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Application Architecture Guide Designing Applications on the. Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual. The completed Application Architecture Guide 2nd Edition is now available on MSDN. Since the final on MSDN. Download the final release in PDF on MSDN. together” “ Microsoft playbook for app architecture” A thin guide that frames out the application architecture space and maps App Arch Guide Final ( PDF). 01/15/ App Arch. Guide. Community. KB. App Arch.

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of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in. A final PDF is now available for our patterns & practices Application Architecture Guide, second edition. This is our platform playbook for the. Get the definitive guide on designing applications on the Microsoft application ), eBook (November 19, ); Paperback pages; ebook PDF, MB.

Software architecture is actually a fairly broad term, and when broken down into a smaller list — seems to make a little bit more sense. We can think of software architecture as the base of both the system, and the project. Software architecture serves as the blueprint for both the system and the project developing it, defining the work assignments that must be carried out by design and implementation teams. The architecture is the primary carrier of system qualities such as performance, modifiability, and security, none of which can be achieved without a unifying architectural vision. Kanban for Skeptics is all about doing those timely deliveries on project work, and Nick wants to show you how it all comes together. Software Architecture Open-source communities have enabled a lot of people to learn and explore the world of computer science, in a way that would never have been possible to achieve without the freedom that the internet offers. Seamless Object-Oriented Software Architecture Seamless Object-Oriented Software Architecture book is intended for software professionals as well as for students at the graduate and undergraduate levels.

Business workflows. Many business processes involve multiple steps that must be performed in the correct order and orchestrated. Business workflows define and coordinate long-running, multi-step business processes, and can be implemented using business process management tools.

Data access components abstract the logic necessary to access your underlying data stores. Doing so centralizes data access functionality, and makes the process easier to configure and maintain. Helper functions and utilities assist in data manipulation, data transformation, and data access within the layer.

Service agents. Service agents isolate your application from the idiosyncrasies of calling diverse services from your application, and can provide additional services such as basic mapping between the format of the data exposed by the service and the format your application requires. Identify Architecture Objectives 3.

Application Overview 5. Candidate Solutions 2. Key Scenarios 4. Identify Architecture Objectives. Clear objectives help you to focus on your architecture, and on solving the right problems in your design. Good objectives help you to determine when you are finished with the current phase, and when you are ready to move on to the next phase. Key Scenarios. Use key scenarios to focus your design on what matters most, and to evaluate your candidate architectures when they are ready.

Application Overview. Understand your application type, deployment architecture, architectural styles, and technologies in order to connect your design to the real world in which the application will have to operate. Key Hotspots.

Identify key hotspots based on quality attributes and the architecture frame. These are the areas where mistakes are most often made when designing an application. Candidate Solutions. Create a candidate architecture or architectural spike and evaluate it against your key scenarios, hotspots, and deployment constraints.

This approach will allow you to design a candidate architecture that can be reviewed, tested, and compared to your requirements and constraints. You can iteratively flesh out your architecture as you work through your design and discover more details that impact your architecture. You do not have to build your architecture in a single iteration. Application Types Your choice of application type will be related both to the technology constraints and the type of user experience you plan to deliver.

Use scenarios to help you choose an application type. For example, if you want to support rich media and graphics delivered over the Internet, a rich Internet application RIA is probably the best choice. However, if you want to support data entry with forms in an occasionally connected scenario, a rich client is probably the best choice. Use the table below to review and understand each application type.

Your choice of architectural styles represents a set of principles that your design will follow—an organizing set of ideas that you can use to keep your design cohesive and focused on your key objectives and scenarios. Use the table below to review and understand the key set of architectural styles. Decomposes application design into reusable functional or logical components that are location-transparent and expose well-defined communication interfaces.

Partitions the concerns of the application into stacked groups layers. A software system that can receive and send messages that are based on a set of known formats, so that systems can communicate with each other without needing to know the actual recipient. Segregates functionality into separate segments in much the same way as the layered style, but with each segment being a tier located on a physically separate computer.

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An architectural style based on division of tasks for an application or system into individual reusable and self-sufficient objects, each containing the data and the behavior relevant to the object. Separates the logic for managing user interaction from the UI view and from the data with which the user works. Refers to applications that expose and consume functionality as a service using contracts and messages.

Quality Attributes Use the quality attributes to focus your thinking around critical problems that your design should solve.

Addressing quality attributes in your design rather than during development will improve the likelihood that your application will be successful in the long term. Use the table below to review and understand each quality attribute.

