bladelike.
Fan painters of this period were influenced by the masters of the early and high baroque, copying or adapting their paintings for fan leaves. Literary tastes of the era, too, were reflected in the choice of subject: classical, biblical, and—to a lesser extent—conversation scenes predominated. Both sides of a fan leaf were decorated, the front obverse would be fully decorated with a painted scene while the back reverse was usually painted with a superb rendering of familiar flowers shown as a bouquet.
Eighteenth-Century Fans The eighteenth century is considered a golden age for fans. The century began with the final flourish of the heavy baroque style of Louis XIV. His death in removed his overpowering influence, and breathed new life into fashion in France and Europe. Characterized by its lightness and graceful, sinuous decoration, it was particularly well suited to decoration of fan sticks and fan leaves.
Subject matter broadened to include pastoral, commemorative, and conversation themes—although classical subjects continued to be popular. The East India Company imported large quantities of fans and other goods into Europe from China in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
These traders would commission goods to their own specification for the European market. Such goods were designed to appeal to European rather than Asian taste, though they had a definite Asian influence, resulting in a style that became known as chinoiserie.
The most prolific fan production came from France during the eighteenth century.
Many fan leaves were painted on paper or vellum throughout the eighteenth century, but from the s onward, an increasing number were printed. Printing created some problems in the fan-making trade as it threatened to deprive fan painters of their livelihood. It had the advantage of being quick; a printer could produce huge numbers of just one design much faster than the fan painters. The richness and exuberance of eighteenth-century design on fans and other forms of decorative art became increasingly restrained in the last quarter of the century.
The affect of neoclassicism, with its strict adherence to classical form, caused fan designs to conform to minimal decoration in the approved style. Nineteenth Century Restrained decoration continued in the nineteenth century. Falluel, eds. Paris: Palais Galliera, The Fan.
Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, Duvelleroy published a leaflet listing various positions of the fan that a discerning young man was presumably expected to interpret. Hart, Avril, and Emma Taylor. London: V and A Publications, Mayor, Susan.
Collecting Fans. Rhead, George Woolliscroft. History of the Fan. Schreiber, Lady Charlotte. Fans and Fan Leaves. London: British Museum, — Avril Hart silhouette. Fans were small to the point of invisibility. Conveniently minute, they were held in the hand or could be popped into an equally small reticule. Decoration was slight; painted flowers and a little gilding usually sufficed. Decoration remained delicate but grew fussier. Other types of fan leaf were of painted or printed paper.
Not until the mid-nineteenth century did fan making and fan design regain the panache of the previous century. The second half of the nineteenth century saw a gradual decline in fan making and design.
In France the firm of Duvelleroy dominated the European market with quality fans and had done so since it was established in Yet, the quality of their designs flagged during the second half of the century. Fan making in England fared no better despite attempts at holding competitions.
Goodquality fans appeared briefly from the s following a revival of interest in fans as fashionable accessories. By the s, fans had become attractive gimmicks to be given away as advertisements by well-known department stores, restaurants, or fashion houses.
London: Studio Vista, Arnold, Janet. London: W. Maney and Sons, The Stowe Inventory, p. Bennet, A. Unfolding Beauty: The Art of the Fan. Exhibition catalog. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Cust, Lionel. See Skirt Supports. Short hair, shorter hemlines, pants, and visible makeup—all of these were purportedly causing the moral degradation of German women.
Vituperative commentaries claimed that French fashions were unhealthy for German women, both morally and physically, and that it was imperative for German designers to establish complete independence from the nefarious French influence on female fashion.
Also denounced was the dangerous American vamp or Hollywood image that young German women were foolishly imitating with penciled eyebrows, darkly lined eyes, painted red mouths, and provocative clothing.
Only German clothing, specifically Aryan-designed and manufactured, was good enough for females in the Third Reich. Racially appropriate clothing depended upon the elimination of French and, especially, Jewish influences from the German fashion industry. To that end, an Aryanization organization named the Arbeitsgemeinschaft deutsch-arischer Fabrikanten der Bekleidungsindustrie or Adefa , was established in May by several longtime German clothing manufacturers and producers.
