musicmarkup.info Guides UNIVERSITY PHYSICS SEARS ZEMANSKY PDF

UNIVERSITY PHYSICS SEARS ZEMANSKY PDF

Friday, February 14, 2020 admin Comments(0)

In addition to his role on Sears and Zemansky's University Physics he was the author of Sears and Zemansky's College Physics. Dr. Young. Physics with Calculus. Contribute to RandyMcMillan/PHY development by creating an account on GitHub. The University Physics book has the distinction from the College physics series to be complicated by calculus. This isn't the case. Calculus is a prominent topic.


Author:SUZANNE VITELLO
Language:English, Spanish, Indonesian
Country:Canada
Genre:Environment
Pages:482
Published (Last):23.12.2015
ISBN:547-1-78554-216-8
ePub File Size:26.66 MB
PDF File Size:20.86 MB
Distribution:Free* [*Sign up for free]
Downloads:33061
Uploaded by: JESSIKA

Available in the Pearson eText and in the Study Area of MasteringPhysics. * Indicates .. Sears and Zemansky's university physics: with modern physics. -- 13th. In addition to his role on Sears and Zemansky's University Physics, he is also author of Sears and Zemansky's College Physics. Dr. Young earned a bachelor's . A. LeWiS FoRD. Texas A&M University. univeRSitY PHYSiCS. WitH moDeRn PHYSiCS. 14tH eDition. SEARS AND ZEMANSKY'S.

Young RogeR A. He was an undergraduate at the University of California campuses in San Diego and Los Angeles and did his doctoral research in nuclear theory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor J. Dirk Walecka. Freedman has taught in both the Department of Physics and the College of Creative Studies a branch of the university intended for highly gifted and motivated undergraduates. He has published research in nuclear physics elementary particle physics and laser physics. In recent years he has worked to make physics lectures a more interactive experience through the use of classroom response systems and pre-lecture videos. In the s Dr.

Always gracious Dr. It is always a joy and a privilege to express my gratitude to my wife Alice and our children Gretchen and Rebecca for their love support and emotional suste- nance during the writing of several successive editions of this book. May all men and women be blessed with love such as theirs. He will be missed. He received a B. After a one-year postdoc at Harvard University he joined the Texas AM physics faculty in and has been there ever since.

Professor Ford has specialized in theoretical atomic physics—in particular atomic collisions. At Texas AM he has taught a variety of undergraduate and graduate courses but primarily introductory physics. P hysics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics including chemists who study the structure of molecules paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans.

Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV a prosthetic leg or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics.

The study of physics is also an adventure. You will find it challenging some- times frustrating occasionally painful and often richly rewarding. You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.

These patterns are called physical theories or when they are very well established and widely used physi- cal laws or principles. Rather a theory is an explanation of natural phenomena based on observation and accepted fundamental principles. An example is the well-established theory of bio- logical evolution which is the result of extensive research and observation by generations of biologists.

Pdf sears university physics zemansky

Figure 1. Legend has it that Galileo Galilei — dropped light and heavy ob- jects from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa Fig. From examining the results of his experiments which were actually much more sophisticated than in the legend he made the inductive leap to the principle or theory that the acceleration of a falling object is independent of its weight.

Physics is not simply a collection of facts and principles it is also the process by which we arrive at general principles that describe how the physical universe behaves. No theory is ever regarded as the final or ultimate truth.

The possibility al- ways exists that new observations will require that a theory be revised or dis- carded. It is in the nature of physical theory that we can disprove a theory by finding behavior that is inconsistent with it but we can never prove that a theory is always correct. Getting back to Galileo suppose we drop a feather and a cannonball. They certainly do not fall at the same rate.

Sears Zemansky – Vol 2

This does not mean that Galileo was wrong it means that his theory was incomplete. If we drop the feather and the cannon- ball in a vacuum to eliminate the effects of the air then they do fall at the same rate. Objects like feathers or parachutes are clearly outside this range. How do you learn to solve physics problems In every chapter of this book you will find Problem-Solving Strategies that offer techniques for setting up and solving problems efficiently and accurately.

Following each Problem-Solving Strategy are one or more worked Examples that show these techniques in action. The Problem-Solving Strategies will also steer you away from some incorrect techniques that you may be tempted to use.

Study these strategies and problems carefully and work through each example for yourself on a piece of paper. Different techniques are useful for solving different kinds of physics prob- lems which is why this book offers dozens of Problem-Solving Strategies. These same steps are equally useful for problems in math engineering chemistry and many other fields.

All of the Problem-Solving Strategies and Examples in this book will follow these four steps. In some cases we will combine the first two or three steps.