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It can be measured as a percentage of the total system downtime over a predefined period. Availability will be affected by system errors, infrastructure problems, malicious attacks, and system load.

Conceptual integrity defines the consistency and coherence of the overall design. This includes the way that components or modules are designed, as well as factors such as coding style and variable naming. A flexible system is one that is easy to reconfigure or adapt in response to different user and system requirements. Interoperability is the ability of diverse components of a system or different systems to operate successfully by exchanging information, often by using services.

An interoperable system makes it easier to exchange and reuse information internally as well as externally. Maintainability is the ability of a system to undergo changes to its components, services, features, and interfaces as may be required when adding or changing the functionality, fixing errors, and meeting new business requirements.

Manageability defines how easy it is to manage the application, usually through sufficient and useful instrumentation exposed for use in monitoring systems and for debugging and performance tuning. Performance is an indication of the responsiveness of a system to execute any action within a given interval of time. It can be measured in terms of latency or throughput.

Latency is the time taken to respond to any event. Throughput is the number of events that take place within given amount of time. Reliability is the ability of a system to remain operational over time. Reliability is measured as the probability that a system will not fail to perform its intended functions over a specified interval of time.

Reusability defines the capability for components and subsystems to be suitable for use in other applications and in other scenarios. Reusability minimizes the duplication of components and also the implementation time. Scalability is the ability of a system to function well when there are changes to the load or demand.

Typically, the system will be able to be extended by scaling up the performance of the server, or by scaling out to multiple servers as demand and load increase. Security defines the ways that a system is protected from disclosure or loss of information, and the possibility of a successful malicious attack. A secure system aims to protect assets and prevent unauthorized modification of information.

Supportability defines how easy it is for operators, developers, and users to understand and use the application, and how easy it is to resolve errors when the system fails to work correctly.

Testability is a measure of how easy it is to create test criteria for the system and its components, and to execute these tests in order to determine if the criteria are met.

Good testability makes it more likely that faults in a system can be isolated in a timely and effective manner. Architecture Frame The architecture frame is a collection of hotspots that represent key engineering decisions. Each represents an opportunity to improve your design and build a technically more effective architecture. This architecture frame is part of the larger architecture meta-frame, and is used throughout the guide to organize key patterns, principles and practices.

These categories help you to focus on the most important areas, and obtain the most meaningful and actionable guidance. Categories Use the table below to review and understand each category in the architecture frame. Caching improves performance, reduces server round trips, and can be used to maintain the state of your application.

Communication strategies determine how you will communicate between layers and tiers, including protocol, security, and communication-style decisions. Composition strategies determine how you manage component dependencies and the interactions between components. Concurrency is concerned with the way that your application handles conflicts caused by multiple users creating, reading, updating, and deleting data at the same time.

Transactions are used for important multi-step operations in order to treat them as though they were atomic, and to recover in the case of a failure or error. Configuration management defines how you configure your application after deployment, where you store configuration data, and how you protect the configuration data.

Coupling and cohesion are strategies concerned with layering, separating application components and layers, and organizing your application trust and functionality boundaries. This includes data entity design, error management, and managing database connections. Exception-management strategies describe techniques for handling errors, logging errors for auditing purposes, and notifying users of error conditions.

Logging and instrumentation represents the strategies for logging key business events, security actions, and provision of an audit trail in the case of an attack or failure. User experience is the interaction between your users and your application. A good user experience can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the application, while a poor user experience may deter users from using an otherwise welldesigned application.

Validation is the means by which your application checks and verifies input from all sources before trusting and processing it. A good input and data-validation strategy takes into account not only the source of the data, but also how the data will be used, when determining how to validate it.

Workflow is a system-assisted process that is divided into a series of execution steps, events, and conditions.

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The workflow may be an orchestration between a set of components and systems, or it may include human collaboration. Key Engineering Decisions Use the architecture frame as a way to organize and think about key engineering decisions. The following table shows key engineering decisions for each category in the architecture frame. Understand key application architecture terms and principles. Overview Application architecture is the process of defining a structured solution that meets all of the technical and operational requirements, while optimizing common quality attributes such as performance, security, and manageability.

It involves a series of decisions based on a wide range of factors, and each of these decisions can have considerable impact on the quality, performance, maintainability, and overall success of the application. By following the processes described in this guide, and using the information it contains, you will be able to construct architectural solutions that address all of the relevant concerns, can be deployed on your chosen infrastructure, and provide results that meet the original aims and objectives.

