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Professor K. Neelakanda Sastri was social harmony. Economic prosperity, the benevolent attitude and religious faiths Education: Chola Kings gave importance for the development of of the Chola kings were the main factors which contributed more for education.
There were Veda padasalas, Buddha viharas and Jain pallis. During the reign of Rajendra I, two colleges were there at Rajarajachaturvedi Mangalam and Tribhuvanam. The mutt of Thiruvavaduturai had run a school of medicine. Thirumukkudal temple Social Condition: The Chola society was peaceful one. There were was utilised for running a college and hospital. Apart from the medical different sections in society. At the same time, the society was based as and religious education, general education was also imparted.
According to the Varnasrama, society was divided into Scholarships were given to students. The poor and unprivileged people lived in slums. Bonded labourers Status of Women: Women were given high status and freedom in the were also there.
Professionals like carpenters, weavers, blacksmiths, Chola society. Chastity and modesty were considered important.
The masons, goldsmiths also lived there. Slavery also existed. There were women of upper classes enjoyed the right to property. Some queens several grades among the slaves. The details about the sale of slaves were associated with the administration of the kingdom. Queens gave are recorded in the inscriptions. Greater social freedom prevailed among liberal donations to temples. Queen Sembian Mahadevi and Kundavai were patrons of temples. Monogamy was prevalent in society. Less the upper classes.
Gold and pearl were used in making jewels and ornaments. Women were also appointed as officers in Kanchipuram was an important centre of textile industry. The weavers the Chola Government.
There were child marriages among the higher of Kanchipuram were recognised by the king and they had the previlage castes.
Women who were talented in music and dance were attached of making royal robes to the king Uthama Chola. Salt pans of to the temples. They performed programmes during festival times. There Marakanam, Kanyakumari were commercially famous.
Writings of Morcopolo and some inscriptions speak about the position of women during the Chola period. Foreign Trade: Elephants, cardamom, cotton, wife entered into the funeral pyre of the dead husband. Arabian horses were imported. Mahabalipuram, Wife burnt herself and died along with her husband.
Kavirippumpattinam, and Korkai were Chola ports which were useful for foreign trade. The liberal taxation policies of King Kulothunga I Economic condition: The Chola rule witnessed the prosperity of trade encouraged both internal and foreign trade. Internal and foreign trade and commerce. Income through agriculture yield, land tax, trade tax led to the economic, cultural and religious developments in Chola territory.
King was the owner of all public land. Special officers were appointed to look into Religious condition: Government money was spent Chola kings were saivites. They built many Siva silver and copper coins.
Merchant guilds were functioning to take care temples. Parantaka — I, for the welfare of the merchants and commerce. Agriculture was the main King Gandraditya and his occupation of the people. The ownership of the land had a high social queen Sembiyan madevi value. The landlords were members of the village administrative units. Parantaka — I covered the Trade and commerce: The Chola rulers contributed more for the Siva temple with gold at development of cottage industries.
Metal images and utensils were made Chidambaram. King in gold, silver, bronze, copper, brass etc. The economic prosperity and religious contributions increased Rajendra-I constructed Siva temple at Polonaaruva in Ceylon and the standard of life and values of the Chola society. By building many Gangaikonda Cholapuram. Lands, Jewels and vessels were donated temples and mutts, the Chola kings contributed for the development of to these temples.
The royal patronage increased the influence of Hinduism more. The temples and festivals of the Chola period will Chola Kings were tolerant towards other religions. Vishnu ever speak about the glory of the Cholas. Chola rulers supported the spread of Vaishnavisim. Saint Ramanujar was the contemporary of Chola Kings.
Try to know more about the great saint Ramanujar Thiruvalangadu copper plates, Karanthai plates and Anbil plates talk about the religious conditions of the Chola period.
Masimaham, Learning out come: Mahamaham, Karthigai, Thaipusam, Sivarathri, Chithiraivizha, 1. Pupil will be able to tell about the social and economic life Aipasivizha, were important festivals celebrated during the Chola period. Pupil will be able to explain about the growth of internal and Kanchipuram were important temple cities.
Bakthi songs were sung in external trades. Some people followed Buddhism and Jainism. Pupil will be able to tell about the religious conditions of the Cholas Temples acted as centres of learning also. Sati is a marriage ceremony. Nambi 2. Agriculture was the backbone of social life. Andar Nambi compiled the 3.