Sears Zemansky – Vol 2 by Francis Sears - PDF Drive

We encourage you to follow these same steps when you solve problems yourself. Identify the known quantities as stated or implied in the problem. This step is essential whether the problem asks for an algebraic expression or a numerical answer.

Make sure that the variables you have identified correlate exactly with those in the equations. If appropriate draw a sketch of the situation described in the problem.

Graph paper ruler pro - tractor and compass will help you make clear useful sketches. As best you can estimate what your results will be and as ap - propriate predict what the physical behavior of a system will be. The worked examples in this book include tips on how to make these kinds of estimates and predictions. If your an- swer includes an algebraic expression assure yourself that it correctly represents what would happen if the variables in it had very large or very small values.

For future reference make note of any answer that represents a quantity of particular significance. Ask yourself how you might answer a more general or more dif- ficult version of the problem you have just solved. Problem-Solving STraTegy 1. In physics a model is a simplified version of a physical system that would be too complicated to analyze in full detail. For example suppose we want to analyze the motion of a thrown baseball Fig. How complicated is this problem The ball is not a perfect sphere it has raised seams and it spins as it moves through the air.

If we try to include all these things the analysis gets hopelessly com - plicated. Instead we invent a simplified version of the problem. We ignore the size and shape of the ball by representing it as a point object or particle.

We ignore air resistance by making the ball move in a vacuum and we make the weight constant. Now we have a problem that is simple enough to deal with Fig.

We will analyze this model in detail in Chapter 3. We have to overlook quite a few minor effects to make an idealized model but we must be careful not to neglect too much. If we ignore the effects of grav- ity completely then our model predicts that when we throw the ball up it will go in a straight line and disappear into space. A useful model simplifies a problem enough to make it manageable yet keeps its essential features.

Direction of motion Direction of motion Treat the baseball as a point object particle. No air resistance. Baseball spins and has a complex shape. Air resistance and wind exert forces on the ball. Gravitational force on ball depends on altitude. Gravitational force on ball is constant.

Zemansky university pdf sears physics

This model works fairly well for a dropped cannonball but not so well for a feather. Idealized models play a crucial role throughout this book. Watch for them in discussions of physical theories and their applications to specific problems. Young RogeR A. Roger A. He was an undergraduate at the University of California campuses in San Diego and Los Angeles and did his doctoral research in nuclear theory at Stanford University under the direction of Professor J.

Dirk Walecka. Freedman has taught in both the Department of Physics and the College of Creative Studies a branch of the university intended for highly gifted and motivated undergraduates. He has published research in nuclear physics elementary particle physics and laser physics. In recent years he has worked to make physics lectures a more interactive experience through the use of classroom response systems and pre-lecture videos.

In the s Dr. Today when not in the classroom or slaving over a computer Dr. He earned both his undergraduate and graduate degrees from that university. He earned his Ph.

Young joined the faculty of Carnegie Mellon in and retired in He also had two visiting professorships at the University of California Berkeley. He wrote several undergraduate-level textbooks and in he became a coauthor with Francis Sears and Mark Zemansky for their well-known introductory textbooks.

Young and his wife Alice hosted up to 50 students each year for Thanksgiving dinners in their home. Always gracious Dr. Young expressed his appreciation earnestly: It is always a joy and a privilege to express my gratitude to my wife Alice and our children Gretchen and Rebecca for their love support and emotional suste- nance during the writing of several successive editions of this book. May all men and women be blessed with love such as theirs.

He will be missed. He received a B. After a one-year postdoc at Harvard University he joined the Texas AM physics faculty in and has been there ever since. Professor Ford has specialized in theoretical atomic physics—in particular atomic collisions. At Texas AM he has taught a variety of undergraduate and graduate courses but primarily introductory physics. P hysics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics including chemists who study the structure of molecules paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans.

Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV a prosthetic leg or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics.

The study of physics is also an adventure. You will find it challenging some- times frustrating occasionally painful and often richly rewarding.

You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.

These patterns are called physical theories or when they are very well established and widely used physi- cal laws or principles.

CHEAT SHEET

Rather a theory is an explanation of natural phenomena based on observation and accepted fundamental principles. An example is the well-established theory of bio- logical evolution which is the result of extensive research and observation by generations of biologists.

Figure 1. Legend has it that Galileo Galilei — dropped light and heavy ob- jects from the top of the Leaning Tower of Pisa Fig. From examining the results of his experiments which were actually much more sophisticated than in the legend he made the inductive leap to the principle or theory that the acceleration of a falling object is independent of its weight.

Physics is not simply a collection of facts and principles it is also the process by which we arrive at general principles that describe how the physical universe behaves.