This chapter lays a foundation for practical application architecture. It starts by describing architecture and design at a high level and then dives deeper into specific aspects of application architecture and design. The remainder of the guide follows the same approach. Finally, this chapter defines key terms and principles related to application architecture. Understanding these will help you gain the most benefit from this guide and be more successful as an application architect.

After you work through his chapter, you will understand the overall techniques and goals of application architecture and design, the major factors you must consider, and the different ways that you can approach application design.

This will help you to understand concepts such as architectural and application styles, quality attributes and crosscutting concerns, and analyzing and representing architecture. What Is Application Architecture? Software architecture is often defined as the structure or structures of a system. Several wellknown industry experts have expanded that definition with information on the decisions that must be made related to architecture.

Here we look at a few somewhat formal definitions of architecture, and then take a more informal view. Their definition is: Selection of the structural elements and their interfaces by which the system is composed. Behavior as specified in collaboration among those elements.

Composition of these structural and behavioral elements into larger subsystems. Architectural style that guides this organization. Software architecture also involves functionality, usability, resilience, performance, reuse, comprehensibility, economic and technology constraints, tradeoffs and aesthetic concerns. Architecture is concerned with the public side of interfaces; private details of elements—details having to do solely with internal implementation—are not architectural.

Like any other complex structure, software must be built on a solid foundation. Failing to consider key scenarios, failing to design for common problems, or failing to appreciate the longterm consequences of key decisions can put your application at risk.

Modern tools and platforms help to simplify the tasks of building applications, but they do not replace the requirement to design your application based on your specific scenarios. The risks exposed by poor architecture include software that is unstable, is unable to support business requirements, or could even prevent the application from working when deployed into a production environment.

Consider the following high-level concerns when thinking about software architecture: What are the quality attribute requirements, such as security, performance, concurrency, internationalization, and configuration? What are the architectural trends that might impact your application now or after it has been deployed?

Architecture vs. These components are usually composed of smaller components, but the architecture only includes the components and interfaces that are understood by all the developers.

Selecting data structures or algorithms implemented within the components is not an architectural concern. Rather than use hard-and-fast rules to distinguish between architecture and design, it makes sense to combine these two areas.

In some cases, decisions are clearly more architectural in nature. In other cases, the decisions are more about design, and how they help you to realize that architecture. User, Business, and System Goals Systems should be architected with consideration for the user, the system, and the business goals.

For each of these areas, outline key scenarios, important quality attributes for example, maintainability , key satisfiers, and key dissatisfiers. When possible, develop and consider metrics that measure success in each of these areas.

For example, responsiveness might be a major user goal, but the system administrator is not willing to invest in the hardware required to meet that goal for percent of the time. A balance point might be to meet the goal only 80 percent of the time. The Goals of Architecture Application architecture seeks to build a bridge between business requirements and technical requirements by understanding use cases, and then finding ways to implement those use cases in the software.

The goal of architecture is to identify the requirements that impact the structure of the application. Good architecture reduces the business risks associated with building a technical solution. A good design is sufficiently flexible to be able to handle the natural drift that will occur over time in hardware and software technology, as well as in user scenarios and requirements.

An architect must consider the overall impact of design decisions, the inherent tradeoffs between quality attributes such as performance and security , and the tradeoffs required to address user, system, and business requirements. Keep in mind that the architecture should: Approach to Architecture There are key decisions that must be addressed with any architecture, regardless of your architectural approach. At a minimum, you must determine the type of application that you are building, the architectural styles that will be used, and how you will handle cross-cutting concerns.

Throughout this guide, we use an architectural baseline for framing out the different areas that must be addressed in your architecture. The architectural baseline is shown in the following diagram. The first step is to identify the type of application you plan to build. Next, you must understand how the application will be deployed. Once you know what type of application you are building and how it will be deployed, you can start to drill down into the architecture to identify styles and technologies that you will use.

Finally, you must consider how quality attributes and cross-cutting concerns will be incorporated into the design of your system. Application Type Choosing the right application type is the key part of the process of designing and architecting an application. Your choice of an appropriate application type is governed by your specific requirements and infrastructure limitations. This guide covers the following application types: Deployment Strategy When you design your application architecture, you must take into account corporate policies and procedures, together with the infrastructure on which you plan to deploy your application.

