PDF | On Mar 4, , Shaktipal Patil and others published A REVIEW ON NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A RECENT TREND. Review Article ISSN – REVIEW: APPROACH ON NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Kagalkar A. A*, Nitave S. A. Anil Alias Pintu Magdum. The aim of Novel Drug Delivery System is to provide a therapeutic amount of drug The drug- delivery system should deliver drug at a rate control by the.
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Abstract. Novel drug delivery systems present an opportunity for formulation scientists to overcome the many challenges associated with antihypertensive drug. In the form of a Novel Drug Delivery System an existing drug molecule can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery. PDF | Drug delivered can have significant effect on its efficacy. Buckyballs, a novel delivery system with 60 carbon atoms formed in the shape.
Owing to their small particle size and various other characteristics such as capability of encapsulating small molecules as well as biologics, protecting the drugs in biological environments, improving the drug biodistribution, opportunity for providing controlled or stimuli-responsive drug release, enhancement of the targeted and intracellular delivery of therapeutics, flexibility to be combined with diagnostic and imaging agents for theranostic uses, nanotechnology-based formulations are versatile systems for various applications and for better therapeutic outcomes [ 1 ]. This issue has assembled leaders in drug delivery research areas, covering topics on microparticles, microbubbles, nanoparticles, microneedles, organogels, micelles, lipid-based systems, inorganic nanoparticles, laser-generated micropores, and nanoemulsion. Although, enormous research efforts are being performed into the development of these novel products for various indications, translating these drug delivery systems into a commercial product is challenging [ 2 ]. Hence, papers in this issue also discuss about the challenges and approaches to facilitate the translation of delivery systems. In general, the acceptance of a pharmaceutical product is closely related to the success of the innovation, both commercially and therapeutically. When developing a new technology for drug delivery, consideration must be given to the patient who will be using it. By engaging the patients early in the development process, potential issues can be identified, ensuring the greatest benefits from the product.
Van Kerrebroeck concluded that the LA formulation of tolterodine was superior to the immediate-release formulation. Pegylated liposomal doxorubucin has shown substantial efficacy in breast cancer treatment both as monotherapy and in combination with other chemotherapeutics. Additional liposome constructs are being developed for the delivery of other drugs. The next generation of delivery systems will include true molecular targeting; immunoliposomes and other ligand-directed constructs represent an integration of biological components capable of tumor recognition with delivery technologies.
The design modifications that protect liposomes from undesirable interactions with plasma proteins and cell membranes, and which contrast them with reactive carriers such as cationic liposomes, also prevent interactions with tumor cells.
Instead, after extravasation into tumor tissue, liposomes remain within tumor stroma as a drug-loaded depot. The next generation of drug carriers under development features direct molecular targeting of cancer cells via antibody-mediated or other ligand-mediated interactions. Immunoliposomes, in which mAb fragments are conjugated to liposomes, represent a strategy for molecularly targeted drug delivery. In preclinical studies, anti-HER2 immunoliposomes bound efficiently to and internalized in HER2-overexpressing cells, resulting in efficient intracellular delivery of encapsulated agents.
Anti-HER2 immunoliposomes loaded with doxorubicin displayed potent and selective anticancer activity against HER2-overexpressing tumors, including significantly superior efficacy versus all other treatments tested free doxorubicin, liposomal doxorubicin, free mAb [trastuzumab], and combinations of trastuzumab plus doxorubicin or liposomal doxorubicin.
Anti-HER2 immunoliposome delivery of doxorubicin may circumvent the prohibitive cardiotoxicity associated with combined trastuzumab plus doxorubicin treatment. Anti-HER2 immunoliposomes can be constructed using scFv that, unlike trastuzumab, lack antiproliferative activity, are incapable of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and require threshold levels of HER2 expression for delivery.
Immunoliposomes also appear to be nonimmunogenic and capable of long circulation even with repeated administration.
Similarly, ligand-based targeting using growth factors, hormones, vitamins e. Liposomes are concentric bilayered structures made of amphipathic phospholipids and depending on the number of bilayer, liposomes are classified as multilamellar MLV , small unilamellar SUVs , or large unilamellar LUVs. They range in size from 0.
The size and morphology of liposomes are regulated by the method of preparation and composition.
Liposomes are used for delivery of drugs, vaccines, and genes for a variety of disorders. It was found to be safe producing significantly less adverse effects compared to plain amphotericin in patients with systemic fungal infection, did not produce nephrotoxicity and could be given to patients with renal damage. It was effective in patients resistant to fluconazole and plain amphotericin.
The same group studied different dosage regimens of liposomal amphotericin using Aspergillus murine mode. It was found that liposomal amphotericin was more effective than equal dose of free amphotericin B given after fungal spore challenge.
A large single dose of liposomal amphotericin was more effective, whether given before or after spore challenge, than given as two divided doses. It was successfully used in a child suffering from visceral leishmaniasis.
This is the first liposomal preparation developed outside of USA, which has been used in patients. In an attempt to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity further, liposomes with grafted ligand have been developed.
Pentamidine isethionate and its methoxy derivative were encapsulated in sugar grafted liposomes and tested against experimental leishmaniasis in vivo.
It was seen that sugar grafted liposomes specially the mannose grafted ones were potent in comparison to normal liposome encapsulated drug or free drug. Mukhopadhya developed conjugate of antineoplastic drug daunomycin DNM with maleylated bovine serum albumin. It was taken up with high efficiency by multi drug resistant variant JD of the murine-macrophage tumor cell line JA.