Pdf zemansky physics university sears

No theory is ever regarded as the final or ultimate truth. The possibility al- ways exists that new observations will require that a theory be revised or dis- carded. It is in the nature of physical theory that we can disprove a theory by finding behavior that is inconsistent with it but we can never prove that a theory is always correct.

Getting back to Galileo suppose we drop a feather and a cannonball. They certainly do not fall at the same rate. This does not mean that Galileo was wrong it means that his theory was incomplete. If we drop the feather and the cannon- ball in a vacuum to eliminate the effects of the air then they do fall at the same rate.

It applies only to objects for which the force exerted by the air due to air resistance and buoyancy is much less than the weight. Objects like feathers or parachutes are clearly outside this range. How do you learn to solve physics problems In every chapter of this book you will find Problem-Solving Strategies that offer techniques for setting up and solving problems efficiently and accurately.

Following each Problem-Solving Strategy are one or more worked Examples that show these techniques in action. The Problem-Solving Strategies will also steer you away from some incorrect techniques that you may be tempted to use. Study these strategies and problems carefully and work through each example for yourself on a piece of paper. Different techniques are useful for solving different kinds of physics prob- lems which is why this book offers dozens of Problem-Solving Strategies.

These same steps are equally useful for problems in math engineering chemistry and many other fields. All of the Problem-Solving Strategies and Examples in this book will follow these four steps. In some cases we will combine the first two or three steps.

Sears university pdf physics zemansky

We encourage you to follow these same steps when you solve problems yourself. Use the physical conditions stated in the problem to help you decide which physics concepts are rel- evant.

Identify the known quantities as stated or implied in the problem. This step is essential whether the problem asks for an algebraic expression or a numerical answer. Make sure that the variables you have identified correlate exactly with those in the equations.

If appropriate draw a sketch of the situation described in the problem. Graph paper ruler pro - tractor and compass will help you make clear useful sketches. As best you can estimate what your results will be and as ap - propriate predict what the physical behavior of a system will be.

The worked examples in this book include tips on how to make these kinds of estimates and predictions. If your an- swer includes an algebraic expression assure yourself that it correctly represents what would happen if the variables in it had very large or very small values.

For future reference make note of any answer that represents a quantity of particular significance. Ask yourself how you might answer a more general or more dif- ficult version of the problem you have just solved. Problem-Solving STraTegy 1. In physics a model is a simplified version of a physical system that would be too complicated to analyze in full detail. For example suppose we want to analyze the motion of a thrown baseball Fig.

How complicated is this problem The ball is not a perfect sphere it has raised seams and it spins as it moves through the air.

If we try to include all these things the analysis gets hopelessly com - plicated. Instead we invent a simplified version of the problem. We ignore the size and shape of the ball by representing it as a point object or particle. We ignore air resistance by making the ball move in a vacuum and we make the weight constant. Now we have a problem that is simple enough to deal with Fig. We will analyze this model in detail in Chapter 3. We have to overlook quite a few minor effects to make an idealized model but we must be careful not to neglect too much.

If we ignore the effects of grav- ity completely then our model predicts that when we throw the ball up it will go in a straight line and disappear into space.

A useful model simplifies a problem enough to make it manageable yet keeps its essential features. Direction of motion Direction of motion Treat the baseball as a point object particle. No air resistance. However neutrons can be slowed down by scattering from nuclei and they can penetrate a nucleus.

Hence slow neutrons can be detected by means of a nuclear reaction in which a neutron is absorbed and an alpha particle is emitted. Later experi - ments showed that neutrons and protons like electrons are spin 1 2 particles see Section The discovery of the neutron cleared up a mystery about the composition of the nucleus. Before the mass of a nucleus was thought to be due only to protons but no one understood why the charge-to-mass ratio was not the same for all nuclides.

It soon became clear that all nuclides except 1 1 H contain both protons and neutrons. Hence the proton the neutron and the electron are the building blocks of atoms. However that is not the end of the particle story these are not the only particles and particles can do more than build atoms.

Física I – Sears, Zemansky, Young & Freedman.

The photograph was made by Carl D. Anderson in Positron track Lead plate 6 mm thick The positron follows a curved path owing to the presence of a magnetic field. The track is more strongly curved above the lead plate showing that the positron was traveling upward and lost energy and speed as it passed through the plate. Figure The chamber contained a supercooled vapor a charged particle passing through the vapor causes ionization and the ions trigger the condensation of liquid droplets from the vapor.

The cloud chamber in Fig. The particle has passed through a thin lead plate which extends from left to right in the figure that lies within the chamber.