Through a combination of massive pressure, boycotts, economic sanctions, illegal download-outs, forced liquidations, and the systematic exclusion and persecution of countless Jews, Adefa succeeded by January in ousting all Jews from the German fashion world.
The Deutsches Mode-Institut German Fashion Institute was also founded in , with strong backing from the Ministry of Propaganda and several other governmental agencies. Beset with internal conflicts throughout its existence and given little actual power, the German Fashion Institute never succeeded in fulfilling any of its goals. These were important tasks that required an image befitting the propaganda. She was the link between the bonds of German blood and soil.
Her natural looks, unsullied by cosmetics, her physical strength and moral fortitude, her willingness to bear hard work and to bear many children, and her traditional dress that recalled a mythical, untarnished German past, were deified through countless exhibits, paintings, and essays.
In propaganda photos, rural women usually were shown with their hair braided or pinned up in a bun, no cosmetics, surrounded by children, and beaming with an inner glow that gave no hint of the difficult work that filled their days.
Promoted as an expression of the true German-Aryan character, the age-old Trachtendirndl— generally comprising a dress with tight bodice and full, long skirt, a white blouse with puffed and gathered sleeves, a heavily embroidered or crocheted collar, an embellished apron, and a variety of head pieces or hats— was viewed as the most suitable example of racially pure clothing and held up as a significant symbolic metaphor for pride in the German homeland.
To promote the resurrection of the folk costume, state-sponsored Tracht gatherings and folk festivals cropped up everywhere, even occasionally in metropolitan areas.
Girls and women were told to proudly wear dirndls for Nazi Party-sponsored occasions and historic celebrations. And, farm women were encouraged to rediscover the many attributes of Tracht. They were also urged to sew their dirndls from fabric they had woven themselves, while caring for their flock of children and helping with the harvest. The problem was that most of them had ceased wearing anything resembling Tracht on a regular basis by this time, due to its impracticality and the difficult economic straits in which so many rural families found themselves.
Farm women had long ago turned to dark fabrics that showed little dirt, looser clothes that allowed for greater movement, and sleeves that did not encumber them at their work. Except for the rare special occasion or celebration, rural women had not regularly worn the traditional dirndl for decades. The Nazi Party urged women to embrace their cultural heritage by adopting traditional German dress, but most found such clothing impractical and continued to wear modern fashions.
Van Dam is generally thought to have coined the term "electronic book",   and it was established enough to use in an article title by Thus in the Preface to Person and Object he writes "The book would not have been completed without the epoch-making File Retrieval and Editing System Hart [ edit ] Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S.
Hart as the inventor of the e-book. Seeking a worthy use of this resource, he created his first electronic document by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer in plain text.
Early implementations[ edit ] After Hart first adapted the Declaration of Independence into an electronic document in , Project Gutenberg was launched to create electronic copies of more texts - especially books. Detailed specifications were completed in FY 82, and prototype development began with Texas Instruments that same year.
Four prototypes were produced and delivered for testing in Tests were completed in Peter Kincaid. Harkins and Stephen H. Morriss as inventors.
In , Sony launched the Data Discman , an electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on CDs. One of the electronic publications that could be played on the Data Discman was called The Library of the Future.
The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware, manufacturing techniques, and other subjects. A notable feature was automatic tracking of the last page read so returning to the 'book' would take you to where you were last reading. The title of this stack may have been the first instance of the term 'ebook' used in the modern context. Different e-reader devices followed different formats, most of them accepting books in only one or a few formats, thereby fragmenting the e-book market even more.
Due to the exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books. In the late s, a consortium formed to develop the Open eBook format as a way for authors and publishers to provide a single source-document which many book-reading software and hardware platforms could handle.
Focused on portability, Open eBook as defined required subsets of XHTML and CSS ; a set of multimedia formats others could be used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formats , and an XML schema for a "manifest", to list the components of a given e-book, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on.
Google Books has converted many public domain works to this open format. Late night alumni shine, verbalize natiruts mp3 and tamil thathuva songs and river state crisis video.
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