Brahmins were engaged in the works of the temple. Salt pans were there in Kanchipuram. Nathamunigal compiled the 5. Chola kings followed the policy of religious tolerance. Scenes of Periyapuranam, II. Learning objectives: Weavers of Kanchi had the privilege of making royal robes to 1.
To enable pupil to know the development of literature under 4. To enable pupil to acquire knowledge about the development IV. Vanavan Mahadevi - Weavers of Kanchi The development of literature, art and architecture of the Chola 3. Patron of temples - Sundara Chola period promoted the cultural value of the Chola rule.
The Cholas made 4. Kaveripoompattinam - Kundavi lot of improvements in these fields. The temples built by the Cholas 5. Royal robes - Karikala Cholan increased the value of the bakthi culture of Tamil country.
The development of the Chola literature, art and architecture created a V. What were the four castes created by varnasrama? Write about the foreign trade during the Chola period. Write about the festivals of the Chola period. Which cities were known as temple cities? The Chola rule marked a milestone in the history of Tamil literature. The Chola kings gave many concessions and patronage to VI. Answer in detail: Tamil scholars and writers.
Many great Tamil poets namely, Kalladanar, 1. Write about the status of women during the Chola rule. Write in detail about the temples of the Cholas.
Literary styles like epics, parani, kovai, ula, kalambakam, pillaitamil and new works on grammar were famous during that period. Writing meikkirthis, narration of historical incidents, singing songs on religious heros, were new literary trends of. Kalladanar wrote Kalladam about lord Siva. Thiruttakkadevar Art and architecture: The Chola kings built many temples throughout wrote Seevagasinthamani to spread the idea of Jainism among the Tamil their kingdoms.
The temples of early Cholas are found in large number people. This work is respected and ranked as one of the mahakaviyams in the former Pudukottai region.
These Chola temples reveal the gradual in Tamil. Jayamkondan composed Kalingathuparani during the period evolution of the Chola art and architecture. The Chola kings earlier of Kulothunga-I. It talks about second kalinga war. Later they built brick temples. Kambar wrote Kambaramayanam.
The king also conferred the title Kavichakkravarthi on Kambar. Kambar had also written Sadagopar andhadhi, Mummani kovai. Sekkilar wrote Periya puranam during the period of Kulothunga-II. Pugalendhi composed Nalavenba. Avvaiyar wrote Aathichudi and Kondrai vendan. Thirugnanasambandar wrote Thevaram. Literary Works: Kulothungan kovai and Thanjaivanan kovai are famous Tamil literature of that period.
Great epics namely Valayapathi, Kundalakesi, Viracholiyam, Nannool belong to this period. Thevaram, Brahadeeswarar Temple at Tanjore Nandikalambagam, Bharatha venba and Sivgnanabodam are important literary works of this period. The Chola literature increased the cultural The first Chola ruler Vijayalaya Chola built temple at values of the Chola society. This is a stone temple. It is one of the finest examples of the early Chola temple architecture.
Balasubramaniya temple of Parani is a form of war poem. Parani explains the Kannanur in Pudukottai region and Thirukkatalai temple were built during circumstances which led to the war. Nageswarar temple at Kumbakonam is famous It also gives details about war. King Parantaka-I built Koranganatha temple at.
Muvarkoil of Kodumbalur. They are roofs. The value of sculpture is very much felt on Chola works. The good examples of the later Chola architecture and sculpture. Realism dominated sculpture of the Chola period. Scenes from Ramayanam Mahabharatam, Puranas and Besides all these temples of the Chola period, the greatest lives of the 63 Nayanmars are sculptured in narrative panels on the landmark in the history of south Indian architecture is Brhadeeswarar walls of temples.
This is also called as big temple. It has many architectural significance. It was built by Rajaraja-I. This is the largest and tallest temple Tamilnadu. Rajdendra Chola built a temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram which is also equally famous.
King Rajendra Chola added credit to the Chola art and architecture. This temple is first of its kind in the south Indian architecture. Rajaraja-II built Airavatheeswarar temple at Dharasuram. Special features of Chola architecture: The Cholas followed the Pallava style of architecture.
Sanctum of the Chola temples are both circular and square in size. Inner side of the external walls and the sanctum were beautified. On the upper side of the sanctum special vimanas are built.