The track is more tightly curved above the plate than below it showing that the speed was less above the plate than below it. Therefore the particle had to be moving upward it could not have gained energy passing through the lead.

The thickness and curva- ture of the track suggested that its mass and the magnitude of its charge equaled those of the electron. But the directions of the magnetic field and the velocity in the magnetic force equation F S qY S : B S showed that the particle had positive charge.

Anderson christened this particle the positron. To theorists the appearance of the positron was a welcome development. In Section One of the puzzling features of the Dirac equation was that for a free electron it predicted not only a continuum of energy states greater than its rest energy m e c 2 as expected but also a continuum of negative energy states less than -m e c 2 Fig.

That posed a problem. The exclusion principle see Section A vacancy in a negative-energy state would act like a positive charge just as a hole in the valence band of a semiconductor see Section Initially Dirac tried to argue that such vacancies were protons. Furthermore the Dirac energy-state picture provides a mechanism for the creation of positrons.

When an electron in a negative-energy state absorbs a photon with energy greater than 2m e c 2 it goes to a positive state Fig. The vacancy that it leaves behind is observed as a positron the result is the creation of an electron—positron pair.

Similarly when an electron in a positive-energy state falls into a vacancy both the electron and the vacancy that is the positron disappear and photons are emitted Fig. Thus the Dirac theory leads naturally to the conclusion that like photons electrons can be created and destroyed.

While photons can be created and destroyed singly electrons can be produced or destroyed only in electron—positron pairs or in association with other particles. Creating or destroying an electron alone would mean creating or destroying an amount of charge -e which would violate the conservation of electric charge. His reformulation of the Dirac theory eliminated difficult calculations involving the infinite sea of negative-energy states and put electrons and positrons on the same footing.

But the creation and destruction of electron—positron pairs remain. The Dirac theory provides the beginning of a theoretical framework for creation and destruction of all fundamental particles. Experiment and theory tell us that the masses of the positron and electron are identical and that their charges are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. However S S and M S have the same magnitude for both particles because they have the same spin. We use the term antiparticle for a particle that is related to another particle as the positron is to the electron.

Each kind of particle has a corresponding antiparticle. For a few kinds of particles necessarily all neutral the particle and antiparticle are identical and we can say that they are their own antiparticles.

The photon is an example there is no way to distinguish a photon from an antiphoton. Positrons do not occur in ordinary matter. Electron—positron pairs are produced during high-energy collisions of charged particles or g rays with matter. The minimum available energy required for electron—positron pair production equals the rest energy 2m e c 2 of the two particles: E min 2m e c 2 Both particles disappear and two or occasionally three photons can appear with total energy of at least 2m e c 2 1.

Decay into a single photon is impossible: Such a process could not conserve both energy and momentum. Then typical mass units are MeVc 2 for example m 0. Particles as Force mediators In classical physics we describe the interaction of charged particles in terms of electric and magnetic forces.

In quantum mechanics we can describe this in - teraction in terms of emission and absorption of photons. Two electrons repel each other as one emits a photon and the other absorbs it just as two skaters can push each other apart by tossing a heavy ball back and forth between them Fig. For an electron and a proton in which the charges are opposite and the force is attractive we imagine the skaters trying to grab the ball away from each other Fig.

The electromagnetic interaction between two charged particles is mediated or transmitted by photons. If charged-particle interactions are mediated by photons where does the en - ergy to create the photons come from Recall from our discussion of the uncer - tainty principle see Sections A magnetic field directed out of the photograph made the electrons and positrons curve in opposite directions. A patient is administered a glucose-like compound called FDG in which one oxygen atom is replaced by radioactive 18 F.

FDG accumulates in active areas of the brain where glucose metabolism is high. A scanner detects both photons then calculates where the annihilation took place—the site of FDG accumulation. These PET images—which show areas of strongest emission and hence greatest glucose metabolism in red—reveal changes in the brains of patients. F F F F This uncertainty permits the creation of a photon with energy E provided that it lives no longer than the time t given by Eq.

A photon that can exist for a short time because of this energy uncertainty is called a virtual photon. According to Eq. He showed that the range of the force was related to the mass of the particle.

Yukawa argued that the particle must live for a time t long enough to travel a distance compa- rable to the range r 0 of the nuclear force. This range was known from the sizes of nuclei and other information to be about 1.

A year later Carl Anderson and his colleague Seth Neddermeyer discovered in cosmic radiation two new particles now called muons. The two particles have equal mass about times the electron mass. In a family of three particles called p mesons or pions were discovered. The pions interact strongly with nuclei and they are the particles predicted by Yukawa. Other heavier mesons the v and r evidently also act as shorter-range messengers of the nuclear force.