A thermosensitive liposomal taxol formulation heat mediated targeted drug delivery in murine melanoma was developed and studied by another group of workers. Cremophor which is used as excipient due to the low aqueous solubility of taxol has toxic side effects.
Temperature-sensitive liposomes encapsulating taxol were prepared using egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol in combination with ethanol. Sharma et al. The size of nanoparticle was found to be nm.
Inhalation therapy enables the direct application of a drug within the lungs. The local pulmonary deposition and delivery of the administered drug facilitates a targeted treatment of respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension PAH , without the need for high dose exposures by other routes of administration. The intravenous application of short acting vasodilators has been the therapy of choice for patients with PAH over the past decade.
The relative severity of side effects led to the development of newprostacyclin analogues and alternative routes of administration. Inhalation of this compound is an attractive concept minimizing the side effects by its pulmonary selectivity. Unfortunately, the short half-life of iloprost requires frequent inhalation manoeuvres, ranging up to 9 times a day. Therefore, an aerosolizable controlled release formulation would improve a patient's convenience and compliance.
Controlled drug delivery systems have become increasingly attractive options for inhalation therapies. A large number of carrier systems have been developed and investigated as potential controlled drug delivery formulations to the lung, including drug loaded lipid and polymer based particles.
The use of colloidal carrier systems for pulmonary drug delivery is an emerging field of interest in nanomedicine. For example, modes of hGH administration are restricted to subcutaneous and intramuscular injections which resulted in poor compliance including withdrawal or discontinuation of treatment by patients.
Laser-assisted microporation studied in this study creates microchannels in the skin that result in the enhancement of drug delivery. The resulting data indicate the possibility of transdermal delivery of hGH using microporation with the P.
The next article by Grill et al. The paper summarizes that although sustained tissue levels of curcumin can inhibit tumorigenesis, its low potency and rapid systemic elimination are impediments to the development of a clinically translatable sustained release dosage form. Approaches such as increasing the potency or reducing the clearance rate of curcumin may allow the development of formulations suitable for cancer chemoprevention.
Next, Owen et al. The method successfully applies to incorporate nanoparticles NPs into phospholipid shells to improve the theranostic potential of microbubbles.
Results prove that the particle-loaded microbubbles can be produced with an appropriate size and stability needed for intravenous delivery. A diversity of inorganic materials in nanoformulations is currently being used for biomedical applications due to their unique physicochemical properties and immense potential as drug delivery vectors. However, toxicity and a successful translation are major issues in their potential clinical application. The next few articles of this special issue discuss about the inorganic materials based drug delivery systems.
Kim et al. Xue et al. CNPs represent a promising antioxidant system with potential therapeutic efficacy; however, to facilitate the clinical translation, their surface modifications via polymer grafting have been proposed to control the cellular uptake and in vivo fate. Results confirm that PEGylation does not alter the shape of CNPs and significantly reduces the protein adsorption while maintaining their antioxidant properties, cytocompatibility, and rod-shaped CNPs exhibit superior ROS scavenging properties.
The work from Tyagi et al. In comparison to polymers such as PLGA, silica degradation does not create an acidic atmosphere. The oral administration is the preferred drug delivery route for patients due to its ease of administration. However, the therapeutic effectiveness of an orally administered drug is critically dependent upon its bioavailability, which is affected mainly by drug solubility.
Lipid-based delivery vehicles such as the self-emulsifying drug delivery systems SEDDS have been evaluated to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. These formulations, when added to an aqueous phase under moderate agitation either prior to dosing or in situ in the gut , result in thermodynamically stable nanoemulsions.
These nanoemulsions disperse readily in the gut, and their small droplet size contributes to large interfacial surface area thus a better drug absorption.
However, it is difficult to predict the in vivo performance of lipid dosage forms based on conventional in vitro techniques such as cell monolayer permeability studies because of the complexity of the gastrointestinal GI fluids processing of lipid formulations. In the study by Sadhukha et al. Although, lipolysis is considered an important in vitro method to evaluate the in vivo performance of lipid systems, results indicate that the lipid digestion products lead to disruption of cell monolayer, and thus, it may not be appropriate to combine lipolysis with cell monolayer permeability studies.
Next, the work from Almeida et al. Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic drug, but, has a limited oral efficiency due to its hydrophobicity. Therefore, it is concluded that the CS-g-PCL micelles, employed for the first time as paclitaxel carriers, may be a potential mucoadhesive system for intestinal delivery of hydrophobic anticancer agents.
The need for topical delivery led to the search for novel carriers which not only carry the molecule to the desired site but also manage their effects to produce the extended effect.
Many vesicular lipid drug delivery systems have been explored to obtain the optimized formulations with tailor-made properties. Organogels have generated great interest to facilitate the transport of drugs through the topical route because of their structural and functional benefits.
These are clear, thermodynamically stable, and biocompatible gel-like systems, primarily composed of hydrated phospholipids and organic liquid. Among these, lanolin-based organogels are selected by Sharma et al. As results say, organogels not only improve the delivery of salicylic acid but also reduce the skin irritant potential.
The current findings provide an alternative for development of an effective topical formulation of salicylic acid for the treatment of hyperkeratotic lesions. The application of nanoemulsions in cosmetics has been enlarged in the last decades because of several formulation advantages such as improvement in the penetration of drugs through the human skin, comparing to conventional emulsion.