Dome shaped sikhara and kalasa were also there on the top of Gopurams. Chola temples are noted for the sculptures and ornamental works. Gopurams of these temples were meaningful. Many temples are having pillared mandapams namely arthamandapa, Portraits: The Cholas excelled the Pallavas in the art of portrait making. Sculptures and inscriptions are also The best specimens of portraits are found on the walls of Koranganatha fixed on the walls of these temples.
They are good examples Sculpture: Stone and metal sculputures are found in plenty in Chola of Chola art of portrait making. They depict the socio religious ideas of the Chola period. The Nataraja sculpture is world famous not only for its beauty but also for Paintings: The art of paintings flourished.
Figures were painted with its spirutual meaning. Vishnu idol is placed in Vaishnava temples. A realism.
The proficiency of the Chola painters are seen on their paintings. Paintings in Big temple are good examples.
Scenes of Periyapuranam The Cholas made use of sculptures to decorate the walls, pillars and are beautifully depicted. Inscriptions refer about Ariyakuthu, Chakki koothu and Santhi Rajaraja-I and Rajendra contributed more for the development of the koothu. Chola literature speaks about the cultural glory of the Cholas.
Hundreds of temples built by the Chola kings. Particularly Music: During the Chola period the art of music was developed.
Brahadeeswarar Big temple temple at Tanjore and temple at Twenty three panns were used in music. The seven music alphabets sa, Gangaikonda Cholapuram are cultural monuments of the Cholas. The ri, ga, ma, pa, da, ni were used. The hymns of Alwars and Nayanmars glorious Chola culture created very big impact on Tamil society and were sung in every temple. Nambiandar nambi and Nathamuni imbibed lot of cultural values like bakthi upon the Tamil society.
Books were written Learning outcomes: Several musicians were appointed in Brahadeeswarar temple. Pupil can tell about the cultural development during the Chola Drums, udukkai, veena, flute were famous music instruments.
Sagadakkottigal formed a group of musicians. Endowments were made 2. Pupil will be able to explain the growth of literature under to promote music. Musicians were honoured by the kings. Temples the Cholas. Pupil will be able to tell about the development of the art and architecture of the Cholas.
The Chola kings patronised the art of dance. Lord Siva was represented as the exponent of Karana dance. Write true or false: Natarajar temple at Chidamparam and Sarangapani temple at 1.
Kalladam was written by Avvaiyar. Kumbakonam have dancing poses of Lord Nataraja.
Rajaraja-I 2. Kambaramayanam was written by Sekkilar appointed dancing girls in the big temple at Tanjore. There were 3.
King Vijayalaya built Choleswara temple two dance directors to co-ordinate these dancing girls. Dance dramas 4. Chola temples are both circular and square in size were also performed on stages at festival times.
Chola kings made 5. Brahadeeswarar temple is a famous Chola temple endowments to promote the art of dancing. The Cholas promoted the art of drama.
Music and dance 1. Many types of theatres and stages were there 2. Rajarajeswara natakam and Rajarajavijayam were 3. Drama actors received honours girls in the big temple. Koothu is one type of drama.
Koothus were also. Kulothungan pillai Tamil was composed by a Jayamkondan b Ottakoothar c Thirutakkadevar 2. Sekkilar wrote a Nalavenba b Periyapuranam c Aathichudi 3. Best specimen of portraits are found on the walls of a Koranganatha temple b Choleswara temple c Thirukkattalai temple.
Sadagopar Anthathi - Kambar 2. Sekkilar - Kulothunga-I 3. Thirukkattalai temple - Aditya-I 4. Sun God Temple - Rajaraja-I 5. Big temple - Periyapuranam. Write names of the scholars of Chola period. Mention the works of Ottakoothar. Write short notes on Brahadeeswarar temple. Write four points about the paintings of the Cholas. Write about the sculptures at Dharasuram temple. Write about the literary development during the Chola period. Write about the development of art and architecture of the Cholas.
To enable pupil to know about the sources for the study of the second Pandya empire. To enable pupil to know about the rulers of the second Pandya empire. To enable pupil to know the achievements and importance of the second Pandya emperors. The Pandyas are one among the great Moovendars of the Tamil country. The Pandyas who ruled Tamil country during the sangam period, are called sangam Pandyas.