Your application design must also take into account quality attributes such as security, performance, and maintainability. Sometimes you must make design tradeoffs due to protocol restrictions and network topologies.

Identify the requirements and constraints that exist between the application architecture and infrastructure architecture early in the design process. This helps you to choose an appropriate deployment topology, and to resolve conflicts between the application and infrastructure architecture early in the process.

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Architectural Style An architectural style is a set of principles. Each style defines a set of rules that specify the kinds of components you can use to assemble a system, the kinds of relationships used in their assembly, constraints on the way they are assembled, and assumptions about the meaning of how you put them together. Many factors can influence your choice of architectural styles. These include the capacity of your organization for design and implementation, the capabilities and experience of developers, and the infrastructure constraints and deployment scenarios available.

Appropriate Technologies When choosing technologies for your application, the key factors to consider are the type of application you are developing and your preferred options for application deployment topology and architectural styles. Your choice of technologies will also be governed by organization policies, infrastructure limitations, resource skills, and so on.

You must compare the capabilities of the technologies you choose against your application requirements, taking into account all of these factors before making decisions Quality Attributes Quality attributes—such as security, performance, and maintainability—can be used to focus your thinking around the critical problems that your design should solve.

Depending on your requirements, you might need to consider every quality attribute covered in this guide, or you might only need to consider a subset. For example, every application design must consider security and performance, but not every design needs to consider interoperability or scalability.

Understand your requirements and deployment scenarios first so that you know which quality attributes are important for your design. Keep in mind that quality attributes may conflict; for example, security often requires a tradeoff against performance or usability.

Analyze and understand the key tradeoffs when designing for security attributes so that side effects do not become obvious later. When designing to accommodate quality attributes, consider the following guidelines: From a technical perspective, implementing quality attributes can differentiate a good system from a bad one. There are two types of quality attributes: Analyze the tradeoffs between quality attributes.

Questions you should ask when considering quality attributes include: Identify them as part of the design process. Are they actually quantifiable? Cross-Cutting Concerns Cross-cutting concerns represent key areas of your design that are not related to a specific layer in your application.

For example, you might want to cache data in the presentation layer, the business layer, and the data access layer. In such a case you will also need to design an exception-management framework that will work within each layer and across the layers as exceptions are propagated through the system.

In addition, you should design logging so that each layer can log to a common store and the results can be correlated, and you should design a communication approach that you can use to communicate between the layers. Because authentication and authorization concerns also exist across multiple layers, you must determine how to pass identities and grant access to resources through the system. The following list describes the key cross-cutting concerns that you must consider when architecting your applications: Determine how to authenticate your users and pass authenticated identities across the layers.

Ensure proper authorization with appropriate granularity within each layer, and across trust boundaries. Ensure that you consider Web farm and application farm issues when designing caching. Choose appropriate protocols, reduce calls across the network, and protect sensitive data passing over the network. Catch exceptions at the boundaries. Do not reveal sensitive information to end users. Instrument all of the business- and system-critical events, and log sufficient details to recreate events in your system.

Do not log sensitive information. Your design will generally need to evolve during the implementation stages of the application as you learn more, and as you test the design against real-world requirements.

Create your architecture with this evolution in mind so that it will be agile in terms of adapting to requirements that are not fully known at the start of the design process. Consider the following questions as you create an architectural design with agility in mind: Do not attempt to over-engineer the architecture, and do not make assumptions that you cannot verify.

Instead, keep your options open for future change, and do not paint yourself into a corner. There will be aspects of your design that you must fix early in the process, which may represent significant cost if redesign is required. Identify these areas quickly and invest the time necessary to get them right.

Key Architecture Principles Consider the following key principles when designing your architecture: Wherever possible, design your application so that it can change over time to address new requirements and challenges.

Use threat models to understand risks and vulnerabilities. Efficient communication of design principles and design changes is critical to good architecture. Use models and other visualizations to communicate your design efficiently and to enable rapid communication of changes to the design. Use the architecture frame in this guide to understand the key engineering decisions and the areas where mistakes are most often made. Invest in getting these key decisions right the first time so that the design is more flexible and less likely to be broken by changes.

Incremental and Iterative Approach to Architecture Consider using an incremental and iterative approach to refining your architecture. Do not try to get it all right the first time—design just as much as you can in order to start testing the design against requirements and assumptions.

A common pitfall is to dive into the details too quickly and get the big decisions wrong by making incorrect assumptions, or by failing to evaluate your architecture effectively.

