The Paradox Of Choice Why More Is Less. byFitness. Publication date Topics Fitness. Collectionopensource. LanguageEnglish. The Paradox of Choice To read e-books on the BookShout App, download it on : . As Americans, we assume that more choice means better options and. available to us contributes to bad decisions, to anxiety, stress, and dissatisfaction — even to clinical depression.” ~ Barry Schwartz from The Paradox of Choice.
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Pymble, NSW ; New York: HarperCollins e-books, Whether downloading a pair of jeans or applying to college, everyday decisions, big and small, have become increasingly complex due to the abundance of choice with which we are presented. This can lead to decision-making paralysis. The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less, Revised Edition by Barry Schwartz. Read online, or download in secure EPUB format. of Choice. The Paradox. Barry Schwartz. Why. More Is. Less . This book is about the choices Americans face in almost all areas HarperCollins e-books.
Feb 10, Cameron rated it really liked it Maybe I don't read enough Psychology, but I thought this book was fantastic. Swarthmore Psychology professor Barry Schwartz's basic thesis is that the world is divided into two types of person: maximizers, who want to find the absolute best option, and satisficers who want to find something that is good enough and not worry that something better might be out there. He also links maximizing to the high and increasing incidence of clinical depression in the developed world and believes that satisf Maybe I don't read enough Psychology, but I thought this book was fantastic. He also links maximizing to the high and increasing incidence of clinical depression in the developed world and believes that satisficing is the best option for coping in a world in which we are overwhelmed with choice. He also introduces a bunch of other interesting topics: Hedonic Adaptation - Whatever we enjoy and that makes us happy, we will adapt to and thus derive less pleasure from in subsequent experiences. The law of diminishing returns restated in psychological terms.
Daniel Kahneman Salience and Availability - When making decisions, the salience how conspicuous or vivid a data point is and availability of our situation matters greatly. This is why people judge murders and airline crashes to be far more common causes of death than traffic accidents and strokes; we hear far more about the former two, and in far more graphic terms, than we do about the latter. People were far more affected by a video testimonial, even when warned in advance that this was a highly atypical case, than they were by a solid set of research data.
Framing and Anchoring - What your anchor point is for a decision matters. People are much happier getting a discount for paying cash than they are paying a surcharge for using a credit card. Once again, the law of diminishing returns, but related to satisfaction. Pretty trippy. I've tried this with a bunch of folks, and everyone seems to answer according to this pattern.
Sunk Costs - People have a hard time letting go of sunk costs from a satisfaction standpoint. Say you have bought tickets to see a good music group, but then a horrible snowstorm hits and you will have to walk to get there and you hate the cold.
From an economics standpoint, the money you paid for the tickets is already gone, so you should just make your decision about whether or not to go based on how happy you think your decision will make you. But people have a very hard time accepting this, and are more likely to follow a course that will make them unhappy because they already spent the money. Regret - Maximizers are far more likely to experience regret than satisficers, because they are always susceptible to learning at a later date that a decision they made was actually not the absolute best choice they could have made.
Not surprisingly, regret is highly correlated with unhappiness and depression.
The author speculates that the large number of maximizers in the general population is related to the fact that we are evolutionarily ill-equipped to deal with the range of choice we face today, and that this was a far more useful personality trait prior to the last several hundred years. Schwartz says that there are two main factors that affect regret: 1 Do we consider ourselves to have personal responsibility for the result I crashed the car vs.
I was blindsided ; 2 Can we imagine a counterfactual alternative I could have worked harder in college to get a better job vs.
Learned Helplessness - In a somewhat disturbing series of experiments, Martin Seligman showed that you can teach rats to learn how to not adapt to environmental changes that harm them electric shocks, in this case.
This concept of learned helplessness is common in unhappy and depressed people, and is largely based on what we attribute our successes or failures to. Depression and Social Networks - A society that lauds autonomy also -- maybe unintentionally -- encourages the dissolution of social networks, which are one of the best defenses against depression, because they prescribe all sorts of constraints for us that limit the range of choices we have to make. Reversible Decisions - People generally prefer to have the option to undo or reverse a decision such as a download , but in actuality we end up less satisfied with a reversible decision than an irreversible decision.
Maximizers tend to be slow in decision making and are more anxious about their choice even after the decison is made. Satisficers make their decision as soon as they find an option that is satisfactory and stop looking at other choices.
They normally do not keep validating that their decision was the right one. They are less stressed during and after their decision making. Shwartz also provides some practical steps to derive more satisfaction from the choices that we make. The book presents a new way of looking at decision making. Though availability of choices is empowering to the decision maker, too many choices are paralyzing, time-consuming, stressful, and eventually disatisfying.
Excessive choices is a phenomenon of the developed nations in the West and this phenomenon is slowly spreading to all parts of the world. The book does not say how to determine the right number of choices.
Also, many of the concepts are repeated with multiple examples. In spite of that the book is engrossing and engaging.