They were called as first Pandyas. After the fall of the great pallavas and the cholas once again the Pandyas ruled the Tamil country from AD to AD. They were called as second Pandyas. Totally the Pandyas ruled the Tamil country three times for about years. Madurai was the capital of the Pandyas. Fish was the royal emblem of the Pandyas. History of the second Pandya empire can be written with the help of the relevant source materials.
Plenty of sources are available in this regard. Velvikkudi plates, Seevaramangalam plates. Thalavaipuramplates and chinnamanur plates speak about the war victories and administration of the Pandya rulers.
Inscriptions, coins, monuments and the writings of foreign travellers speak about the Pandya rulers and their achievements. The informations of Maravarman can be obtained from the inscriptions of Achirupakkam, Chidambaram, Tirukkovilur.
The second Pandya Kings issued coins with names and titles of the rulers. Sir Walter Elliot writes about the Chola coins. Through these numismatic sources we come to know about the economic condition of the Pandya period. Few gold coins tell about the rulers of Pandya Kingdom. These coins have a fish or a pair of fishes, the symbol of Pandya kingdom on one side. Names of the Pandya kings are engraved on the other side of the coins.
Many coins bear the name Sundra Pandya. These coins talk about the conquests and defeats of the Pandyas. Inscriptions excavated from Chidambaram tell about the personal courage of the Pandya kings in the battle fields and details about the places captured by the Pandya rulers. Inscriptions of Pudukottai throw much light on the judicial and revenue administration of the second Pandyas.
Thiruvandipuram inscriptions explain about the warfare of Maravarman Sundara Pandya. Srirangam inscriptions tell about the victories of Pandya kings.
Thirunelveli inscriptions give the names and the titles of the Pandya kings. The cave temples found in Tirumalaipuram, rule. More informations are given about Maravarman Sundara Pandya— Tiruparankundram, Anaimalai, Kundrakudi and Kalugumalai are the I, in the inscriptions of Gudimiyanmalai, Rangamali, Thenkasi and best monuments of the Pandyas period.
The Meenakshi temple in Tiruvateeeswaram. They wonderful monuments, which show the architectural and the sculptural also speak about the wealth that Maravarman had taken from cheras talent of the Pandyas. Foreign writers like Wassaf and Morcopolo write Lands donated to Brahmin scholars were called interesting information about the rule of Pandya kings. The political and Brahmadeyas economic conditions of Pandyas are described by these writers. Maravarman Sundara Pandya - II: The Pandyas expanded in north upto Nellore and Cuddapha districts.
He kingdom. Vikraman was succeeded by Jatarvarman Kulasekara-I. He had title as Tribhuvana Chakravarthy for conquering Elam, Kongu and the chola kingdom. In History one century means a period of hundred years. During his time the Pandya kingdom became the Pandya empire. The cholas completely disappeared from the Tamil scene. The hoysalas Jatavarman Kulasekara-I: He was son retreated to the Mysore highlands.
Ceylon was conquered. The of Vikraman. His Meikeerthi is a very good source. He fought and Kongudesam became a province of the Pandya kingdom. His reign may be ruler was defeated. Due to these victories Jatavarman Sundara Pandya- regarded as an important land mark in the history of the second Pandyas.
He ruled Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Thirunelveli and Kanyakumari areas. He created the Rajagambira Chaturvedi mangalam, consisting Religious Endowments: Jatavarman Sundara Pandya-I provided the of Brahmadeyas. He roof of Nataraja Shrine in Chidambaram with gold tiles.
He built a hall appointed Maravarman SundaraPandya as his crown prince. He rendered the same golden service to the Ranganatha swami shrine in Srirangam. So he Maravarman SundaraPandya - I: He also endowed liberally to some the brother of Jadavarman kulasekara. He had titles like Kaliyugarama, Jain pallis. He patronised Saivism, Vaishnavism and Hinduism.
He AdisayaPandyadeva. He fought wars against the cholas and the Kongu kings. Maravarman sundaraPandya captured some portions Maravarman Kulasekaran—I: During his of Trichy and modern Pudukottai districts. A good part of the Vishnu reign foreign writer Morcopolo visited Tamil country and wrote about temple at Tiruttangal was built. After him Jadavarman Kulasekara— II it. The social condition of the Tamil country was known from the writings ruled for sometime. Maravarman captured kollam from Chera nadu.
His Kingdom expanded till cholanadu I. He built the outer 2. Fish was the emblem of Pandyas wall of Nellaiyapper temple in Tirunelveli.