Use baseline architectures to get the big picture right, and use candidate architectures to iteratively test and improve your architecture. When testing your architecture, consider the following questions: Baseline and Candidate Architectures A baseline architecture describes the existing system—it is how your system looks today.

If this is a new architecture, your initial baseline is the first high-level architectural design from which candidate architectures will be built. A candidate architecture includes the application type, the deployment architecture, the architectural style, technology choices, quality attributes, and cross-cutting concerns.

Architectural Spikes An architectural spike is an end-to-end test of a small segment of the application. The purpose of an architectural spike is to reduce risk and to test potential paths. As you evolve your architecture, you may use spikes to explore different scenarios without impacting the existing design.

An architectural spike will result in a candidate architecture that can be tested against a baseline. If the candidate architecture is an improvement, it can become the new baseline from which new candidate architectures can be created and tested.

This iterative and incremental approach allows you to get the big risks out of the way first, iteratively render your architecture, and use architectural tests to prove that each new baseline is an improvement over the last.

Consider the following questions to help you test a new candidate architecture that results from an architectural spike: Architecturally Significant Use Cases Architecturally significant use cases are those that meet the following criteria: After you have determined architecturally significant use cases for your application, you can use them as a way to evaluate the success or failure of candidate architectures. If the candidate architecture addresses more use cases, or addresses existing use cases more effectively, it will help you to determine that this candidate architecture is an improvement over the baseline architecture.

Analyzing and Evaluating Architecture Use architecture evaluation to determine the feasibility of your baseline and candidate architectures. Architecture evaluation is a key component of successful architecture iterations. Consider the following techniques for architecture evaluation: Test your design against use cases that are important to the success of your application, and which exercise a significant portion of the design.

Use scenarios to analyze your design with a focus on quality attributes. Examples of scenario-based evaluations are: Representing and Communicating the Architecture Communicating your design is critical for architecture reviews, as well as for the use of your architecture during implementation. In the end, your architecture is only as good as the quality of communication of your ideas. You must communicate your architectural design to a variety of roles, including system designers, developers, system administrators, and management.

One way to think of an architectural view is as a map of the important decisions.

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The map is not the terrain; instead, it is an abstraction that helps you to share and communicate the architecture. The Architectural Landscape Understand the key forces that are shaping architectural decisions today, and which will change how architectural decisions are made in the future.

These key forces are driven by user demand, as well as by business demand for faster results, better support for varying work styles and workflows, and improved adaptability of software design. Consider the following key trends: A design that supports user empowerment is flexible, configurable, and focused on the user experience.

Design your application with user personalization and options in mind. Allow the user to define how they interact with your application instead of dictating to them. Understand the key scenarios and make them as simple as possible; make it easy to find information and use the application.

Take advantage of market maturity by leveraging existing platform and technology options. Leverage patterns that provide rich sources of proven solutions for common problems. Agility and adaptability.

An agile, adaptable design takes advantage of loose coupling to allow reuse. Take advantage of pluggable designs to provide extensibility. Take advantage of service-orientation techniques such as SOA to provide interoperability. Future trends. When building your architecture, understand the future trends that might impact your design after deployment. For example, consider trends in rich UI and media, composition models such as mashups, increasing network bandwidth and availability, increasing use of mobile devices, continued improvement of hardware performance, interest in community and personal publishing models, the rise of cloud-based computing, and remote operation.

Learn about specific technologies that make up the Microsoft. Understand the development tools available for designing and creating. NET applications. Overview This chapter starts with an overview of the. Microsoft Visual Studio is the primary environment for developing. NET applications, and is available in several different versions that target specific groups involved in the full life cycle of application development. The Microsoft.

NET platform is composed of server applications, infrastructure components, run-time services used by. NET applications, and the. NET Framework, as detailed in the following table. Table 1 Microsoft. NET Framework At a high level, the. NET Framework is composed of a virtual run-time engine, a library of classes, and run-time services used in the development and execution of. NET Framework was initially released as a run-time engine and core set of classes used to build applications.

Subsequent releases extended and updated the core classes, and added new technologies such as the Windows Communication Foundation WCF. The Base Class Library BCL provides a core set of classes that cover a wide range of programming requirements in a number of areas, including user interface UI , data access, database connectivity, cryptography, numeric algorithms, and network communications.

Overlaying the BCL are core technologies for developing. These technologies include class libraries and run-time services that are grouped by application features, such as rich client and data access. As the Microsoft. This environment is called the Common Language Runtime CLR and provides the appearance of a virtual machine so that programmers do not need to consider the capabilities of the specific CPU or other hardware that will execute the program.

Applications that run within the CLR are referred to as managed applications, and most. Some applications are developed using unmanaged code such as device drivers which needs to use kernel APIs.

The CLR also provides services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. NET functionality within the. NET platform provides the following technology options for Web applications: NET Web Forms. This is the standard UI design technology for. NET Web applications.

An ASP. NET Web Forms application is installed only on the Web server; no components are required on the client computer. NET Web Forms is used to send requests to the server asynchronously and process the responses on the client. This improves responsiveness and reduces the number of postbacks to the server.

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NET starting with the. NET Framework version 3. In an existing ASP. NET application, Silverlight controls can be used to improve the user experience without the requirement to write a completely new Silverlight application. NET Dynamic Data. This functionality allows you to more easily model your database in your application, and query the database using LINQ queries.

Data Access The. NET platform provides the following technology options for data access: NET Core. NET provides general features for the retrieval, update, and management of data. The ADO. NET Entity Framework. This framework gives you a strongly typed data-access experience over relational databases. It moves the data model from the physical structure of relational tables to a conceptual model that accurately reflects common business objects.

NET environment, allowing developers to define a flexible mapping to relational data.

This mapping helps to isolate applications from changes in the underlying storage schema. Current plans for the Entity Framework will build in functionality so that it can be used to provide a common data model across high-level functions such as data query and retrieval services, reporting, synchronization, caching, replication, visualization, and business intelligence BI.

NET Sync Services. NET-enabled databases. It enables data synchronization to be built in occasionally connected applications. It periodically gathers information from the client database and synchronizes it with the server database. Understand that LINQ is primarily a query technology supported by different assemblies throughout the. NET core system assemblies.

LINQ to SQL is designed for easy, fast object persistence scenarios where the classes in the mid-tier map very closely to database table structures. Starting with. NET Framework 4. For more information, see the ADO. NET team blog at http: Mobile Applications The. NET platform provides the following technology options for mobile applications: NET Compact Framework.

NET Compact Framework is a subset of the full. NET Framework designed specifically for mobile devices. It can be used for mobile applications that must run on a device without guaranteed network connectivity. Net framework. Identify appropriate strategies and design patterns that will help you design your solution's layers, components, and services. To determine the suitable strategies and design pattern, application components in order to help you design a layered, and service.

Identify and address the key engineering decision points for your solution. To help you determine the core engine decision point solution. Identify and address the key quality attributes and crosscutting concerns for your solution. To help you determine the core of the solution quality attributes and crosscutting concerns. Create a candidate baseline architecture for your solution. Choose the right technologies for your solution.

To determine the pattern and time scheme assets and further guide to help you achieve the solution solve. Note that although the guide is extensive, it is should not be considered a complete and comprehensive treatise on the field of application architecture and design. The guide is intended to serve as a practical and convenient overview of, and reference to, the general principles of architecture and design on the Microsoft platform and the.

Although this guide covers a wide range, but still can not see it as the application architecture and design complete. The purpose of this guide is to make it a general overview, Microsoft platform and.

Includes several techniques to help you better understand the concept of software engineering. This book is your guide to agile development, and all that comes with it. Really great stuff, even considering how old it is. There are implementation techniques discussed, as well as some stuff on software engineering, and design related contents. Who is taking care of the prices of the software that is being built, and what is the best way to go about it? The engineers have to eat, right? Grab this book for some education on good pricing tactics.

Domain Driven Design Quickly Domain Driven Design Quickly is a vision and approach for dealing with highly complex domains that is based on making the domain itself the main focus of the project, and maintaining a software model that reflects a deep understanding of the domain.

Data-Oriented Design Data-Oriented Design is clear us that design is important, as is the variety of it and the deep understanding of how these different design methods affect our over architecture. As the book says, data is all we have and so we need to learn how to make friends with it. Grab this book to learn some lessons taken away, after thousands of code review tests have been concluded.

Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures : You will want this book to learn about the correlation of architecture and engineer, as well as what good architecture looks like and how you can achieve the best possible end result.

Free Books for Learning Software Architecture This was not one of the most easy lists to put together, I have to admit. As always, thanks to these wonderful authors who have made these books available to us, at no cost at all. Free education is where its at, enjoy and have fun.