The Anaimalai cave temple belongs to the Pandya period War of success among the Pandya heir apparents made the 4. Jatavarman kulasekaran was the last ruler of the second Pandyas. Malik Kafur invaded and carried away as much loote as possible. The whole Pandya country II. Choose the best answer: The second Pandya rule which lasted for years marked a significant land mark in the history of Tamil 1.
Ponveintha perumal was the title of a Jatavarman Kulasekar-I country. Learning outcome: Kollam kondan was the title given to a Maravarman Kulasekara-I 1.
Pupil will be able to know about the sources of Pandyas. Pupil will be able to know about the achievements of the c Maravarman Sundara Pandya- I Pandya rulers and their contributions. Second Pandyas ruled from 3. Pupil will be able to know about the expansion of the Pandya a A. To enable pupil to know about the contribution of the history of the Pandyas. Pandyas to art and architecture. To enable pupil to know about the growth of language and 1.
Malavaraya - Ceylon literature during the rule of the Pandyas. Madurai - Maravarman Vickrama 3. To enable pupil to understand the development of sculpture Pandya and painting during the Pandya rule. Subagiri fortress - Thirumalaipuram 4.
Viceroy of Chengleput - Capital Pandya kings made significant contributions for the progress of 5. Cave temple - Maravarman Sundara Pandya literature, art and architecture.
They made important milestones and remarkable turning points in the cultural history of Tamil country. Write about the numismatic sources of the Pandyas? Who was called Adisaya Pandya deva?
Sangam literature is very useful to 4. Write about Maravarman Kula sekara-I. Write about Malikkafur. Several inscriptions and copper plates, like Velvikkudiplates, VI.
Write answers in detail: Seevaramangalamplates, 1. Write about the sources for the study of the Pandyas. Thalavaipuramplates, 2. Write about the achievements of Jatavarman sundra Srivilliputhurplates, Pandya-I Sivakasiplates and Chinna manur plates are very much valuable to study about the development of literature, art and architecture.
Several Pandya coins are also available. Some vaishavite literary works of the Pandya period are given very high position literary works give information about the Pandyas. The writings of in the Indian religion and literature. The Pandya literatures like foreigners like Marcopolo, Hiuen Tsang are useful sources. Stone Thiruppavai and Thiruppallandu have enriched the Indian religion and inscriptions of Pandya kings are useful to fix the geneology.
Tamil literature: They organised three Tamil sangams at Madurai namely Naidadham. Sri Kaviraya wrote four books namely Mudhal sangam, Idai sangam and Kadai sangam. Sangam was an Thirukkalathinatharula, Thiruvannamalaiyar vannam, Seyur Murugan ula, assembly of Tamil poets and scholars.
Agathiyam, Tholkappiyam, Rathinagiriula. King Varathungarama Pandya wrote three books namely Silappathikaram, Ettuthogai, Pathupattu and many valuable Tamil literary pathitrupathu, Kalithurai andhathi and Venba andhathi. Mayilai nathar works were released in these Tamil sangam meetings. Nakkeerar was the chief Tamil poet of the Pandya court. The city of Madurai was wrote commentary on Nannool. Adiyarkkunallur wrote commentary known as Tamil koodal. Senavrayar wrote commentary on Tholkappiyam, Parimelazhagar wrote commentaries on Thiurkkural.
Request your teacher to explain more about three Tamil sangams and sangam literature Art and architecture: The Pandyas contributed more for the development of architecture. Gopuras, Prakaras, Vimanas, Garbagrahas Saivite literature: According to the informations given by a foreign are the special features of the Pandya temple architecture.
Temples at writer Hiuen Tsang and Velvikudi plates, the Pandya kings worked for Madurai, Chidambaram, Kumbakonam, Thiruvannamalai, Srirangam the development of literature, art and architecture. Particularly they are good examples for the development of Pandya architecture.
The contributed more for the development of Saivite literature. According to Thirugnanasambandar influenced his contemporary Pandya king historian A.
Saint Manikavasagar composed the divine hymn temple at Madurai and Aranganathar temple at Srirangam. He also wrote Thiruchirrambalakovai. The saiva nayanmars were more respected. Saivism flourished with their patronage.
Rock cut temple: The Pandya period is marked as renaissance period in the field of rock cut temple. The rock cut temples are known for their Vaishnavite literature: The Pandya kings patronised Alwars and merit. More than 50 rock cut temples were excavated from the Pandya vaishnavite literature.
Periyazhvar and his daughter Andal contributed greatly for the progress of Vaishnavism. Andal composed the famous kingdom. More rock cut temples are found in Thirupparankundram, Thiruppavai. Nammalvar composed Thiruppallandu. Cave temples are The second Pandya kings also promoted structural temples. Rock cut caves were The Vadapadrasayi temple at Srivilliputhur, Siva temple at also there.
Ambasamudhram, Vijayanarayana temple at Nanguneri, Lakshmi narayana temple at Athur are some of the famous structural temples. Structural temples: Structural temples were built on stones.
They Pandya rulers built big gopurams at the entrance of the temples. Pandyas were simple in style. Each temple consists of Garbagraha, arthamandapa built temples mandapas, gopurams at Chidambaram and Srirangam. Such structural stone temples are found in Kovilpatty, Thiruppathur and Madurai. The Pandya kings constructed Kulasekara Pandya built arthamandapa, manimandapa and sannathi in structural temples at Ambasamuthram, Thiruppathur, Mannarkudi, every temple.
Internal during their period. Pandya rulers renovated Alagarkoil and structures of these temples were constructed in a planned manner. Jambukeswara temples. Pandya sculptures are beautiful and ornamental. Some sculptures are engraved on single stone. They have got more messages and values. Pandya period witnessed renaissance in the art of sculpture. Sculptures at Kalugumalai, Thirupparankundram, Thiurmalaipuram and Narthamalai are very famous.
Vishnu sculpture at Kunnakudi and Nataraja sculpture at Thiurkolakkudi are on par excellence with the sculptures of pallava, chola period. The beauty of the Pandya mural painting can be seen in the Chittannavasal cave temples constructed during the time of Srimaran and Srivallaba Pandyan. The ceilings and pillars at Chittannavasal bear the paintings of dancing girls, the kings, the queens, plants and animals.
The picture of lotus, bathing elephants and playing fishes were good at Chittannavasal. Oil painting was also there. They are outstanding examples of pandiya paintings.
The paintings on the walls and pillars of temples are called as mural paintings 1. Adiyarkku nallar wrote commentary on a Silappathiharam b Tholkappiam Pandya rulers contributed more for the development of literature, c Nannool d Veerachozhiyam art and architecture. Their contributions created a unique and permanent cultural impact upon the Tamil society. Pupil will be able to explain the growth of language and 3.
The city of Madurai was known as literature during the Pandyas rule. Pupil will be able to understand the growth of art, and c Tamil peravai d Tamil kadal architecture, sculptures and paintings during the Pandya 4.
During the Pandya rule Tamil sangam was established in period. Thiruchittrambalam was written by I. Write True or false: Andal composed Thiruppavai. Match the following:. Learning Objectives: To enable pupil to know about the social customs and practices that entered into Tamil society during this period. Pupil to learn about the contributions of the Vijaya Nagar rulers to literature, art and architecture. To enable pupil to understand the impact of Vijaya Nagar rule in Tamilnadu.
The Vijaya Nagar empire was one of the famous empires in India. Two brothers namely Harihara and Bukka established Vijaya Nagar empire on the Southern banks of the river Tungabadhra in Vijaya Nagar was the capital of this empire.
Literary, architectural, numismatics and epigraphic sources Administration of the Vijaya Nagar empire: Vijaya Nagar empire are available for the study of Vijaya Nagar empire. Bagapalli copper was ruled by the emperors belonging to four dynasties namely Sangama, plates, Ramanuja inscription, Srirangam plates Srisailam plates give Saluva, Thuluva and Araveedu dynasties.
King was the supreme details about the geneology, political and socio, economic conditions of Vijaya Nagar empire. Foreign writers like Ibin Batuta, Abdul Razak, authority in civil, military and judicial matters. There was an imperial Nikitin, and Ferno Nuniz give useful informations about the Vijaya Nagar council of ministers to advice the king on important matters.
In kingdom. Bukka I was the first Vijaya Nagar ruler to invade Tamilnadu.
Then Vijaya Nagar administrative system was introduced to replace local self Government ruler Kumarakampana captured Thondaimandalam, Trichy, Madurai, institutions in Tamilnadu. They appointed nayaks in their provinces in Kongudesam, Rameswaram and established Vijaya Nagar Government Tamil country. The administrative reforms of Vijaya Nagar rulers in Tamilnadu.
After Kotta in Social Condition: The economy of the Tamil society under Vijaya Nagar rule was prosperous. The flourishment of inland and foreign Krishna Devaraya AD. People with AD.: Krishna Devaraya was of various cultures and languages lived together happily. Caste system medium height and had fair complexion rather fat than thin. He had signs of was there. Royal family members and nobles led a luxurious life. He was Common people led poor life.
He was a brave warrior and a statesman. He was gentle Women were respected more. Some women participated in and generous in character. Among the Public life. Some of them were appointed in both civil and military Vijaya Nagar rulers Krishna Devaraya was the greatest administrator. He had departments. Some women were talented in music, dance and poetry extended the boundaries of Vijaya writing. Marriages had sacred and social importance.
Dowry system Nagar empire in Tamilnadu by capturing was there. Horse riding, hunting, chess, boating, kolattam, kummy were many new areas. His success over the favorite games in the society. Sourashtras of Gujarat who came and settled in battle of Raichur are important.
The Vijaya Nagar rulers encouraged all religious Nagar rule. Music and dance were encouraged. Their most favourable religion was Hinduism. Vijaya Nagar society was divided into many under the Vijaya nagar Hindu rulers. Brahmins and Vellalas were dominant groups. Temples of Madurai, Srirangam, Thiruvarur, Rameswaram, These foreigners had their own churches and mosques.
They had mixed response from the native population. Indian muslims, christians formed Chidambaram, Tirunelveli, Thiruvannamali, and Sirvilliputhur were another section. Goldsmiths, blacksmiths, carpenters, and weavers repaired and rebuilt. Some of them were enlarged with an additional formed sizable group in the society.
Fishermen who lived in the east gopuras, praharas, entrance towers, corridars and mandapas. New coast were converted into christianity. Valangai and Idangai groups had temples were built in Kanchipuram, Kumbakonam and Vellore.
Some times they joined together Sculptures were carved on pillars. Maharasankaranthi, Mahanavami, on certain issues. Ugadi, Deepavali, karthigai and holi were celebrated. Coins issued by Vijaya Nagar kings proclaim their conviction towards Vaishnavism.
King Education: During the Vijaya Nagar rule education was confined only Achyutaraya made liberal grants to the Varadaraja and Ekmabareswarar to certain sections of the Society. Gurukula education was there. Classes temple at Kanchi. These Chidambaram. Jain temples were built. Muslim dargas were respected. Vedas, astrology, subjects Christian missionaries were functioning in Tuticorin, Vellore and other like medicine were taught. The early Vijaya Nagar kings were saivites and the later kings Gurukula system of education was prevalent in ancient India.
So both saivism and vaishnavism flourished during In this system, students of royal family and privileged class this period. This reflected in Tamil country also.
Vadagalai and thengalai groups were there Food and Dress: Rice and millet were their main food. The habit of among the vaishnavites. The Vadagali group was led by vedhanta chewing the betel leaf was also there. Free meals were provided in the choultries. Generally people wore cotton wool and linen dresses. The Desikar. They followed Sanskrit vedas. Thengalai group was led by nobles wore embroided dresses with golden threads.
Rich people wore Manavala Mahamuni. The Thengalai group followed Tamil shoes and poor people remained bare footed. Women had the practice Prabandhams. Vadagalai people believed in caste system but Thengalai of wearing costly gold ornaments with precious stones and pearls. Vijaya Nagar kings patronised Tamil, Telugu and Sanskrit architecture.
Two different styles of architecture namely the Dravidian scholars, poets and philosophers. Krishna Devaraya composed and Indo-Saracenic architecture were famous during this period. Which is considered as one of the five Telugu kaviyas. There were eight scholars in the court of Krishnadevarya.
Names of the They were known as Ashtadiggajas. Krishnadeveraya stopped the Places given as practice of translating from Sanskrit to other languages. He encouraged per the number in original thinking and writing in the field of literature. Krishna Devaraya the map. The 1 Vijaya nagaram influence of Vaishnavism was found in the Telugu and Tamil literature. Allasanipeddanna, Nanditimmanna Tenaliramakrishna were 5 Bellur leading Telugu scholars.
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